Bedford County Documents

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          Letter from Bernard Dougherty to Secretary Matlack, 06 February, 1779

Some few Days since, I wrote a few lines to Mr. Scott of the Honourable council, relating to one Mr. Culbertson, of Bedford county; I find Mr. Scott is gone, and as yet I do not learn that he has left me any answer.
     Being therefore in the dark with respect to Mr. culbertson's Case, wch in my Opinion is interesting (at least greatly so to him,) and finding those few Lines (I wrote to Mr. Scott) lying on the committee Table in the adjacent Room makes me uneasy.
     I beg you will please to set me right in this affair, and let me know where such Papers, as were inclosed to Mr. Scott, are.

          Note of the Continental Congress, 09 February, 1779

The commissioners of claims report, That there is due to three companies of volunteers raised in Bedford county, Pensylvania, for the defence of the frontiers, commanded by Captains Thomas Cluggage, Henry Black and John McDonald. their bounty and pay, from their first inlistments to 31 July, 1778, inclusive, amounting to 2,526 68/90 dollars, to be paid to George Woods, Esq., one of the commissioners appointed by General Hand and Gorge Clymer Esq. to raise these companies.

          Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 13 February, 1779

An order was drawn on the Treasurer in favor of Will'm Holliday, Pay-master of Militia of the county of Bedford, or his order, for the Sum of Two Thousand Pounds, to be applied in Paying the Militia of the said County, for which Sum the said Holliday is to account.

          Letter from the Board for Bedford County to the Pennsylvania General Assembly, 16 February, 1779

To the Honourable the Representatives of the Freemen of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, in General Assembly met:
     The Petition of the Board of commissioners, Assessors & Assistant Assessors of Bedford county, Humbly Sheweth:
     That the Petitioners have met in order to Lay the Taxes directed by Law to be paid by this county, but the situation of the greatest part of the county is such that Humanity forbids them to levy the same, and induces them to apply to the Honourable House for relief, and to represent That for eighteen months past the frontier Inhabitants have almost entirely been deprived of the fruits of their labour by the incursions of the Indians. Many of them are gone entirely out of the County, and when that part of the Petitioners whose duty it is to take the Returns of Property, went to the once chearful abodes of Humble Industry & content, the Inhabitant had fled to preserve his life, and nothing presented to their view but forlorn inhabitations and untilled fields, (in several of which the grave of the former owner, murdered by the Indians, was to be seen); and to levy Taxes off those would be adding distress to the afflicted and taking from the Poor that which he has not to give. That part of the Inhabitants who remained collected into forts - some formed into companies and Ranged along the Frontiers in order to afford some small Protection to the rest, who, at the hazzard of their lives, ventured out to save their scanty harvest and to prepare another; but they were so often driven in that it was little they could do. The Panic occasioned by one incursion was scarcely over till they were alarmed afresh by another. Many were deprived of sowing & planting, & not a few were prevented from reaping that which they had put in; In consequence of which, Famine stares us in the face. There is not Bread enough amongst us to sustain the Inhabitants till Harvest, & were it to be had for Money, which it is not, many of the Poorer sort have not wherewithal to purchase it. The great Plenty of money that is circulating in other parts of the Country is to them no relief, because their Savage Foe has prevented them from having anything to sell to acquire Money; and many of them have undergone such a variety of hardship & distress, and suffered such loss that they are realy objects of compassion, & if the Times would permit their situation would strongly Plead for Public assistance, to save the helpless families of those who have perished by the sword, and those who have been deprived of Providing Bread for their Families, from suffering by Famine. The few who have been permitted to remain at their Habitations, and reap the fruits of their industry, will chearfully pay their part of the Taxes, according to their circumstances; but should the whole Quota laid on this County be levied off them, it is so large and their numbers so few that they would be reduced to beggary by it. We, therefore, intreat the interposition of the Honourable House, and that they would grant such an exemption in the Premisses as to their Wisdom shall seem meet, & the Petitioners as in duty bound shall Pray, &c.
     James Martin, Sam'I Davidson, commissioners. Allen Rose, David Jones, Gideon Ritchey, John Canan, Wm. Goff, County Assessors. Henry Abram, Hugh Robinson, James Little, Absalom Gray, Tho's Crossan, Robert Moore, Township Assessors.

