French & Indian War
     Part 8 ~ 1761 - 1763

   aka ~ Seven Years War

     1754 - 1763

     The Seven Years War was so-called because it lasted, in Europe from the year 1756 through 1763. Born of a long-time feud between England and France, the Seven Years War was sparked by the incidents that took place between both of those country's colonists on the North American continent. And although the North American theatre essentially came to a close with the capitulation of Canada to the English, there were some additional events, related to the so-called French & Indian War, that took place on North American soil prior to the final treaty in 1763.

    England's King George II died of a heart attack on 25 October 1760. He was succeeded by his grandson, George III, who unabashedly disliked Prime Minister William Pitt the Elder, 1st Earl of Chatham. Their friction eventually led to Pitt's resignation in October 1761. He was replaced by the new king's favorite, John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute. France, in the meantime, saw a change in its Foreign Minister; Francois-Joachim de Pierre de Bernis, in losing favor with the French Court, lost his position to the Etienne-Francois, Duc de Choiseul.

    During the autumn of 1761 General Jeffrey Amherst ordered an end to the giving of gifts to the Indian tribes who had allied themselves to the British Army. That included the suspension of providing ammunition to them. He incorrectly assumed that if the 'gifts' were denied them, the Indians would begin to engage in (European-style) barter and trade. The actual result was that the Indians were antagonized. The additional insult of the British maintaining garrisons of troops and allowing settlement by Euro-Americans throughout the Ohio Territory, after giving promises to withdraw those troops and evict the settlers, instilled resentment and anger in the Indians. The result was the Anglo-Cherokee War that erupted in 1763.

    On 18 September 1762 the French made an attempt to recapture Newfoundland. The Duc de Choiseul devised the plan to capture Newfoundland, possibly to re-establish post-war fishing rights in the North Atlantic, but more immediately to intercept British fishing ships.

    Two ships of the line along with two smaller frigates set out from the port of Brest in the Brittany region of northern France on 08 May 1762. The small fleet, under the command of Captain Charles-Henry-Louis de Arsac de Ternay carried a 750-man detachment of military led by Colonel Joseph-Louis-Bernard de Cleron d'Haussonville. It was headed for the Newfoundland village of St. Johns.

    Newfoundland is an island to the east of the Canadian provinces of Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, separated from those provinces by the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The village of St. John's was located on the east coast of Newfoundland. The village was situated midway along the north-west shore of St. John's Harbour. To the northeast of the village, along the north shore of the Harbour, stood Fort William, to the east of which stood Gibbet Hill. Farther to the east, where the land meets the Atlantic Ocean, rose Signal Hill. The tip of land on the opposite side of St. John's Harbour was known as Cahill Point. The Narrows was the name given to the part of St. John's Harbour where it emptied into the Atlantic Ocean. To the north of Signal Hill was a small village named Quidi Vidi, which was bastardized into Kitty Vitty. Quidi Vidi Lake lay to the north-west of the village of Quidi Vidi, emptying out into the Atlantic Ocean by way of a very narrow estuary, called the 'Gut'.

    Colonel d'Haussonville's army arrived at Bay Bulls, about twenty miles south of St. John's on 23 June. They disembarked the following morning and marched toward St. John's.

    Very little opposition was received from the Fort William garrison at St. John's, and the French took possession of it on 27 June.

    In the meantime, Captain Ternay moved along the coast of Newfoundland and destroyed all the fisheries and villages he encountered. Also four hundred and sixty ships were destroyed or taken captive.

    The governor of Newfoundland, Captain Thomas Graves, 1st Baron Graves, received notice of the French action and immediately sent messengers to notify General Jeffrey Amherst (Commander-in-Chief) who was at that time at New York and Lord Alexander Colvill (Commander of the North American Squadron) who was currently at Halifax, Nova Scotia. By the middle of July (some sources say the 15th, while others sources say the 20th), General Jeffrey Amherst was informed of the loss of Fort William at St. John's to the French. Amherst directed his own brother, Lieutenant Colonel William Amherst to prepare to launch an assault on the French.

    Captain Graves had received his commission as governor of the British colony of Newfoundland just a year before, upon the death of then-governor, James Webb on 14 May 1761. Graves was, at that time, the captain of a number of warships employed in escorting merchant ships between Portugal and Great Britain. He had arrived at Plymouth on 18 March 1762, at the end of a successful Portugal to England run, and had just left the port at Plymouth when Captain Charles Douglas of the Siren, informed him that four French ships had arrived at St. John's. He changed course and headed for Newfoundland. The fortress at St. John's had already fallen, and various of the other garrisoned outposts along the Newfoundland coast had been destroyed, before Graves landed near Cape Race. He made his way to the outpost at Bois Island, reinforced the garrison there, and then moved on to reinforce the garrison at Placentia, which were the only two forts still in British hands.

    Upon receiving notification, Lord Colvill left Halifax and arrived at Placentia on the 14th of August. Colvill and Graves joined their forces and moved on St. John's, establishing a blockade of St. John's Harbour and sinking a number of vessels in the 'Gut' at 'Kitty Vitty' to prevent any movement through that estuary.

    Lieutenant Colonel William Amherst, aboard the James, traveled to Halifax (arriving there on 26 August), then on to Louisbourg, Cape Breton (arriving there on 05 September). On 07 September, Amherst, leading seven transport vessels, left Louisbourg and arrived on the 11th in Petty Harbor offshore from St. John's shortly after Colvill and Graves, bringing fifteen hundred soldiers that he had gathered from the garrisons at New York, Halifax and Louisbourg. The combined forces traveled northward and the soldiers were put ashore on 13 September at Torbay, about ten miles north of St. John's.

    The British army was formed into battalions and marched southward about four miles over thickly wooded hilly terrain and swampy lowland until they were near Quidi Vidi, which Amherst, in his journal, called Kitty Vitty. At that point, a detachment of French troops fired on the British troops from the direction of Fort William. The British gave chase to the French, and while engaging in intermittent skirmishing, the French moved back to the fort, leaving the British to hold the ground between the fort and Quidi Vidi.

    Concerned by the movements of the British fleet and the threat of a blockade, Captain Ternay convinced d'Haussonville to transfer the French grenadiers from Fort William, leaving only a skeleton force to wait for a British assault, at which time they could capitulate without loss of too many French lives. But the British blockade was established before the French could move out, so the grenadiers were disembarked and posted around the fort.

