French & Indian War
     Part 3 ~ 1755

   aka ~ Seven Years War

     1754 - 1763

    With the defeat of General Braddock's army at the Battle of the Wilderness, the theatre of war shifted from the Pennsylvania frontier to New York. Shortly after the disastrous defeat, Governor Robert Morris of Pennsylvania sent a letter to General William Shirley, governor of the Massachusetts-Bay colony:

"By the Death of General Braddock the Chief Commander of yr Forces devolves upon You, and you will doubtleピ reバlve upon バme Meaブres to retrieve the Blow that had been given us, wch I am in hopes the Seaバn will Yet allow You time to do."

    Admiral Edward Boscawen was sent out from England on 23 April, 1755 on a mission to intercept a French transport fleet. Governor Robert Morris, of Pennsylvania, noted, in a letter to Governor Sharpe, of Maryland:

"There are certain Accounts of Admiral Boツawens being arrived off St. John's, in New Foundland, with Ten Ships of the Line, Three of his Fleet being then miピing; And laフ Night we had accounts from New York that the French Fleet with Four Thouヂnd Land Forces were in the Harbour of Louiッurgh, And that Boツawen with 13 Ships of the Line before it..."

    Although not completely successful (certain of the French ships were able to slip past the blockade set up by Admiral Boscawen and got supplies and troop reinforcements up the St. Lawrence to their fort at Niagara), Boscawen was able to capture two French ships, carrying eight companies of foot soldiers. He noted in a letter dated 17 June, 1755 from Torbay, off Cape Breton:

"Herewith I テnd you a Letter from Sir Thomas Robinバn, as alバ Three others from Sir Thomas Robinバn to the Governors of the Province of Maピachuテtts Bay, New Hampドire, and Connecticut, which I deナre you will diパatch to the Governors as directed as バon as poピible, and that you will acquaint them all the French have テnt into theテ Parts a フrong Detachment of Troops, conナフing of Six Battalions of old Troops, under the Convoy of three large Men of War and バme Frigates. In purブance of His Majeフy's Inフructions to me I have ナezed one Man of War of Sicty-Four the Alcide, and the Lis, pierced for Seventy-four Guns, her lower Battery not mounted, having on Board Eight Companies of Foot, テveral Engineers, and the military Cheフ or part of it. Monナeur de Boフange, who was to have commanded the Troops in the テcond Poフ, was killed on board the Alcide."

    The planned attack on Fort Niagara by Governor William Shirley of the Massachusetts-Bay colony would prove to be a difficult expedition due to its having been reinforced as a result of the French obtaining Braddock's plan of attack in the papers lost in the Battle of the Wilderness. The expedition to take Fort Niagara, though, had been started in May with the arrival, on the 27th of May, of troops under the command of Captain John Bradstreet at Fort Oswego on the eastern end of Lake Ontario. Bradstreet's troops were joined, in July, by Sir William Pepperrell's Jersey Blues under the command of Colonel Philip Schuyler. General William Shirley left Albany for Fort Oswego in late July.

    "From the Camp of the Mohawk's River 36 miles diフant from the Oneida Carrying Place, Aug 6, 1755" General Shirley sent a letter to Colonel Thomas Dunbar (who had assumed command of the English forces in Pennsylvania after the death of General Braddock, and who was headed with those surviving troops of Braddock's army toward Philadelphia):

"I am to acquaint you that two Expeditions of very great Conテquence to his Majeフy's Service are now carrying on, one againフ the French Forts at Niagara & on Lake Ontario, and the other againフ their Forts at Crown Point and on the Lake Champlain, and that the French with their Indians are バ much フrengthened at both places by the ヂid General's Defeat [i.e. Braddock] and the Retreat of the Forces to Pennペlvania that the Troops employed in both the ヂid Expeditions フand in need of being reinforced."