          Memorial of the Inhabitants on the Juniata to the Pennsylvania General Assembly, 20 February, 1779

To the Honourable the House of Assembly now sitting at Philadelphia:
     The Memorial of the Inhabitants Living on the Head Waters of the Juniata, part of the Frontiers of Bedford county, State of Pennsylvania, Humbly Sheweth:
     That We, your Honours' Memorialists, taking under considerations the present defenceless situation of these parts, Rendered valuable on many considerations, that in case of a sudden Penitration into this Contery, we ourselves and Families, must fail a Marcyless Pray to the Savages, whose rule of War is to punish with the Greatest Tortures those that is so unhappy as to fall in their Hands. The situation of this contery is very allarming, Rendered so by the Savages and Toryes Last Summer, who prevented the Inhabitants from raising what grain would be necessary to soport themselves and families until next harvest. Numbers is already suffering for want of Bread, standing in Defence of their Contery on this Fronteer, who, without speedy assistance, will be under the necessaty of moaving their familyes to the interior parts of this or some other State, as Grain is not to be had hear. If your Honours mean to assist us, now is the time to send up a store of Flour, as the Juniata in common is not navegable for Boats and cannoes above two Month in the Spring.
     That in consequence of the above mentioned situation of these Fronteers, We, your Honours' Memorialists, do most earnestly pray for some immediate assistance to be Given, so as to Prevent any of these dreadfull effects from taking place, which they must unavoidably do if we are visited by our enymies, as we have the utmost reason to expect.
     That We, your Honours' Memorialists, having a Personal Knowledge of the Present Commander of these parts, Major Rob't cluggage, and as he has at all times Testified the Great zeal for Serving his Country, in relieving the Distrised Inhabitants, shewing the utmost willingness to attend to any alarms that might be given, we do, as we are already Bound in Gratitude to that Gentleman, Beg of your Honours to Continue him amongst us. He may prove, if Necessaty should require, a skillful! Director in any Case of Dificulty presents, as he being well acquainted with the face of the Contery will be the most Capable of Defending the same. Humbly Hoping that our Memorial may meet with your Honours' approbation, We remain with the Greatest Respect Your Honours' most Obedient & Very Humbl. Serv'ts.
     Peter McMullin, James Carlile, Ludwig Sell, James Deamentt, William Simonton, Jacob Hall, Thomas Bedwell, William Lard, Jun., Richard Travany, Benjamin Webster, Joseph Fox, Andrew Hubert, Rogger McClean, Peter Reily, Robert Howard, James Moore, James Canell, David Stuard, John Bell, Archibald Peterson, John Vansant, James Vansant, George Vansant, Samuel Davis, Jno. Davis, Jno. McDonnel, Patrick McDonal, Daniel Moore, Sam'l Moore, Peter Tites, Dan'l Tites, William Wagh, Joseph Roberts, Isaac Hutson, Neeil Grafius, William Lard, Jno. Kanaday, Patrick Maguire, Michel McMullin, Jno. Maguire, Henry Black, Edw'd Beaty, John Spencer, Peter Grafius, John Canan, Abraham Hains, Francis Cluggage, Hugh McHenry, Benj'n Elliott, Joshua Lewis, Jno. Lewis, Archibald Fletcher, James Gipton, Michal cridar, James Carmichal, John carmichal, James Thompson, George Ashman, Jacob Leard, James Maginnis, John Wiston, Lawrence Swope, Thomas Magan, Hugh Muntholand, Broara Cole, James Igaw, Daniel Lean, Joseph Armintage, John Tee, Gorge Jackson, Nicholas Grafius, James Adams, Samuel Anderson, Nicholas Coons, Will. Holiday, Adam Holiday.

          Letter from the Board of War to President Joseph Reed, 22 February, 1779

Applications are frequently made to this board for matters immediately concerning the militia of your State, which we conceive more properly fall under the notice of the Supreme Executive council. The particular occasion of this letter, is the presentation of an account for the repair of arms belonging to this State, which were put into the hands of the militia of Bedford county, but wanted repairs, which were made before they were issued. We feel every disposition to promote the general good by serving a particular State; but believe Justice will be done to the public & individuals more effectually if the affairs of the militia are managed by the governing powers of the State to which they belong. Afterwards, such expense as ought to be defrayed by the United States, may be charged to them accordingly. We beg leave therefore to refer to your Excellency and your honourable board the account above-mentioned, with this assurance, that whenever an act of ours, as officers of the United States, shall be thought necessary, we shall cheerfully do it.

          Note of the Supreme Executive Council., 25 February, 1779

An account of Col. Piper, Lieutenant of the County of Bedford, was laid before the Council.
     Ordered, That the same be referred to a Committee of three, & that Mr. Bryan, Mr. Macky, & Mr. Scott, be the committee.