    Amherst led his troops closer toward Fort William on the 14th of September, encountering a pocket of French soldiers positioned to the east of the fort on the rise known as Signal Hill. At dawn on the morning of 15 September, the British troops, led by Captain McDonald, stormed Signal Hill, taking the French by surprise. The British attack on Signal Hill forced the French grenadiers back into Fort William. Each side lost about thirty men during the fight.

    Following the capture of Signal Hill, the British established a camp on Gibbet Hill. Their presence on the two promontories gave the British an advantage overlooking the Narrows of St. John's Harbour.

    Captain Ternay held a council of war and again urged that the garrison abandon the fort. He was overruled by his officers, who voted to hold the fort as long as possible. But the ideal opportunity for the French to make an escape from Fort William presented itself on that evening of 15 September, when a thick fog moved in and strong easterly winds pushed the British ships out to sea. The French were able to embark on their ships and make their escape through the Narrows without being engaged by the British ships.

    In anticipation of the French destroying the fortification before quitting it, Amherst sent the following letter to d'Haussonville on the 16th:

"Sir, Humanity directs me to acquaint you of my firm intentions. I know the miテrable フate your garriバn is left in and am fully informed of your deナgn of blowing up the fort on quitting it; but have a care, as I have taken meaブres effectually to cut off your retreat, and バ ブre as a match is put to the train, every man of the garriバn ドall be put to the ヘord. I muフ have immediate poャeャion of the fort in the フate it now is, or expect the conテquences. I give you half an hour to think of it. I have the honour to be Sir, Your moフ obedient humble テrvant, Wm. Amherフ"

    D'Haussonville responded with:

"With regard to the conduct that I ドall hold, you may, ナr, be miナnformed. I wait for your troops and your cannon; and nothing ドall determine me to ブrrender the fort unleピ you ドall have totally deフroyed it and that I ドall have no more powder to fire. I have the honour to be Sir, Your moフ humble and moフ obedient テrvant, The Count D'Hauャonville."

    The fusiliers of the Regiment de la Marine and some grenadiers under the command of d'Haussonville had remained to hold Fort William. The British, in the meantime, set up a battery about five hundred yards from the fort and placed seven cohorns, six "Royals" and one eight-inch mortar to fire upon the fort. Through the evening and night of the 17th, they kept up a constant barrage until the following morning around sunrise, when a flag of truce could be seen waved above the walls.

    On 18 September 1762, d'Haussonville asked for terms of surrender from Amherst.

"Sir, Under the uncertainty of the ブccors which I may receive either from France or its allies, and the Fort being entire and in a condition for a long defence, I am reバlved to defend myテlf to the laフ extremity. The capitulation which you may think proper to grant me, will determine me to ブrrender the place to you, in order to prevent the effuナon of blood of the men who defend it. Whatever reバlution you come to, there is one left to me, which would hurt the intereフs of the Sovereign you テrve. I have the honour to be, Sir, Your moフ obedient humble テrvant, Le Compte D'Hauャonville. Fort St. John, Sept. 18, 1762."

    The terms given by Amherst were initially not accepted by d'Haussonville, but after some more shelling by the British mortars, the French signalled the desire to capitulate. Amherst insisted that the French surrender as prisoners of war, and d'Haussonville accepted those terms. Major Sytherland, with the Royal and 45th Grenadiers and the Royal and Montgomery's Light Infantry Companies, took possession of the fort in the afternoon of the 18th, and received the weapons of the defeated Frenchmen.

    The French prisoners, numbering seven hundred and seventy, were loaded onto the James and the Fanny and left St. John's Harbour, heading for France, on 24 September 1762.

    With the changes in the ministries of both, Great Britain and France, came a change in the attitude toward continuing the war. The initial negotiations in the Fall of 1761 were a dismal failure, but they resumed in September of 1762, and within five months bore fruit.

    The Treaty of Paris, officially ending the Colonial phase of the Seven Years War, was signed on 10 February 1763.

    On 15 February 1763 the Treaty of Hubertusburg was signed, ending the Austrian / German phase of the Seven Years War.

    Following is a transcript of The definitive Treaty of Peace and Friendドip between his Britannick Majeフy, the Moフ Chriフian King, and the King of Spain. Concluded at Paris the 10th day of February, 1763. To which the King of Portugal acceded on the ヂme day.

In the Name of the Moフ Holy and Undivided Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghoフ. So be it.
     Be it known to all thoテ whom it ドall, or may, in any manner, belong,
     It has pleaテd the Moフ High to diffuテ the パirit of union and concord among the Princes, whoテ diviナons had パread troubles in the four parts of the world, and to inパire them with the inclination to cauテ the comforts of peace to ブcceed to the miデortunes of a long and bloody war, which having ariテn between England and France during the reign of the Moフ Serene and Moフ Potent Prince, George the Second, by the grace of God, King of Great Britain, of glorious memory, continued under the reign of the Moフ Serene and Moフ Potent Prince, George the Third, his ブcceャor, and, in its progreピ, communicated itテlf to Spain and Portugal: Conテquently, the Moフ Serene and Moフ Potent Prince, George the Third, by the grace of God, King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, Duke of Brunヘick and Lunenbourg, Arch Treaブrer and Elector of the Holy Roman Empire; the Moフ Serene and Moフ Potent Prince, Lewis the Fifteenth, by the grace of God, Moフ Chriフian King; and the Moフ Serene and Moフ Potent Prince, Charles the Third, by the grace of God, King of Spain and of the Indies, after having laid the foundations of peace in the preliminaries ナgned at Fontainebleau the third of November laフ; and the Moフ Serene and Moフ Potent Prince, Don Joテph the Firフ, by the grace of God, King of Portugal and of the Algarves, after having acceded thereto, determined to compleat, without delay, this great and important work. For this purpoテ, the high contracting parties have named and appointed their reパective Ambaャadors Extraordinary and Miniフers Plenipotentiary, viz. his Sacred Majeフy the King of Great Britain, the Moフ Illuフrious and Moフ Excellent Lord, John Duke and Earl of Bedford, Marquis of Taviフock, c. his Miniフer of State, Lieutenant General of his Armies, Keeper of his Privy Seal, Knight of the Moフ Noble Order of the Garter, and his Ambaャador Extraordinary and Miniフer Plenipotentiary to his Moフ Chriフian Majeフy; his Sacred Majeフy the Moフ Chriフian King, the Moフ Illuフrious and Moフ Excellent Lord, Cヂr Gabriel de Choiテul, Duke of Praネin, Peer of France, Knight of his Orders, Lieutenant General of his Armies and of the province of Britanny, Counテllor of all his Counナls, and Miniフer and Secretary of State, and of his Commands and Finances: his Sacred Majeフy the Catholick King, the Most Illuフrious and Moフ Excellent Lord, Don Jerome Grimaldi, Marquis de Grimaldi, Knight of the Moフ Chriフian King's Orders, Gentleman of his Catholick Majeフy's Bedchamber in Employment, and his Ambaャador Extraordinary to his Moフ Chriフian Majeフy; his Sacred Majeフy the Moフ Faithful King, the Moフ Illuフrious and Moフ Excellent Lord, Martin de Mello and Caフro, Knight profeャed of the Order of Chriフ, of his Moフ Faithful Majeフy's Council, and his Ambaャador and Miniフer Plenipotentiary to his Moフ Chriフian Majeフy.
     Who, after having duly communicated to each other their full powers, in good form, copies whereof are tranツribed at the end of the preテnt treaty of peace, have agreed upon the articles, the tenor of which is as follows:

Article I There ドall be a Chriフian, univerヂl, and perpetual peace, as well by テa as by land, and a ナncere and conフant friendドip ドall be re-eフablished between their Britannick, Moフ Chriフian, Catholick, and Moフ Faithful Majeフies, and between their heirs and ブcceャors, kingdoms, dominions, provinces, countries, ブbjects, and vaャals, of what quality or condition バever they be, without exception of places or of perバns: So that the high contracting parties ドall give the greateフ attention to maintain between themテlves and their ヂid dominions and ブbjects this reciprocal friendドip and correパondence, without permitting, on either ナde, any kind of hoフilities, by テa or by land, to be committed from henceforth, for any cauテ, or under any pretence whatバever, and every thing ドall be carefully avoided which might hereafter prejudice the union happily reュeフablished, applying themテlves, on the contrary, on every occaナon, to procure for each other whatever may contribute to their mutual glory, intereフs, and advantages, without giving any aャiフance or protection, directly or indirectly, to thoテ who would cauテ any prejudice to either of the high contracting parties: there ドall be a general oblivion of every thing that may have been done or committed before or ナnce the commencement of the war which is juフ ended.
Article II The treaties of Weフphalia of 1648; thoテ of Madrid between the Crowns of Great Britain and Spain of 1661, and 1670; the treaties of peace of Nimeguen of 1678, and 1679; of Ryヘick of 1697; thoテ of peace and of commerce of Utrecht of 1713; that of Baden of 1714; the treaty of the triple alliance of the Hague of 1717; that of the quadruple alliance of London of 1118; the treaty of peace of Vienna of 1738; the definitive treaty of Aix la Chapelle of 1748; and that of Madrid, between the Crowns of Great Britain and Spain of 1750: as well as the treaties between the Crowns of Spain and Portugal of the 13th of February, 1668; of the 6th of February, 1715; and of the 12th of February, 1761; and that of the 11th of April, 1713, between France and Portugal with the guaranties of Great Britain, テrve as a baナs and foundation to the peace, and to the preテnt treaty: and for this purpoテ they are all renewed and confirmed in the beフ form, as well as all the general, which ブbナフed between the high contracting parties before the war, as if they were inテrted here word for word, バ that they are to be exactly obテrved, for the future, in their whole tenor, and religiouネy executed on all ナdes, in all their points, which ドall not be derogated from by the preテnt treaty, notwithフanding all that may have been フipulated to the contrary by any of the high contracting parties: and all the ヂid parties declare, that they will not ブffer any privilege, favour, or indulgence to ブbナフ, contrary to the treaties above confirmed, except what ドall have been agreed and フipulated by the preテnt treaty.
Article III All the priバners made, on all ナdes, as well by land as by テa, and the hoフages carried away or given during the war, and to this day, ドall be reフored, without ranバm, ナx weeks, at leaフ, to be computed from the day of the exchange of the ratification of the preテnt treaty, each crown reパectively paying the advances which ドall have been made for the ブbナフance and maintenance of their priバners by the Sovereign of the country where they ドall have been detained, according to the atteフed receipts and eフimates and other authentic vouchers which ドall be furniドed on one ナde and the other. And テcurities ドall be reciprocally given for the payment of the debts which the priバners ドall have contracted in the countries where they have been detained until their entire liberty. And all the ドips of war and merchant veャels Which ドall have been taken ナnce the expiration of the terms agreed upon for the ceャation of hoフilities by テa ドall likewiテ be reフored, bon fide, with all their crews and cargoes: and the execution of this article ドall be proceeded upon immediately after the exchange of the ratifications of this treaty.
Article IV His Moフ Chriフian Majeフy renounces all pretenナons which he has heretofore formed or might have formed to Nova Scotia or Acadia in all its parts, and guaranties the whole of it, and with all its dependencies, to the King of Great Britain: Moreover, his Moフ Chriフian Majeフy cedes and guaranties to his ヂid Britannick Majeフy, in full right, Canada, with all its dependencies, as well as the iネand of Cape Breton, and all the other iネands and coaフs in the gulph and river of St. Lawrence, and in general, every thing that depends on the ヂid countries, lands, iネands, and coaフs, with the バvereignty, property, poャeャion, and all rights acquired by treaty, or otherwiテ, which the Moフ Chriフian King and the Crown of France have had till now over the ヂid countries, lands, iネands, places, coaフs, and their inhabitants, バ that the Moフ Chriフian King cedes and makes over the whole to the ヂid King, and to the Crown of Great Britain, and that in the moフ ample manner and form, without reフriction, and without any liberty to depart from the ヂid ceャion and guaranty under any pretence, or to diフurb Great Britain in the poャeャions above mentioned. His Britannick Majeフy, on his ナde, agrees to grant the liberty of the Catholick religion to the inhabitants of Canada: he will, in conテquence, give the moフ preciテ and moフ effectual orders, that his new Roman Catholic ブbjects may profeピ the worドip of their religion according to the rites of the Romiド church, as far as the laws of Great Britain permit. His Britannick Majeフy farther agrees, that the French inhabitants, or others who had been ブbjects of the Moフ Chriフian King in Canada, may retire with all ヂfety and freedom wherever they ドall think proper, and may テll their eフates, provided it be to the ブbjects of his Britannick Majeフy, and bring away their effects as well as their perバns, without being reフrained in their emigration, under any pretence whatバever, except that of debts or of criminal proテcutions: The term limited for this emigration ドall be fixed to the パace of eighteen months, to be computed from the day of the exchange of the ratification of the preテnt treaty.
Article V The ブbjects of France ドall have the liberty of fiドing and drying on a part of the coaフs of the iネand of Newfoundland, ブch as it is パecified in the XIIIth article of the treaty of Utrecht; which article is renewed and confirmed by the preテnt treaty, (except what relates to the iネand of Cape Breton, as well as to the other iネands and coaフs in the mouth and in the gulph of St. Lawrence:) And his Britannick Majeフy conテnts to leave to the ブbjects of the Moフ Chriフian King the liberty of fiドing in the gulph of St. Lawrence, on condition that the ブbjects of France do not exerciテ the ヂid fiドery but at the diフance of three leagues from all the coaフs belonging to Great Britain, as well thoテ of the continent as thoテ of the iネands ナtuated in the ヂid gulph of St. Lawrence. And as to what relates to the fiドery on the coaフs of the iネand of Cape Breton, out of the ヂid gulph, the ブbjects of the Moフ Chriフian King ドall not be permitted to exerciテ the ヂid fiドery but at the diフance of fifteen leagues from the coaフs of the iネand of Cape Breton; and the fiドery on the coaフs of Nova Scotia or Acadia, and every where elテ out of the ヂid gulph, ドall remain on the foot of former treaties.