    General Shirley directed Colonel Dunbar (on the 6th of August, 1755) to proceed to the town of Amboy in New Jersey, and from there to Albany. Dunbar was to remain at Albany pending further orders to proceed toward Niagara. But then, six days later, Shirley changed his mind and sent new orders to Colonel Dunbar:

"Upon my receiving Letters from Governor Morris that you was on your March with his Majeフie's Forces under your Command for the City of Philadelphia, I was then of the Opinion from the Accounts I had received of the late defeat and the preテnt Circumフances of the Forces that it would be for the good of his Majeフie's Service to have them Marcht this way in order to aピiフ in or ブpport the two Expeditions now carrying on againフ Niagara and Crown Point, for which purpoテ, I テnt you Orders of the 6th Inフant; but having ナnce received Letters from Govr. Dinwiddie, with a full account of the フate of the Forces now under your Command, and the Reinforcements you will receive, it appears clear to me, as there will be four Months of good weather before the winter テtts in, that with the number of Forces you now have and the Aピiフances you will receive from the Provinces of Pennペlvania, Maryland and Virginia, You may yet have it in your power to retrieve the Loピ ブフained by the late defeat of Major General Braddock and the Honour of the Britiド Arms by proceeding directly to Fort du Queハe. The Loピ of Artillery by the General may I underフand be ブpplied with other pieces, together with Ammunition and Ordnance Stores, from Fort Cumberland, Wincheフer, and the Provinces of Pennペlvania, Maryland, and Dominion of Virginia, which with what you buried before your Retreat (and I hope was not バ defac'd but that they may be of Service again), appear to me to be a ブfficient Train, for under it adviヂble to you to make a Second attempt for the Reduction of Fort Du Queハe, eパecially as I am fully perブaded that your late Retreat hath made the Commandant there think himテlf at Liberty to draw off great part of his Forces from thence to フrengthen the Forces at Niagara and Crown Point, or at leaフ the former of them, where they daily expect to be attack'd, and conテquently to weaken the Garriバn at Fort Du Queハe.
I am, therefore of Opinion, Sir, and I doubt not but you will join with me and the Governors of the three before-mentioned Colonies, that it will be for the good of his Majeフie's Service, as the Forces under your command muフ by this time be refreドed and recovered from their late Timidity, of which I hope their Officers have made them テnナble, and that they will be glad to have an opportunity to Retrieve the Honour of the Britiド Arms, that you do after making the proper Diパoナtion of the Forces now under your Command March directly for Fort Du Queハe, for which purposテ you will herewith receive my Orders.
I ドall proceed in my March from this place for Oヘego tomorrow morning upon the Expedition under my Command. Wiドing You ブcceピ, I am, Sir, Your moフ obedient humble Servant, Wm SHIRLEY."

    Colonel Dunbar responded to General Shirley on the 21st of August:

"I lately had the Honour of writing to you in anヘer to yours of the 6th Inフant, I then テnt you a return of the State of the Troops under my Command, & particularly informed you of the condition they were all in, and the great Deficiency of Arms & Camp Equipage; that I wiド the Returns had reached you before you テnt your orders of the 12th Inフ., which I think muフ have prevented that trouble.
Upon the receit of Yours of the 12th I thought it proper to call the Field Officers and the Five Eldeフ Captains, to lay your Orders and Letters before them, as I thought it wou'd be more Satiデactory to you than a Letter founded intirely on my own Opinion, that after the moフ mature Deliberation we do unanimouネy agree that it is impracticable to carry on an Expedition to Fort Du Queハe from hence at this time of the Year, & give the following reaバns:
1st. That the only Cannon we have are Four ドort ナx-pounders; that the four Cannon at Wincheフer weigh upwards of Thirty Hundred Weight each, and left there by the late General Braddock's orders, from the Impoピibility there was of carrying them with him, that thoテ at Fort Cumberland are only four-pounders, weighing from twelve to thirteen Hundred Weight each, and mounted on Ship Carriages with Iron Trucks, & Captain Orde informs us that they are only fit for Ship Service.
2ndly. That we have not above one-third of our Camp Equipage & our Soldiers almoフ naked, and that all the Cannon, Mortars & Ammunition that the late General Braddock had with him, the French now have to フrengthen their Fort, and we muフ beg leave to undeceive You in regard to what you are pleaテd to mention, of Guns being buried at the time of General Braddock ordered the Stores to be deフroyed., for that there was not a Gun of any kind buried, & the four that are now left are two that Colonel Dunbar had with him & two that were left at Fort Cumberland.
3dly. That by バme Miノanagement we had not one Indian with us; that what Friends there were laフ Year are loフ, and no new ones gained; that General Braddock cou'd not get above eight or nine to attend him, from wch Circumフances he laboured under many Inconveniences, nor do we hear of Meaブres having been taken to get any; that what aピistance you may expect from Virginia by Troops We are under the フrongeフ apprehenナon you will be diヂppointed in, as more than half of the Virginia Companies who were with us have deテrted for want of pay; that the Seaバn is now approaching when the Falls of Rain may be expected, which will conテqently raiテ the テveral Rivers we have to paピ バ as to occaナon the building of Floats to tranパort the Troops &ca. over, which is almoフ impoピible to put in Execution if the Enemy ドould chuテ to make an oppoナtion, and that the Swampy Grounds and Clayey mountains we have to march over would be rendered extremely difficult, ツarcely practicable, and an abバlute want of Forage but what we could carry with us; That it greatly ブrprizes us Govr Dinwiddie ドou'd テnd to you ブch a Return of the Troops, as he could have no authority for バ doing, not having had it in his, power to know a true and exact フate of them.
And laフly: Were we to march immediately from hence with the greateフ Expedition it wou'd be impoピible to arrive at Fort Du Queハe in leピ than ナx Weeks, and we humbly conceive that before we cou'd be provided with a proper Train, proviナon, & every thing that wou'd be neceピary for ブch an Expedition , we cou'd not expect to arrive there before the middle of November, and ドould we not ブcceed in the attempt we muフ inevitably periド, as the mountains are covered with Snow generally in the latter end of October, & there is no place to retreat to nearer than Fort Cumberland.
This is, Sir, the real フate and Condition of both Officers and Soldiers; and as we are now バ near Philadelphia, the only place to recruit our men with proper neceピaries, We proceed to it, which we humbly conceive cannot retard our Schemes, provided You ドall hereafter think proper to put them in Execution, either by going to Fort Du Queハe or to Albany; therefore ドall wait Your further Commands at Philadelphia. I am, with great Reパect, Sir, Your moフ obedient & moフ humble Servant, THOMAS DUNBAR.
Camp at Pine Ford, Auguフ the 21st, 1755. His Excellency Genl. SHIRLEY. Signed as the opinion of THOMAS DUNBAR. THOMAS GAGE, Lieut. Colo. RUP. CHAPMAN, Major. WILL. SPARKE, Major. J. MERCER, Captain. JNo RUTHERFORD, Captain. ROBT. Dobson, Captain. J. KENNEDY, Captain. SAML. HOBSON, Captain.

    The removal of the remnants of General Braddock's army, along with the independent companies raised in the colonies, from the western frontier of Pennsylvania and Virginia, caused much concern throughout the middle colonies. Virginia Governor Dinwiddie contacted Pennsylvania Governor Morris, on 25 August, expressing his concerns that Colonel Dunbar had vacated the frontier, leaving only 170 Provincial Troops at Fort Cumberland for the defense of the frontier, especially in light of the fact that a road had been cut through the wilderness. The French and Indians, if they should so choose, might make use of that road to attack the English settlements on the east side of the Alleghenies. He noted that he had sent out six companies of Rangers to take the place of the English Royal Army in defending the frontier. Colonel George Washington was commissioned (on 14 August, 1755) to command these companies. Governor Morris vowed to help as best he could with supplying the Virginia colony's Rangers with necessary supplies, but noted that he could not promise any troops. The Quakers in the Pennsylvania General Assembly were hindering any action intended toward supporting the defense of the frontier. In fact, some individuals, including Benjamin Franklin, were actively working to "heat and inflame the minds of the people againフ the Government..."