          Note of the Continental Congress, 26 February, 1779

The commissioners report, That they have examined the accounts of Captain Daniel Topham, and find that he has received of the following persons vizt. of
     Daniel Roberdeau Esqr. one hundred and Six and 60/90 Dollars 106 60/90
     Lieut George Guiger Sixty Dollars 60
     colo. John Davies One hundred Dollars 100
     Major Robert cluggage two hundred Dollars 200
     Making in all four hundred and Sixty six and 60/90 Dollars 466 60/90
     And that he has expended on a journey from Philadelphia to the Lead Mines, in Sinking Spring Valley Bedford county, and back; from thence to Lancaster with British Prisoners, and to Philadelphia again, Four hundred and fifty six and 40/90 dollars 456 40/90
     Which left a balance in his hands of Ten and 20/90 Dollars, which he has this day paid to Major cluggage in part of the money received of him, for which said cluggage gives credit in his account herewith Reported 10 20/90 466 60/90
     That there is due to Major Robert cluggage for cash advanced to Captain Daniel Topham, Michael Skely, and some contingent expences, a ballance of two hundred and thirty four dollars and 50/90. Ordered, That the said accounts be paid.

          Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 27 February, 1779

An order was drawn on the Treasurer in favor of Col. John Piper, Lieut. of the County of Bedford, or his order, for the Sum of One Thousand Pounds, for which Sum he is to account.

          Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 09 March, 1779

A return of Justices elect for the Township of Brothers Valley, wherein it appears that Abraham cable and Jacob Glassner, were duly elected; being read & considered,
     Ordered, That Abram cable he appointed & commissioned to be on of the Justices of the Peace for the county of Bedford.

          Note of the Continental Congress, 09 March, 1779

The commissioners report, That there is due to three companies of volunteers raised in Bedford county, Pensylvania, their bounty for reinlisting, from 1 August to 1 December, 1778, which was not allowed on a settlement made with them and reported the 5 February last, for want of necessary information now obtained, 306 60/90 dollars to be paid to George Wood, Esq.

          Letter from President Joseph Reed to the County Lieutenants, 27 March, 1779

On the ---- Inst., after several conferences with a Committee of Congress on the Defence of the Frontiers, the House of Assembly resolved to commit the whole Business to the Supreme Executive council, who were to act in Concert with congress & Genl Washington on this important Business. Upon this, as Conference by Letters is very tedious & unsatisfactory, the Presid. proposed to go to the Camp & confer with the Commander in Chief in Person, which he has accordingly done very much to his & our Satisfaction. The General expressed his full Sense of the importance, Necessity & Duty of taking the most vigorous & speedy Measures for the Support & Protection of the Frontiers. Such Parts of the Plan as are not necessarily kept secret in order to be more effectually executed we cheerfully communicate to you, & hope it will prove a most powerful Encouragement to our distressed & apprehensive Friends to stand their Ground. A very respectable Force, which has been stationed for some Time at Schohary, in the State of New York, under Gen. Hand, is ordered over to the Frontiers of Northampton & Northumberland, and will, as far as any stationary Force can do, afford ample Protection to those two Counties. It is also concluded to raise 5 companies of Rangers, making 380 Men in the whole, to whom such Encouragement will be given as we hope will raise the Men without Difficulty. The commander in chief has also ordered Col. Rawlins's Regt now at Frederick Town, in Maryland, guarding the British Prisoners, to march to Fort pitt, & to be stationed at Kittanny or other suitable Place to cover the Frontiers of Westmoreland & Bedford. In the mean Time we have ordered Detachments from the Militia of --- to march with all possible Expedition for the immediate Protection of Bedford & Westmoreland. It is also a very encouraging circumstance that Gen. Hand, who is to command on the Frontiers of Northn & northumberland, & Col. Broadhead at Fort Pitt, are both Inhabitants of this State, & will have every Inducement & Motive to exert themselves to the utmost. But we are farther to acquaint you, that these are only Parts of the System; for it is fully determined to penetrate into the Indian country, & by a seasonable, vigorous Stroke make them feel the Weight of the American Arms. Measures are taking for this Purpose; but you will see the evident Propriety of Silence on this Subject, & we may venture to assure you that it has every Appearance of being successful & decisive.
     We have now only to add, that feeling as we do most sincerely for your calamitous Situation, no Attention care, or Consideration shall be wanting, to relieve it as soon as possible; and that as far as we are enabled by the Assembly in the necessary supplies, we shall do every Thing in our Power, for your comfort & Protection. We have it under Deliberation to offer a Reward for Indian Scalps; but it involves in it some Consideration of a political Nature affecting the general System of the War with Great Britain; however, if it will answer an effectual Purpose beneficial to you, we shall not hesitate to do it. We would wish you to make the contents of this Letter as generally known by sending copies or otherwise as you can, & use your utmost Influence to prevail upon the Inhabitants not to abandon their Habitations when there is such a Prospect of Support.
     I am Sir, Your Obed. Hmble. S., J.R. Presid. 1779, March 27th. To the Lieutenants of Bedford, Westmoreland and Northumberland, & to Brit. James Potter & Hon. Thos. Scott & others.