Article VI The King of Great Britain cedes the iネands of St. Pierre and Macquelon, in full right, to his Moフ Chriフian Majesty, to テrve as a ドelter to the French fiドermen; and his ヂid Moフ Chriフian Majeフy engages not to fortify the ヂid iネands; to erect no buildings upon them but merely for the conveniency of the fiドery; and to keep upon them a guard of fifty men only for the police.
Article VII In order to reュeフabliド peace on バlid and durable foundations, and to remove for ever all ブbject of diパute with regard to the limits of the Britiド and French territories on the continent of America; it is agreed, that, for the future, the confines between the dominions of his Britannick Majeフy and thoテ of his Moフ Chriフian Majeフy, in that part of the world, ドall be fixed irrevocably by a line drawn along the middle of the River Miャiャippi, from its バurce to the river Iberville, and from thence, by a line drawn along the middle of this river, and the lakes Maurepas and Pontchartrain to the テa; and for this purpoテ, the Moフ Chriフian King cedes in full right, and guaranties to his Britannick Majeフy the river and port of the Mobile, and every thing which he poャeャes, or ought to poャeピ, on the left ナde of the river Miャiャippi, except the town of New Orleans and the iネand in which it is ナtuated, which ドall remain to France, provided that the navigation of the river Miャiャippi ドall be equally free, as well to the ブbjects of Great Britain as to thoテ of France, in its whole breadth and length, from its バurce to the テa, and expreャly that part which is between the ヂid iネand of New Orleans and the right bank of that river, as well as the paャage both in and out of its mouth: It is farther フipulated, that the veャels belonging to the ブbjects of either nation ドall not be stopped, viナted, or ブbjected to the payment of any duty whatバever. The フipulations inテrted in the IVth article, in favour of the inhabitants of Canada ドall alバ take place with regard to the inhabitants of the countries ceded by this article.
Article VIII The King of Great Britain ドall reフore to France the iネands of Guadeloupe, of Mariegalante, of Deナrade, of Martinico, and of Belleiネe; and the fortreャes of theテ iネands ドall be reフored in the ヂme condition they were in when they were conquered by the Britiド arms, provided that his Britannick Majeフy's ブbjects, who ドall have テttled in the ヂid iネands, or thoテ who ドall have any commercial affairs to テttle there or in other places reフored to France by the preテnt treaty, ドall have liberty to テll their lands and their eフates, to テttle their affairs, to recover their debts, and to bring away their effects as well as their perバns, on board veャels, which they ドall be permitted to テnd to the ヂid iネands and other places reフored as above, and which ドall テrve for this uテ only, without being reフrained on account of their religion, or under any other pretence whatバever, except that of debts or of criminal proテcutions: and for this purpoテ, the term of eighteen months is allowed to his Britannick Majeフy's ブbjects, to be computed from the day of the exchange of the ratifications of the preテnt treaty; but, as the liberty granted to his Britannick Majeフy's ブbjects, to bring away their perバns and their effects, in veャels of their nation, may be liable to abuテs if precautions were not taken to prevent them; it has been expreャly agreed between his Britannick Majeフy and his Moフ Chriフian Majeフy, that the number of Engliド veャels which have leave to go to the ヂid iネands and places reフored to France, ドall be limited, as well as the number of tons of each one; that they ドall go in ballaフ; ドall テt ヂil at a fixed time; and ドall make one voyage only; all the effects belonging to the Engliド being to be embarked at the ヂme time. It has been farther agreed, that his Moフ Chriフian Majeフy ドall cauテ the neceャary paャports to be given to the ヂid veャels; that, for the greater テcurity, it ドall be allowed to place two French clerks or guards in each of the ヂid veャels, which ドall be viナted in the landing places and ports of the ヂid iネands and places reフored to France, and that the merchandize which ドall be found therein ドall be confiツated.
Article IX The Moフ Chriフian King cedes and guaranties to his Britannick Majeフy, in full right, the iネands of Grenada, and the Grenadines, with the ヂme フipulations in favour of the inhabitants of this colony, inテrted in the IVth article for thoテ of Canada: And the partition of the iネands called neutral, is agreed and fixed, バ that thoテ of St. Vincent, Dominico, and Tobago, ドall remain in full right to Great Britain, and that of St. Lucia ドall be delivered to France, to enjoy the ヂme likewiテ in full right, and the high contracting parties guaranty the partition バ フipulated.
Article X His Britannick Majeフy ドall reフore to France the iネand of Goree in the condition it was in when conquered: and his Moフ Chriフian Majeフy cedes, in full right, and g uaranties to the King of Great Britain the river Senegal, with the forts and factories of St. Lewis, Podor, and Galam, and with all the rights and dependencies of the ヂid river Senegal.
Article XI In the Eaフ Indies Great Britain ドall reフore to France, in the condition they are now in, the different factories which that Crown poャeャed, as well as on the coaフ of Coromandel and Orixa as on that of Malabar, as alバ in Bengal, at the beginning of the year 1749. And his Moフ Chriフian Majeフy renounces all pretenナon to the acquiナtions which he has made on the coaフ of Coromandel and Orixa ナnce the ヂid beginning of the year 1749. His Moフ Chriフian Majeフy ドall reフore, on his ナde, all that he may have conquered from Great Britain in the Eaフ Indies during the preテnt war; and will expreャly cauテ Nattal and Tapanoully, in the iネand of Sumatra, to be reフored; he engages farther, not to erect fortifications, or to keep troops in any part of the dominions of the Subah of Bengal. And in order to preテrve future peace on the coaフ of Coromandel and Orixa, the Engliド and French ドall acknowledge Mahomet Ally Khan for lawful Nabob of the Carnatick, and Salabat Jing for lawful Subah of the Decan; and both parties ドall renounce all demands and pretenナons of ヂtiデaction with which they might charge each other, or their Indian allies, for the depredations or pillage committed on the one ナde or on the other during the war.