    By the end of August, General Shirley had arrived at Oswego, and by mid-September, his army of over two thousand men were assembled at Oswego. In addition to his army, Shirley had a navy of sorts. Previously, in May, Shirley had sent Captain John Bradstreet with two hundred soldiers and a crew of shipwrights to Oswego to construct four vessels to be launched upon Lake Ontario. The small fleet was intended to disrupt and prohibit any attempt by the French to get additional supplies and troops to Fort Niagara. The fleet, though, was not able to effect the disruption of the French vessels on the lake, and so General Shirley made the decision, in late-September, to postpone the attack on Fort Niagara until the following year (1756). He removed the main army from Fort Oswego on 24 October, leaving behind a garrison of seven hundred men.

    In the meantime, to the north, the English were finding success in their expedition against the French Forts on Nova Scotia. On 04 June, 1755 a force of some two thousand New England militia, under Colonel Robert Monckton and Colonel John Winslow, started a siege of Fort Beausejour, at the Bay of Fundy, in Nova Scotia. The French surrendered the fort to the English on 17 June. Later, Monckton captured Fort Gaspereau on Green Bay, the last remaining French fortification in Acadia.

    On 28 June, 1755 Governor Morris laid before the Pennsylvania Provincial Council "an Extract he had received of News of the Engliド taking the French Forts of Beausejour, Pont du Buott, and the Fort on the Side of the Bay Verte..."

"On Tueヅay laフ arrived in Town Major Browne who left the Engliド Camp near Chegnecto on the 18th Inフant, charged with Diパatches from the Honble. Colonl Monckton to His Excellency Governor Shirley, and brings Us the agreeable News that on the firフ Day of this Inフant in the Evening His Excellency Governor Shirley's Two New England Regiments arrived at Chegnecto in the Bay of Funda, and on the Second landed and joined His Majeフy's regular Forces there Near Fort Lawrence; That the Engliド Troops marched the 4th and inveフed the French Fort of Beau Sejour (now called Fort Cumberland) in the Evening, And in their Way took Poピeピion of Pont Du Buott, where the French had a Battery of 4 ノall Pieces of Cannon and a Block Houテ, and had poフed 400 men to oppoテ their Paピage, who バon retired when cloテly attacked, and left their Block Houテ and the ブndry adjacent Houテs in Flames. Our Forces began to Bombard the French Fort from Batteries advanced within 500 yards of It on the 13th, which by a conフant Fire obliged the French to ブrrender before our Gun Batteries were finiドed on the 16th Inフant. The Fort is a regular Pentagon with 26 Pieces of Cannon mounted chiefly with 12, 9, and 6 Pounders, And one Ten Inch Mortar; Was garriバned with 150 regular Troops and 400 Peaヂnts, commanded by Monsr Du Chambou; was plentifully furniドed with Proviナons, as well as all other kinds of Stores. The regular Troops are to be tranパorted to Louiッourg, and under a Prohibition of bearing Arms in North America for 6 Months. The French Fort on the ナde of the Bay Verte had accepted the ヂme Terms of Capitulation; And Colonl Winネoe marched with 500 Men the ヂme Morng that Major Bourne came away in order to take Poピeピion of it; And that the Forces were バon to ヂil for St. John's River, where it was not doubted they wou'd have the like Succeピ."

    On 08 September, 1755 a force of 3,500 New England militia and four hundred Indians, under the command of Sir William Johnson, defeated a force of 1,400 of French and Indians under Baron Dieskau in the Battle of Lake George. The battle was the culmination of the Crown Point Expedition.