          Letter from President Joseph Reed to the County Lieutenants, 30 March, 1779

The unhappy State of our Frontiers which have been already struck and are threatened with further Ravages by the Indians & Tories, demands our utmost Exertion and Attention. We have the fairest Prospects that in the course of the Summer the Savages will receive such effectual chastisement as will once more restore Peace & comfort to that distressed Country. Some of the continental Troops will be sent forward, & it is concluded to raise 5 Companies of Rangers. But in the mean Time Protection is necessary, which can only be given by the Militia. We therefore direct you that immediately upon the Receipt of this, you call upon the Battalions of the post, in the Tour of Duty, for --- Men, if the Number cannot be furnished by one class, the Militia Law is to be strictly pursued, the Delinquents fined & so proceed to the next class, as many bad consequences have ensued from a different Course; if one class does not furnish the Men required, you will proceed to the next, & so on, till the Number is complete. When they are thus furnished you are to see them equipp'd, in the best Manner that circumstances will admit, & direct them to be march'd to where the county Lieutenant will muster them, and from him they will receive Directions where to take their Station for the Defence & Protection of our distressed Brethren on the Frontiers. The Plan of the Enemy is now to distress us on the coast & Frontiers, in order probably to effect by their cruelty & Barbarity, what they cannot by the force of Arms, and as this will probably he the last Effort we hope if vigorously & effectually defeated, Peace will soon be established on honourable Terms. Our Expectations of a Visit from the Enemy, from New York, are too well grounded to leave any Preparation unmade for our Defence, & furnish an unanswerable & we hope satisfactory Reason against detaching from the Militia of the Counties bordering on the Sea, and indeed if we do from their Ignorance of the Woods & the Mode of Fighting they would probably only consume the Provisions of the country without affording any useful or effectual aid.
     The counties laying between being in entire safety from these Attacks, will we trust cheerfully step forth, & on our Parts, we shall endeavor that every Thing necessary he provided, The great Destruction & Waste of Arms by the Enemy as well as otherwise, will make it absolutely necessary, that the most diligent search be made, & that every one possessed of Arms make Use of them as a supply cannot he obtained from this.
     We trust from the Zeal & Alacrity you have shown, you will exert your whole Weight influence & Care in doing the Business effectually. I am Sir, Your obed. & Very Hbble Ser. Indorsed, To the Lieuts of York, Cumbd & Lancaster Coy.

          Letter from President Joseph Reed to the Board of War, 02 April, 1779

I was yesterday at the Park, & find 4 Pieces of cannon have been sent down the River. I could wish that two more may be sent, with a couple of Mortars, one for Billingsport & the other for Mud Island, if they could he spared. They are much more formidable to Ships who must lay exposed to them than cannon, as one successful shell destroys the ship. There are two or 3 at the Park, which capt. Joy informs me can be spared, and should you want them they can easily be returned. Their Marks & Devices will always show to whom they belong.
     I have been well informed that there is a great Number of Rifles at Carlisle, that want Repair of different Kinds. It is proposed to arm the Rangers to be raised for the defence of the Frontiers with Rifles, and as these kind of Arms are not in the same Vogue they were formerly in our own Army, it would, I apprehend, be no Inconvenience to any other Service to apply them to this; for this we have given all possible Encouragement to the Recruits to bring their own Arms; the People of that county were so stripped in 1775 & 1776 for the Continental Army, that they are very destitute. I would request that you would give directions to the proper Persons there immediately to repair them, or, if more agreeable, deliver them in their present condition, to a Person appointed by us, & we will take the Trouble of repairing them off your hands.
     As the raising these Troops will necessarily be a work of Time, & it will be utterly improper to leave the Inhabitants, especially of Westmoreland & Bedford, destitute of Protection in the mean Time, I have ordered 250 Militias from York, Cumberland & Lancaster, to march up immediately, & must beg you will give the necessary Directions to the Commissary to supply them with Provisions, as fast as the Troops are raised these Militia will be withdrawn, and as they are instead of these Troops, I hope there will be no Objection to feeding them till they are relieved.
     I received a few Lines from Gen. Washington yesterday, tending to remove in part the Impressions his former Letter might have made, the Enemy have given over their Expedition, or at least they so give out, on acct of the snow Storm. But there is reason to believe the Preparations made to receive them had some Effect.