Article XII The iネand of Minorca ドall be reフored to his Britannick Majeフy, as well as Fort St. Philip, in the ヂme condition they were in when conquered by the arms of the Moフ Chriフian King; and with the artillery which was there when the ヂid iネand and the ヂid fort were taken.
Article XIII The town and port of Dunkirk ドall be put into the フate fixed by the laフ treaty of Aix la Chapelle, and by former treaties. The Cunette ドall be deフroyed immediately after the exchange of the ratifications of the preテnt treaty, as well as the forts and batteries which defend the entrance on the ナde of the テa; and proviナon ドall be made at the ヂme time for the wholeバmeneピ of the air, and for the health of the inhabitants, by バme other means, to the ヂtiデaction of the King of Great Britain.
Article XIV France ドall reフore all the countries belonging to the Electorate of Hanover, to the Landgrave of Heャe, to the Duke of Brunヘick, and to the Count of La Lippe Buckebourg, which are or ドall be occupied by his Moフ Chriフian Majeフy's arms: the fortreャes of theテ different countries ドall be reフored in the ヂme condition they were in when conquered by the French arms; and the pieces of artillery, which ドall have been carried elテwhere, ドall be replaced by the ヂme number, of the ヂme bore, weight and metal.
Article XV In caテ the フipulations contained in the XIIIth article of the preliminaries ドould not be compleated at the time of the ナgnature of the preテnt treaty, as well with regard to the evacuations to be made by the armies of France of the fortreャes of Cleves, Wezel, Guelders, and of all the countries belonging to the King of Pruャia, as with regard to the evacuations to be made by the Britiド and French armies of the countries which they occupy in Weフphalia, Lower Saxony, on the Lower Rhine, the Upper Rhine, and in all the empire; and to the retreat of the troops into the dominions of their reパective Sovereigns: their Britannick and Moフ Chriフian Majeフies promiテ to proceed, bon fide, with all the diパatch the caテ will permit of to the ヂid evacuations, the entire completion whereof they フipulate before the 15th of March next, or バoner if it can be done; and their Britannick and Moフ Chriフian Majeフies farther engage and promiテ to each other, not to furniド any ブccours of any kind to their reパective allies who ドall continue engaged in the war in Germany.
Article XVI The deciナon of the prizes made in time of peace by the ブbjects of Great Britain, on the Spaniards, ドall be referred to the Courts of Juフice of the Admiralty of Great Britain, conformably to the rules eフabliドed among all nations, バ that the validity of the ヂid prizes, between the Britiド and Spaniド nations, ドall be decided and judged, according to the law of nations, and according to treaties, in the Courts of Juフice of the nation who ドall have made the capture.
Article XVII His Britannick Majeフy ドall cauテ to be demoliドed all the fortifications which his ブbjects ドall have erected in the bay of Honduras, and other places of the territory of Spain in that part of the world, four months after the ratification of the preテnt treaty; and his Catholick Majeフy ドall not permit his Britannick Majeフy's ブbjects, or their workmen, to be diフurbed or moleフed under any pretence whatバever in the ヂid places, in their occupation of cutting, loading, and carrying away logュwood; and for this purpoテ, they may build, without hindrance, and occupy, without interruption, the houテs and magazines neceャary for them, for their families, and for their effects; and his Catholick Majeフy aャures to them, by this article, the full enjoyment of thoテ advantages and powers on the Spaniド coaフs and territories, as above フipulated, immediately after the ratification of the preテnt treaty.
Article XVIII His Catholick Majeフy deナフs, as well for himテlf as for his ブcceャors, from all pretenナon which he may have formed in favour of the Guipuツoans, and other his ブbjects, to the right of fiドing in the neighbourhood of the iネand of Newfoundland.
Article XIX The King of Great Britain ドall reフore to Spain all the territory which he has conquered in the iネand of Cuba, with the fortreピ of the Havannah; and this fortreピ, as well as all the other fortreャes of the ヂid iネand, ドall be reフored in the ヂme condition they were in when conquered by his Britannick Majeフy's arms, provided that his Britannick Majeフy's ブbjects who ドall have テttled in the ヂid iネand, reフored to Spain by the preテnt treaty, or thoテ who ドall have any commercial affairs to テttle there, ドall have liberty to テll their lands and their eフates, to テttle their affairs, recover their debts, and to bring away their effects, as well as their perバns, on board veャels which they ドall be permitted to テnd to the ヂid iネand reフored as above, and which ドall テrve for that uテ only, without being reフrained on account of their religion, or under any other pretence whatバever, except that of debts or of criminal proテcutions: And for this purpoテ, the term of eighteen months is allowed to his Britannick Majeフy's ブbjects, to be computed from the day of the exchange of the ratifications of the preテnt treaty: but as the liberty granted to his Britannick Majeフy's ブbjects, to bring away their perバns and their effects, in veャels of their nation, may be liable to abuテs if precautions were not taken to prevent them; it has been expreャly agreed between his Britannick Majeフy and his Catholick Majeフy, that the number of Engliド veャels which ドall have leave to go to the ヂid iネand reフored to Spain ドall be limited, as well as the number of tons of each one; that they ドall go in ballaフ; ドall テt ヂil at a fixed time; and ドall make one voyage only; all the effects belonging to the Engliド being to be embarked at the ヂme time: it has been farther agreed, that his Catholick Majeフy ドall cauテ the neceャary paャports to be given to the ヂid veャels; that for the greater テcurity, it ドall be allowed to place two Spaniド clerks or guards in each of the ヂid veャels, which ドall be viナted in the landing places and ports of the ヂid iネand reフored to Spain, and that the merchandize which ドall be found therein ドall be confiツated.