    The expedition to take Fort Frederick (aka Crown Point), on the western shoreline of Lake Champlain, had been launched in April of 1755 with the appointment of an Irishman, William Johnson, to the rank of major general. A force of about four thousand colonists were raised in the colonies of Connecticut, Massachusetts-Bay, Rhode Island, New Hampshire and New York. (Despite repeated entreaties from the governors of the New England colonies, the colony of Pennsylvania failed to raise a contingent to join the Crown Point expedition due to the fact that the Quakers who controlled the Pennsylvania General Assembly were continuing to oppose supporting the war.) Johnson also held a ten-day council during the last week of June and first week of July with the Iroquois and three other Indian tribes to obtain their support for the campaign. About four hundred Indians were induced to join the English.

    A portion of General Johnson's army, under the command of Colonel G. Phineas Lyman, traveled up the Hudson River ahead of Johnson's main army. They established a camp and constructed a fortification along Fish Creek, near Saratoga, which they named Fort Hardy, in honor of New York governor, Sir Charles Hardy. Another fortified encampment, named Fort Miller, was constructed at the Great Carrying Place, an Oneida Indian portage trail between the Hudson River and Lake George. General Johnson noted, in a letter to Governor Phips of the Massachusetts-Bay colony:

"The Road is now making from this place to Lake St. Sacrament, where I propoテ to build Magazines and to raiテ a defenナble Fortification either as a ヂfe Retreat in caテ we ドould find the Enemy too Strong for our Force and be obliged to Quit our Ground, or upon well-founded Intelligence find it the moフ prudent Meaブre to halt there till we receive Reinforcements."

    At a point between the Hudson River and Lake St. Sacrament (which Johnson renamed, Lake George), Johnson's troops constructed Fort Lyman, later renamed Fort Edward. By early-September, Johnson left a contingent of his army to maintain Fort Edward and pushed on to construct Fort William Henry on the western side of Lake George. It was during the construction of the fort on Lake George, that a French army, under the command of the German, Baron Ludwig August de Dieskau set out to attack the English at Fort Edward.

    Reports had been received that the French were heading south toward the English encampments. General Johnson, therefore, sent a party of nearly one thousand men to meet, and attempt to halt, the French. The colonists were commanded by Colonel Ephraim Williams; they were accompanied by a party of Indians led by Chief Hendrick (i.e. the Mohawk sachem Tiyanoga). The French army had arrived, on 08 September, within two miles of Fort Edward, at a place called Rocky Brook when, upon the urgings of his Indian allies, Dieskau decided to change course and attack the unfinished Fort William Henry. The decision would prove to be a costly one for Dieskau. Almost immediately, after changing course, his army ran into the English troops under Colonel Williams. In what would be known as the Bloody Morning Scout, the French opened fire. Williams men turned and fled back toward Fort William Henry. In the short fray, Williams and Chief Hendrick were killed. The French were in hot pursuit of the fleeing English militia. As the colonists made their way into the fortification, the French paused to regroup and prepare for a formal assault on the breastworks. Johnson's artillery opened fire on the French, catching them off guard and killing many of them. The French rallied, formed into three rows, and with their bayonets fixed, made an attack on the makeshift breastworks. A second assault by the French was answered with the English counterattacking by climbing over the breastworks and charging into the straight French lines. In this second skirmish, Baron de Dieskau was wounded and captured by the English; his troops fled back the way they had come. It was at the point where the first skirmish had taken place that the French were again met by a contingent of the English, this time a detachment of about two hundred and fifty soldiers from Fort Edward under the command of Joseph Blanchard. The French were routed in this third skirmish (around eight o'clock in the evening) after a large number of their force fell to the English; they retreated back to Crown Point. The French losses have been estimated at four hundred, the English lost two hundred and sixty-two along with thirty-eight Indian allies.