          Letter from Joseph Reed to the General Assembly, 02 April, 1779

Sir: I send into the Assembly some papers laid before the council by Mr. Scott, one of the members. By them it seems probable that Robert Culbertson, of Bedford County, who was authorized by an act of the late Assembly, To seize Provisions for the use of the Army of the United States, has been sued & saddled with damages for taking Fifty Bushels of Rye from Jacob Wiltz, for that purpose. Of the merits of this transaction the Council have nothing to communicate. Perhaps some of the Gentlemen who represent Bedford county can furnish some explanations; particularly Mr. Smith, who as Attorney brought the suit. This is an instance in point of the abuse of Replevins in the case of Public Officers, (whatever ground there was for an action,) an abuse to which we hope you will put a Stop by the Law just passed.
     I trust you will take such order in this business as shall do justice to Mr. culbertson, as he was employed by the Legislature.

          Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 05 April, 1779

And Whereas, the manner of Exchange as therein mentioned, would be grievous & burthensome to many of the good people of this State, by reason of their very great distance from the place of exchange, the smallness of the quantity many of those persons are possessed, of & the enormity of Travelling charges; many of the persons so situated had better lose their little all than spend it in negotiating an exchange. This House, ever desirous to relieve the distresses of their constituents as much as in them lies, do
     Resolve, That Thomas Hislap be, & is hereby appointed a commissioner of Exchange for the County of Chester;... David Espie for the County of Bedford; ...under the regulations herein after mentioned, Viz:
     That each of the said commissioners of exchange before named, shall give public notice in their respective Counties, of their appointments to that duty; & shall upon application made, receive such Sums of Money, of the dates before mentioned, as may be offered for exchange to every inhabitant of this State, before the first day of June next, & pass his receipt for the same; & shall make fair entries, in a book prepared for that purpose, of the names & surnames of each person depositing money, as also of the Sum of Money so deposited, keeping each man's money bound in a bundle by itself, & indorsed with the Owner's name, & the number of Dollars contained.
     That each of the commissioners aforesaid shall, before the first day of June next, deposit all the Monies by him received for the purpose of exchange, into the continental Loan Office of this State, taking the Continental Loan Officer's receipt for the same, agreeable to the resolution of congress.
     That the said commissioners of exchange shall receive from the commissioner of Loans, new bills, to the Amount of the Sum deposited for exchange, & shall, as soon as convenient, repay the persons & cancel his receipts, reserving to himself, out of each Man's money, at the rate of Two and a-half Dollars for every hundred Dollars, for his trouble & expenses in negociating said exchange.

          Letter from the Supreme Executive Council to General Roberdeau, 05 April, 1779

We have appointed Capt. Thomas Cluggage to one of the lndependt companies, but we are at a Loss for Lieutenants, this company to he raised in Bedford, if from your own Knowledge you could recommend either of the old Officers of his Company or either of the others we should be glad to hear from you.

          Letter from Barnard Dougherty to President Joseph Reed, 06 April, 1779

Having the Honor of being appointed last year in a Commission of Oyer and Terminer for the Tryal of Sundry Persons in the county of Bedford, the court was held agreeable to the said commission and adjourned to the middle of May next; the worthy Mr McClean of York attended, and indeed it was intirely owing to Superior abilities and attention that the same was conducted well.
     Gen. Armstrong, and Mr. Hubley in all probability will not attend and in Case the Honourable council do not think of superseding the commission, and Mr. Mcclean shou'd not attend we shou'd he greatly embarrass'd, and in particular on acct of my being totally Ignorant of the Law. I do therefore request that if it is the will of Council the court shou'd sit on the adjournmnt, there may be such orders sent to that Gentleman urging the necessity of his going to Bedford, agreeable to adjournment, in order to hold the court as it is absolutely necessary.

          Letter from General Daniel Roberdeau to President Joseph Reed, 06 April, 1779

I am honored with your Excellencies favor in answer to which I can only inform of a Lieut Meens, whose first name I have forgot, who acquainted himself well and with great adroitness in an Escort of some prisoners I sent to Bedford Jail, in preventing a rescue, I think him worthy of a higher command from this circumstance, and from the whole of his behaviour, but do not know where he lives I suppose in Bedford county, but he is well known to capt. cluggage, as he was under his Command. I wait your Excellenceys commands as I have letters informing that the Inhabitants wait only my appearance intending then to Evacuate without I can give them encouragement from preparations making, to which I remain a Stranger, except as the single fact of the Resolve of congress to raise five Companies.
     I request to be honored with an Interview to lay some facts before you, respecting the Frontiers, and the Lead Works, now recommended to your patronage.

          Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 07 April, 1779

The council resumed the consideration of the appointment of Officers of the five companies of Rangers, they having obtained the best assistance from the Members of the General Assembly that has been in their power; & thereupon,
     Ordered, That John Mclhaddon he appointed captain, Robert Arthur First Lieutenant, of the Company of Rangers to he raised in the county of Northumberland; That Thomas cluggage be appointed captain, & Means First Lieutenant of the company of Rangers to he raised in the County of Bedford; And that Thomas Campbell be appointed captain, Isaac Thompson first Lieutenant, & Alexander Parker, second Lieutenant, of the company of Rangers proposed to be raised in the county of Cumberland; And the said Gentlemen are to take Rank respectively as may be hereafter settled, having respect to former rank & service.

          Letter from President Joseph Reed to the Commissaries, 08 April, 1779

In consequence of the Direction from the Hon., the Board of War, & your Application to me respecting the Posts to which Provisions are to be sent for the Supply of the Troops ordered for Defence of the Frontiers I would now acquaint you that it will be proper to establish Magazines at Bedford Town, The lead Mines in Sinking Valley and Hannas Town, in Westmoreland, from whence they may be distributed as Occasions farther require. In case of any Difficulty which at this Distance we cannot foresee or obviate, you will direct your People to apply to the Lieutenants of the counties, who being Men of Influence & Knowledge of the Frontiers, will he able to give them such Advice and Direction as circumstances may require. I am Sir, J.R., Pres't.
     P.S. Every day bringing advices of the unhappy state of the Frontiers, I request the Commissioners to exert themselves, or the Militia not finding the necessary provisions may return & the consequences be very fatal

          Letter from the Board of War to York, Cumberland and Lancaster Counties, 03 April, 1779

His Excellency, the President of Pennsylvania, having informed the Board that he has ordered two hundred and fifty militia from York, cumberland & Lancaster to the Frontiers of Westmoreland & Bedford, to be stationed there until the Companies of Rangers to be raised for the defence of the frontiers of this state are completed, you will give the necessary directions as to the supply of these troops on the Presidents informing you of the Posts they are to take.

          Letter from President Reed to Lt. Samuel Hunter, 14 April, 1779

Sir, Your Favour by Lt. Gaddis came safely to Hand, & we are truly concerned to find that the Indians have renewed their Depredations. By this Time I hope you have received my Letter of the 27th March, giving you a full account of the Measures taken here for your Defence. You will there see that far from being neglected, every Measure has been taken that could be devised for your Relief. By a letter I received from General Washington, of the 8th Instant, General Hand was to march from Minisink for Wyoming, the 5th Instant, with about 600 Men, which will be a very competent Force for your Protection, as well as that of Wyoming. If you apply to General Hand, I make no doubt he will detach to Munsey such a number of Men as will support that Post, in which case you will have all the Security which stationary forces can give.
     Mr. Gaddis carries the Appointments of Captain McIlhadden & his officers for the Company to be raised in Northumberland, under the Resolve of Congress. Recruiting Instructions are also sent herewith, by which it will be seen what Encouragement the Men are to have. If the Men raised for your 3 Companies were to fall into this one, I think it would be a proper Transfer. Mr. Gaddes takes up Money; we have detained him for that Purpose longer than we could have wished, but it could not be avoided.
     Our Appointments is, John Mcllhaddon, Captain. Robert Arthur, 1st Lieutenant. John Dougherty, 2nd Lieutenant.
     We have directed Mr. Gaddes to deliver to Captain McIlhadden his Appointment. Mr. Arthur & Mr. Dougherty are, perhaps, with you, if so, you will please to deliver them their Appointments & Instructions.
     Mr. Gaddes carries with him 10,000 Dollars, & we have directed him to leave 1500 Dollars with Captain McIlhaddon, the rest to be paid to you, & you will apply it to the Service, directed as in your Discretion you judge best.
     Having done this, & we hope fully demonstrated that all the good People of the State, however remote are equally the Objects of our Care & Attention, we doubt not you will rest assured of an unremitting Regard to your Safety, and that we shall be glad to hear from you at all Times.
     We have now only to add that, as it is a time of common Danger, we would recommend to you to cultivate Harmony & a good Understanding with the People at Wyoming, leaving our unhappy Disputes in that Quarter to be settled as Peace & more favourable Circumstances will admit. I inclose you a News Paper ~ we have no important Intelligence, either foreign or domestick. The Enemy threaten our Sea Coast, & we esteem it a Duty to make every Preparation in our Power. We hope you will pursue a similar Course, & remember that while we call for Help & Assistance from others, it is our Duty to exert ourselves & use all the Means in our Power.
     The Spirit shown by raising the 3 Companies is a happy Proof of this Temper, and we hope it will extend itself to Bedford and Westmoreland.
     I am sir, with due esteem, your most obedt & humble servt.
     P. S. If Lieutenants Arthur & Dougherty are removed from the County, or decline the Services you will recommend others, & in the Mean Time forward the Recruiting by every Means in your Power.
     Mr Martin, Member of Assembly, is, by a Resolve of Assembly appointed Receiver of the Congress Emissions of May & September, for your County, & will relieve you in that Article.