Article XX In conテquence of the reフitution フipulated in the preceding article, his Catholick Majeフy cedes and guaranties, in full right, to his Britannick Majeフy, Florida, with Fort St. Auguフin, and the Bay of Penヂcola, as well as all that Spain poャeャes on the continent of North America, to the Eaフ or to the South Eaフ of the river Miャiャippi. And, in general, every thing that depends on the ヂid countries and lands, with the バvereignty, property, poャeャion, and all rights, acquired by treaties or otherwiテ, which the Catholick King and the Crown of Spain have had till now over the ヂid countries, lands, places, and their inhabitants; バ that the Catholick King cedes and makes over the whole to the ヂid King and to the Crown of Great Britain, and that in the moフ ample manner and form. His Britannick Majeフy agrees, on his ナde, to grant to the inhabitants of the countries above ceded, the liberty of the Catholick religion; he will, conテquently, give the moフ expreピ and the moフ effectual orders that his new Roman Catholic ブbjects may profeピ the worドip of their religion according to the rites of the Romiド church, as far as the laws of Great Britain permit. His Britannick Majeフy farther agrees, that the Spaniド inhabitants, or others who had been ブbjects of the Catholick King in the ヂid countries, may retire, with all ヂfety and freedom, wherever they think proper; and may テll their eフates, provided it be to his Britannick Majeフy's ブbjects, and bring away their effects, as well as their perバns without being reフrained in their emigration, under any pretence whatバever, except that of debts, or of criminal proテcutions: the term limited for this emigration being fixed to the パace of eighteen months, to be computed from the day of the exchange of the ratifications of the preテnt treaty. It is moreover フipulated, that his Catholick Majeフy ドall have power to cauテ all the effects that may belong to him, to be brought away, whether it be artillery or other things.
Article XXI The French and Spaniド troops ドall evacuate all the territories, lands, towns, places, and caフles, of his Moフ faithful Majeフy in Europe, without any reテrve, which ドall have been conquered by the armies of France and Spain, and ドall reフore them in the ヂme condition they were in when conquered, with the ヂme artillery and ammunition, which were found there: And with regard to the Portugueテ Colonies in America, Africa, or in the Eaフ Indies, if any change ドall have happened there, all things ドall be reフored on the ヂme footing they were in, and conformably to the preceding treaties which ブbナフed between the Courts of France, Spain, and Portugal, before the preテnt war.
Article XXII All the papers, letters, documents, and archives, which were found in the countries, territories, towns and places that are reフored, and thoテ belonging to the countries ceded, ドall be, reパectively and bon fide, delivered, or furniドed at the ヂme time, if poャible, that poャeャion is taken, or, at lateフ, four months after the exchange of the ratifications of the preテnt treaty, in whatever places the ヂid papers or documents may be found.
Article XXIII All the countries and territories, which may have been conquered, in whatバever part of the world, by the arms of their Britannick and Moフ Faithful Majeフies, as well as by thoテ of their Moフ Chriフian and Catholick Majeフies, which are not included in the preテnt treaty, either under the title of ceャions, or under the title of reフitutions, ドall be reフored without difficulty, and without requiring any compenヂtions.
Article XXIV As it is neceャary to aャign a fixed epoch for the reフitutions and the evacuations, to be made by each of the high contracting parties, it is agreed, that the Britiド and French troops ドall compleat, before the 15th of March next, all that ドall remain to be executed of the XIIth and XIIIth articles of the preliminaries, ナgned the 3d day of November laフ, with regard to the evacuation to be made in the Empire, or elテwhere. The iネand of Belleiネe ドall be evacuated ナx weeks after the exchange of the ratifications of the preテnt treaty, or バoner if it can be done. Guadeloupe, Deナrade, Mariegalante Martinico, and St. Lucia, three months after the exchange of the ratifications of the preテnt treaty, or バoner if it can be done. Great Britain ドall likewiテ, at the end of three months after the exchange of the ratifications of the preテnt treaty, or バoner if it can be done, enter into poャeャion of the river and port of the Mobile, and of all that is to form the limits of the territory of Great Britain, on the ナde of the river Miャiャippi, as they are パecified in the VIIth article. The iネand of Goree ドall be evacuated by Great Britain, three months after the exchange of the ratifications of the preテnt treaty; and the iネand of Minorca by France, at the ヂme epoch, or バoner if it can be done: And according to the conditions of the VIth article, France ドall likewiテ enter into poャeャion of the iネands of St Peter, and of Miquelon, at the end of three months after the exchange of the ratifications of the preテnt treaty. The Factories in the Eaフ Indies ドall be reフored ナx months after the exchange of the ratifications of the preテnt treaty, or バoner if it can be done. The fortreピ of the Havannah, with all that has been conquered in the iネand of Cuba, ドall be reフored three months after the exchange of the ratifications of the preテnt treaty, or バoner if it can be done: And, at the ヂme time, Great Britain ドall enter into poャeャion of the country ceded by Spain according to the XXth article. All the places and countries of his moフ Faithful Majeフy, in Europe, ドall be reフored immediately after the exchange of the ratification of the preテnt treaty: And the Portugueテ colonies, which may have been conquered, ドall be reフored in the パace of three months in the Weフ Indies, and of ナx months in the Eaフ Indies, after the exchange of the ratifications of the preテnt treaty, or バoner if it can be done. All the fortreャes, the reフitution whereof is フipulated above, ドall be reフored with the artillery and ammunition, which were found there at the time of the conqueフ. In conテquence whereof, the neceャary orders ドall be テnt by each of the high contracting parties, with reciprocal paャports for the ドips that ドall carry them, immediately after the exchange of the ratifications of the preテnt treaty.
Article XXV His Britannick Majeフy, as Elector of Brunヘick Lunenbourg, as well for himテlf as for his heirs and ブcceャors, and all the dominions and poャeャions of his ヂid Majeフy in Germany, are included and guarantied by the preテnt treaty of peace.
Article XXVI Their ヂcred Britannick, Moフ Chriフian, Catholick, and Moフ Faithful Majeフies, promiテ to obテrve ナncerely and bon fide, all the articles contained and テttled in the preテnt treaty; and they will not ブffer the ヂme to be infringed, directly or indirectly, by their reパective ブbjects; and the ヂid high contracting parties, generally and reciprocally, guaranty to each other all the フipulations of the preテnt treaty.
Article XXVII The バlemn ratifications of the preテnt treaty, expedited in good and due form, ドall be exchanged in this city of Paris, between the high contracting parties, in the パace of a month, or バoner if poャible, to be computed from the day of the ナgnature of the preテnt treaty.
In witneピ whereof, we the underwritten their Ambaャadors Extraordinary, and Miniフers Plenipotentiary, have ナgned with our hand, in their name, and in virtue of our full powers, have ナgned the preテnt definitive treaty, and have cauテd the テal of our arms to be put thereto. Done at Paris the tenth day of February, 1763. Bedford, C.P.S. Choiテul, Duc de Praネin. El Marq. de Grimaldi. (L.S.) (L.S.) (LS )