    Colonel Joseph Blanchard sent a letter to Governor Hardy on 09 September, 1755, the day after the battle, in which he described what he then knew about the action at Lake George:

"Three Frenchmen came in here this morning (one a Captain), and the Intelligence from all parties agree that they were in Battle from the morning till night, the moフ Bloody and Severe.
We have no certainty in whoテ favour it turned, but from all circumフances hope that our Forces have ブフained their poフ as yet.
The Frenchmen ヂy they were eleven hundred and Six of Indians who engaged in the morning a part of our Men, which was 700 Men, One mile and half from the General Camp, headed by Colo Williams, バon reinforced by 500 more, I hear by one of our men from the Camp, but were (after three hours' fight) drove back into the Camps, and there engaged the Artillery and fought till near night. This minute ブndry more are come in of our Guards, who run off about two of the clock expecting our Army was fallen into their hands. The great Guns played till after four o'clock. A party of our Fort テt out for their Relief of about three hundred, mett the Enemy about two Miles from the Lake, engaged them, and fought till ブn down, when two of our party run off and left them, continuing a ノart Fire, had drove about three or four hundred from their packs, and then had maintained their Ground. How the Army or that party have fared ナnce, or who had gained the Field, we know not... The Frenchmen ヂy Three thouヂnd テven hundred テt out, and Two thouヂnd lodged for Recruit if needed... The Army came within two miles of this Fort Sunday afternoon, deナgned to attack us, but tacked and went to the Lake. If they have got ブcceピ there they will pay us a パeedy viナt likely."

    Pennsylvania Governor Robert Morris sent a letter to the Indians friendly to the English with the following information that he had received pertaining to the Battle of Lake George:

"Agreeable to the Treaties of Friendドip between this Government and the Indian Nations, I take this firフ opportunity of communicating to Your the agreeable account I have received of a Battle that was fought on the 6th Inフant on Lake St. Sacrament, now called Lake St. George, between General Johnバn and Monナeur Dieヌau the French General, in which the Engliド have obtained the victory, and have wounded Monr Dieヌau, the General, and taken him priバner with his Aid-De-Camp and many of his Officers, and killed Eight hundred バldiers. It was fought for a long time and with great Spirit on both ナdes, but the French were at laフ obliged to retreat and fly away.
Our Brethren, the Indians, behaved extraordinary well in the action and loフ バme of their men, but we have not yet heard how many nor who they are, when we do we ドall write you the particulars.
I moフ heartily congratulate all the Indians on this ブcceピ of General Johnバn, and have the ヂtiデaction to acquaint You that the number of French killed, wounded, and taken priバners, exceeded the number of all the Engliド who fell in the unfortunate action on the Banks of the Monongahela. Monr Dieヌau, now General Johnバn's priバner, was a perバn of extraordinary note in France, being a Mariツhal-De-Camp and Commander of all the Forces in North America."

    General Shirley urged Johnson to continue forward with the expedition to attack Fort Frederick at Crown Point. But Johnson, who had been wounded in the Battle of Lake George, had become ill disposed to engage the French so soon. Instead, the English army remained at the southwestern corner of Lake George and finished the construction of Fort William Henry. Shortly after the battle, Johnson resigned his commission, claiming that it was because his other duties, including that of superintendent of the Six Nations, were requiring his attention. If the truth were known, it was that Johnson was being encouraged to delay the invasion by New York's Governor James De Lancey and others who were involved in contraband trade with the French at Montreal.

    The original plan of attack had been for Johnson's army to establish a fortification at Ticonderoga, located along the western shore of the river connecting Lake George and Lake Champlain. From that staging point, the English colonial army could attack northward against Fort Frederick at their leasure. The French, though, had got hold of the English plan of attack when they captured General Braddock's war chest at the Battle of the Wilderness. While Johnson dallied at Fort William Henry on the south end of Lake George, the French lost no time in establishing their own fort at Ticonderoga, which they christened Fort Carillon. Despite the victory they had enjoyed at the Battle of Lake George, the English advantage was lost.