          Letter from President Reed to Gen. Washington, 24 April, 1779

Dear Sir, I am to thank you for your Favour of the 19th Inst., & hopet he State I am about to give of our Affairs will, in some Degree, answer to your Excel'ys Satisfaction the most important Parts of your Letter. As soon as I returned from Camp, Orders were issued for calling 250 Militia from the Inner Counties for the Protection of Bedford & Westmoreland, these Counties being much exposed, & having, as I suppose, at that Time, very little Expectations from Fort Pitt & its Neighbourhood. We also made the Appointments for the Corps of Rangers, which, at its full Complement, will be 380 Men. These are now recruiting, & we hope with considerable success; but we cannot flatter ourselves they will be complete by the 10th May. Nor from the Forms to be complied with in the Militia Law, do we suppose the Militia are more than prepared to march. If, therefore, as is mentioned in the last Clause of your Excell'ys Letter, the Co-operation of the Troops from Fort Pitt is laid aside, perhaps the Assistance intended by these Militia to Bedford & Westmoreland, may be given from Fort Pitt, & the Militia ordered to proceed to Sunbury directly. By this Means a body of Men may be had in Service, which otherwise we cannot expect. But, after the Assurance given these Counties of Protection from this Militia, we fear it would give great Disgust if we should change their Destination without supplying their Places. I mentioned in a former Letter, that the Inhabitants of Northumberland had raised 3 Companies, at their own Expence, of Forty Men each, which, I suppose, will be ready by the Time proposed. The Law does not allow of keeping the Militia out longer than 2 Months at one Time, nor have we the Power of prolonging it on any Pretence whatever. As to bringing their Arms, it will generally be impracticable; we must endeavor to supply them in some Way or other. Your Excelly must reccollect, that in 1776 & 1777, when the Militia were discharged, their Arms were ordered to be left; they have never been replaced, nor have the People had an Oppy to procure new ones ~ hence, whenever the Militia are called upon there is a general & real Difficulty which we are endeavoring to supply as fast as possible; but unfortunately we have to combat a principle of Peculation too prevalent, that of carrying off the Arms when furnished by the publick, a Circumstance which keeps us very needy, & is attended with many bad Consequences. I should mislead your Excelly if I promised a Term of Service longer than 2 Months, & to call out the Militia of these Frontier Counties at this Time, would defeat one principal Benefit extended them, viz.: the giving them an Oppty to sow & plant, without which they must leave their Teams for Want of Bread, be the Issue of the Expedition ever so successful.
     We perfectly agree with your Excelly in your Opinion of Gen. Potter, & shall most cheerfully put the Command of the Troops into his Hands from every Motive of Propriety & Confidence.
     I am obliged to your Excelly for your Communications respecting Flour. We have lately been applied to from Bermudas on the same Account; but we are very unwilling to listen to these Applications 'till a moral Certainty can be obtained of our Compliance not endangering the Army.
     Gen. McIntosh is arrived in Town, but I have not had the Pleasure of seeing him, except once in the Street, & he was so much altered that I did not know him 'till he was past. We have been at a very great Expence in sending Stores of all kinds up to Fort Pitt, & as that Part of the Plan is altered which seemed to require a Collector of Troops there, I hope they may be used in some such Way as to check the temporary Ravages of the Indians ~ At least affording Westmoreland complete Protection.
     I lately received the Letter of which the enclosed is a Copy, from Gen. Hand; if the Movement takes Place in the time mentd in your Exclelys Letter, or near it, our Apprehensions for Northumberland will be removed; otherwise, I fully understood that his Detachment would be so stationed as to cover Wyoming & that Country, untill an offensive Movement should take Place, which was expected to offer the most effectual Protection.
     No State has suffered so much upon its Frontiers as this has, & if the Depredations continue this Year, the present interiour Parts will be the Frontier; and as we have so great a Portion of the Continental Burthen, both in Men & Service, your Excelly will, I am sure, think with us, that we are entitled to a proportionate Attention. And we think it better to apprize your Excelly now, that if any Dissatisfaction should appear afterwards, the Pennsylvania Troops are drawn off on each side, especially towards New York, which does so little for itself, & the Interval exposed. This is a Sentiment, not drawn from us by any Doubt or Distrust of an equal Protection being extended, as Times and Circumstances will admit, but by the Uneasiness expressed this Spring. Nor have we the least Idea of retaining Troops as stationary, unless the proposed Expedition should be laid aside, or some Accident occasion a Division of the Troops & a resuming of Stations, in which Case we rely fully upon your Justice & Judgment to dispose them so, as Times & Circumstances will admit, that equal Benefit may result to all, & Respect be had to the Abilities & Exertions of each State Exposed. Since writing the above, Gen. McIntosh has called upon me. I could have wished to have had a longer Conversation with him, but his Business calling him out of Town very soon, I only had half an Hour of his Company. I hope he will be able to give your Excelly a satisfactory Acct of the State of Things in that Quarter.
     I am, with the greatest Respect & Regard, Dr Sir, your most Obedt & very Hubl. Sert.