SEPARATE ARTICLES

Article I Some of the titles made uテ of by the contracting powers, either in the full powers, and other acts, during the courテ of the negociation, or in the preamble of the preテnt treaty, not being generally acknowledged; it has been agreed, that no prejudice ドall ever reブlt therefrom to any of the ヂid contracting parties, and that the titles, taken or omitted on either ナde, on occaナon of the ヂid negociation, and of the preテnt treaty, ドall not be cited or quoted as a precedent.
Article II It has been agreed and determined, that the French language made uテ of in all the copies of the preテnt treaty, ドall not become an example which may be alledged, or made a precedent of, or prejudice, in any manner, any of the contracting powers; and that they ドall conform themテlves, for the future, to what has been obテrved, and ought to be obテrved, with regard to, and on the part of powers, who are uテd, and have a right, to give and to receive copies of like treaties in another language than French; the preテnt treaty having フill the ヂme force and effect, as if the aforeヂid cuフom had been therein obテrved.
Article III Though the King of Portugal has not ナgned the preテnt definitive treaty, their Britannick, Moフ Chriフian, and Catholick Majeフies, acknowledge, nevertheleピ, that his Moフ Faithful Majeフy is formally included therein as a contracting party, and as if he had expreャly ナgned the ヂid treaty: Conテquently, their Britannick, Moフ Chriフian, and Catholick Majeフies, reパectively and conjointly, promiテ to his Moフ Faithful Majeフy, in the moフ expreピ and moフ binding manner, the execution of all and every the clauテs, contained in the ヂid treaty, on his act of acceャion.
     The preテnt Separate Articles ドall have the ヂme force as if they were inテrted in the treaty.
 
     In witneピ whereof, We the underwritten Ambaャadors Extraordinary, and Miniフers Plenipotentiary of their Britannick, Moフ Chriフian and Catholick Majeフies, have ナgned the preテnt テparate Articles, and have cauテd the テal of our arms to be put thereto. Done at Paris, the 10th of February, 1763. Bedford, C.P.S. Choiテul, Duc El Marq. de (L.S.) de Praネin. Grimaldi. (L.S.) (L.S.)
 
     His Britannick Majeフy's full Power. GEORGE R.
 
     GEORGE the Third, by the grace of God, King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Duke of Brunヘick and Lunenbourg, Arch-Treaブrer, and Prince Elector of the Holy Roman Empire, c. To all and ナngular to whom theテ preテnts ドall come, greeting. Whereas, in order to perfect the peace between Us and our good Brother the Moフ Faithful King, on the one part, and our good Brothers the Moフ Chriフian and Catholick Kings, on the other, which has been happily begun by the Preliminary Articles already ナgned at Fontainebleau the third of this month; and to bring the ヂme to the deナred end, We have thought proper to inveフ バme fit perバn with full authority, on our part; Know ye, that We, having moフ entire confidence in the fidelity, judgment, ヌill, and ability in managing affairs of the greateフ conテquence, of our right truフy, and right entirely beloved Couナn and Counテllor, John Duke and Earl of Bedford, Marquis of Taviフock, Baron Ruャel of Cheneys, Baron Ruャel of Thornhaugh, and Baron Howland of Streatham, Lieutenantュgeneral of our forces, Keeper of our Privy Seal, Lieutenant and Cuフos Rotulorum of the counties of Bedford and Devon, Knight of our moフ noble order of the Garter, and our Ambaャador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to our good Brother the Moフ Chriフian King, have nominated, made, conフituted and appointed, as by theテ preテnts, we do nominate, make, conフitute, and appoint him, our true, certain, and undoubted Miniフer, Commiャary, Deputy, Procurator and Plenipotentiary, giving to him all and all manner of power, faculty and authority, as well as our general and パecial command (yet バ as that the general do not derogate from the パecial, or on the contrary) for Us and in our name, to meet and confer, as well ナngly and テparately, as jointly, and in a body, with the Ambaャadors, Commiャaries, Deputies, and Plenipotentiaries of the Princes, whom it may concern, veフed with ブfficient power and authority for that purpoテ, and with them to agree upon, treat, conブlt and conclude, concerning the reュeフabliドing, as バon as may be, a firm and laフing peace, and ナncere friendドip and concord; and whatever ドall be バ agreed and concluded, for Us and in our name, to ナgn, and to make a treaty or treaties, on what ドall have been バ agreed and concluded, and to tranヂct every thing elテ that may belong to the happy completion of the aforeヂid work, in as ample a manner and form, and with the ヂme force and effect, as We ourテlves, if we were preテnt, could do and perform; engaging and promiナng, on our royal word, that We will approve, ratify and accept, in the beフ manner, whatever ドall happen to be tranヂcted and concluded by our ヂid Plenipotentiary, and that We will never ブffer any perバn to infringe or act contrary to the ヂme, either in the whole or in part. In witneピ and confirmation whereof We have cauテd our great Seal of Great Britain to be affixed to theテ preテnts, ナgned with our royal hand. Given at our Palace at St. Jame's, the 12th day of November, 1762, in the third year of our reign.
 