    Colonel Charles Lawrence was named governor of Nova Scotia after the capture of Fort Beausejour. Shortly thereafter, Lawrence issued a proclamation that the residents of the peninsula (i.e. the Acadians) were to swear allegiance to Great Britain. Anyone who refused to do so would be compelled to leave. It was further decided that those Acadians who were to be removed would be scattered throughout the English colonies so that they would not be able to make a united stand.

    The idea of settling the Acadians throughout the colonies was not agreeable to the colonies. According to a message that Governor Morris delivered to the Pennsylvania General Assembly:

"The ブcceピ of his Majeフy's Arms employed in driving the French from their Encroachments in Nova Scotia, put into the power of Governor Lawrence to reduce the French Inhabitants of that Colony, commonly called French Neutrals, to a proper obedience to his Majeフy's Government, or of forcing them to quit the Country. But they refuナng to ヘear allegiance to his Majeフy, it was thought by him and his Majeフy's Council there, as well as by the Admirals Boツawen and Moyフon, neceピary for the ヂfety of that Province, that a conナderable number of them ドould be removed and divided among the other Colonies, and a part of thoテ deフined for this province are already arrived; but as I did not think it ヂfe in our preテnt Circumフances, to permit them to Land, I have ordered the Veピels that brought them to lie at a convenient Diフance below the Town, & have put guards upon them, & ordered them Proviナons.
Imagining General Shirley to be at New York, I have acquainted him of their arrival, and the danger that might accrue to us from ブch a number of People of their principles coming amongフ us at this time, and deナred his particular Inフructions in what manner I might beフ diパoテ of them, and I wait his anヘer..."

    Despite Governor Morris' disapproval of the plan to settle some of the Acadians in the province of Pennsylvania, four hundred and fifty-four were delivered to that colony. In December, 1755 one hundred and thirty-seven French persons were landed on the sloop, Hannah; one hundred and fifty-six on the sloop, Three Friends; and one hundred and sixty-one on the sloop, Swan.

    The Acadians residing on the Isthus of Chignecto had participated heartily in the French defense of Fort Beausejour and Fort Gaspereau. Because of that, they were the first to be rounded up for deportation. The heads of the families were ordered to Fort Cumberland on 11 August, and there they were informed that their property, both real and personal, was to be confiscated by the English government now in control of Acadia. Ten days later, the transport ships arrived and the families were ordered to embark. As would be expected, some of them escaped, joining forces with local Indians, and harrassed the English soldiers as they attempted to enforce the edict. Partly in retaliation to the harrassment, and partly to deny the Acadians any hope of return to their homes, the English burned the villages. Eleven hundred Acadians were loaded onto the transport ships, but they did not set sail until 13 October. The whole experience must have been horrendous to the French families.

    The Acadians living in the Minas Basin were rounded up in early September. On 05 September, Lieutenant Colonel John Winslow ordered the men and boys of the region to assemble at Grand Pre, where he read to them the edict that their properties were to be confiscated. Unlike at Chignecto, the Acadians here were permitted to retain such personal property as they could carry with them. Order was maintained by the English taking the males into custody while their families were rounded up.

    The Nova Scotia Acadians who were evicted from their homes eventually numbered between six and seven thousand. They were transported initially to the colonies of Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia, and later to the Carolinas and Georgia and Connecticut and Massachusetts-Bay. A storm related disaster at sea resulted in the sinking of two ships carrying twelve hundred people. It is also believed that nearly two thousand Acadians, fearing for their lives, fled into the neighboring colony of Quebec. Some of those who were landed in the English colonies eventually made their way back into the Canadian colonies. The majority of those who fled from the intolerance that they found in the English colonies made their way to the lands still claimed by France along the Mississippi River. Louisiana was settled heavily by the Acadians, who intermarried with the Indians and blacks to become the cajuns that we know today.