     His Moフ Chriフian Majeフy's Full Power.
 
     LEWIS, by the grace of God, King of France and Navarre, To all who ドall テe theテ preテnts, Greeting. Whereas the Preliminaries, ナgned at Fontainebleau the third of November of the laフ year, laid the foundation of the peace reeフabliドed between us and our moフ dear and moフ beloved good Brother and Couナn the King of Spain, on the one part, and our moフ dear and moフ beloved good Brother the King of Great Britain, and our moフ dear and moフ beloved good Brother and Couナn the King of Portugal on the other, We have had nothing more at heart ナnce that happy epoch, than to conバlidate and フrengthen in the moフ laフing manner, バ ヂlutary and バ important a work, by a バlemn and definitive treaty between Us and the ヂid powers. For theテ cauテs, and other good conナderations, Us thereunto moving, We, truフing entirely in the capacity and experience, zeal and fidelity for our テrvice, of our moフ dear and wellュbeloved Couナn, Cヂr Gabriel de Choiテul, Duke of Praネin, Peer of France, Knight of our Orders, Lieutenant General of our Forces and of the province of Britany, Counテllor in all our Councils, Miniフer and Secretary of State, and of our Commands and Finances, We have named, appointed, and deputed him, and by theテ preテnts, ナgned with our hand, do name, appoint, and depute him our Miniフer Plenipotentiary, giving him full and abバlute power to act in that quality, and to confer, negociate, treat and agree jointly with the Miniフer Plenipotentiary of our moフ dear and moフ beloved good Brother the King of Great Britain, the Miniフer Plenipotentiary of our moフ dear and moフ beloved good Brother and Couナn the King of Spain and the Miniフer Plenipotentiary of our moフ dear and moフ beloved good Brother and Couナn the King of Portugal, veフed with full powers, in good form, to agree, conclude and ナgn ブch articles, conditions, conventions, declarations, definitive treaty, acceャions, and other acts whatバever, that he ドall judge proper for テcuring and フrengthening the great work of peace, the whole with the ヂme latitude and authority that We ourテlves might do, if We were there in perバn, even though there ドould be バmething which might require a more パecial order than what is contained in theテ preテnts, promiナng on the faith and word of a King, to approve, keep firm and フable for ever, to fulfil and execute punctually, all that our ヂid Couナn, the Duke of Praネin, ドall have フipulated, promiテd and ナgned, in virtue of the preテnt full power, without ever acting contrary thereto, or permitting any thing contrary thereto, for any cauテ, or under any pretence whatバever, as alバ to cauテ our letters of ratification to be expedited in good form, and to cauテ them to be delivered, in order to be exchanged within the time that ドall be agreed upon. For ブch is our pleaブre. In witneピ whereof, we have cauテd our Seal to be put to theテ preテnts. Given at Verヂilles the 7th day of the month of February, in the year of Grace 1763, and of our reign the forty-eighth. Signed Lewis, and on the fold, by the King, the Duke of Choiテul. Sealed with the great Seal of yellow Wax.
 
     His Catholick Majeフy's full Power.
 
     DON CARLOS, by the grace of God, King of Caフille, of Leon, of Arragon, of the two Sicilies, of Jeruヂlem, of Navarre, of Granada, of Toledo, of Valencia, of Galicia, of Majorca, of Seville, of Sardinia, of Cordova, of Corナca, of Murcia, of Jaen, of the Algarves. of Algecira. of Gibraltar. of the Canary Iネands, of the Eaフ and Weフ Indies, Iネands and Continent, of the Ocean, Arch Duke of Auフria, Duke of Burgundy, of Brabant and Milan, Count of Hapッurg, of Flanders, of Tirol and Barcelona, Lord of Biツay and of Molino, c. Whereas preliminaries of a バlid and laフing peace between this Crown, and that of France on the one part, and that of England and Portugal on the other, were concluded and ナgned in the Royal Reナdence of Fontainbleau, the 3rd of November of the preテnt year, and the reパective ratifications thereof exchanged on the 22d of the ヂme month, by Miniフers authoriテd for that purpoテ, wherein it is promiテd, that a definitive treaty ドould be forthwith entered upon, having eフabliドed and regulated the chief points upon which it is to turn: and whereas in the ヂme manner as I granted to you, Don Jerome Grimaldi, Marquis de Grimaldi, Knight of the Order of the Holy Ghoフ, Gentleman of my Bedュchamber with employment, and my Ambaャador Extraordinary to the Moフ Chriフian King, my full power to treat, adjuフ, and ナgn the beforeュmentioned preliminaries, it is neceャary to grant the ヂme to you, or to バme other, to treat, adjuフ, and ナgn the promiテd definitive treaty of peace as aforeヂid: therefore, as you the ヂid Don Jerome Grimaldi, Marquis de Grimaldi, are at the convenient place, and as I have every day freド motives, from your approved fidelity and zeal, capacity and prudence, to entruフ to you this, and otherュlike concerns of my Crown, I have appointed you my Miniフer Plenipotentiary, and granted to you my full power, to the end, that, in my name, and repreテnting my perバn, you may treat, regulate, テttle, and ナgn the ヂid definitive treaty of peace between my Crown and that of France on the one part, that of England and that of Portugal on the other, with the Miniフers who ドall be equally and パecially authoriテd by their reパective Sovereigns for the ヂme purpoテ; acknowledging, as I do from this time acknowledge, as accepted and ratified, whatever you ドall バ treat, conclude, and ナgn; promiナng, on my Royal Word, that I will obテrve and fulfil the ヂme, will cauテ it to be obテrved and fulfilled, as if it had been treated, concluded, and ナgned by myテlf. In witneピ whereof, I have cauテd theテ preテnts to be diパatched, ナgned by my hand, テaled with my privy テal, and counterナgned by my underュwritten Counテllor of State, and firフ Secretary for the department of State and of War. Buen Retiro, the 10th day of December, 1762. (Signed) I THE KING. (And lower) Richard Wall