          Letter from Col. Bartrem Galbraith to Pres. Reed, 05 May, 1779

May it Please your Excellencie, In consequence of your late orders sent me, for the Raising of fifty of the Militia men of this County, to be sent to Bedford, I have called upon the Class in rotation of four Battallions, & from the returns made me find only thirteen privates willing to march; have since called in the same manner on four other Battallions, the returns of whom I expect to be furnished with early next week, but am doubtfull of even them furnishing the Number wanted. The Militia of this County have been much harrassed with the sudden marching of Prisoners, furnishing Sundry Guards over Continental Stores in different parts of this County, as well as facing the common enemie, untill they have served the Second tower of duty even untill the Seventh Class; whilest in other Counties (they say) have only served not much more than their first. I would beg leave to give my Simple Opinion of the matter. As there are Publick buildings sufficient (no doubt) erected at this place, were the Stores removed from Lebanon (& if in any other parts of the County) to this place, they might be Guarded by a Small Companie of about fourty men, & the difference of expence of two Companies which have been on duty hitherto to the number of 70 men each, saved; the Guard hereafter to be kept to be of the Invalides (as no doubt there are such) of the Standing Armie. In the first place it would Save a great expence to the Publick, Secondly, it would prevent the militia from differing amongst themselves who should serve their tower of duty upon those guards; added to which, recovering the fines on delinquents with Spirit, as by law directed, our returns on Occations of this kind would not be so trifeling.
     I have been hitherto prevented of recovering fines on delinquents, as I could have wished to have done, by reason of the Officers neglect in making their returns to me, who I must Spurr up to that part of duty, in Some other line, than hitherto made use of.
     Your Excellencie will please to excuse my Freedom in the above, hoping nevertheless, to find that done which may be most prudent in the Matter; & Am with the greatest esteem
     Your Excellencies most Obedt H'le Servt BARTREM GALBRAITH, Lieut for the County of Lancr.

          Circular to the Commissioners of the tax in the several counties, 07 May, 1778
                    Note: This entry was transcribed, and included in the documents dated for the year 1779.

As it is of great importance that the Tax of five shillings in the pound, ordered by Assembly last winter, and one other Tax, ordered by Assembly the 27th March last, should be laid and levied with punctuality and vigor, I am ordered by council to enquire of you what progress has been made in assessing these Taxes in your county; what difficulties (if any) have occurred, and wherein the interposition of Legislature may he necessary to enable the county officers to collect a proper supply for the public exigencies. The Assembly meet hear next week. Your early answer will be convenient.
     The spirit and chearfullness with which levies of money are making in most of the United States, has made Council solicitous that Pennsylvania should not be disparaged in this necessary exertion. I Hope the happy turn that public affairs have taken, will soon lessen one more the embarrassments caused by the presence of the enemy in the State; and am Sirs, Your very humble servant, George Bryan, V.P.

          Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 12 May, 1779

A certificate of an Election of Justices of the Peace for Barre Township, in the county of Bedford, being read; & it appearing upon the face of it that there was some controversy about it, Ordered, That the Secretary do write to the Hon'ble Tho's Uries, Esq'r, & enquire into the circumstances of the Election, & report to Council as soon as may be.

          Letter from President Reed to the Board of War, 15 May, 1779

Gent., Inclosed we send you a copy of a Letter forwarded to us by the Lieutenant of Westmoreland County with the Information that in Pursuance thereof two Companies of 60 Men each are nearly completed & to serve for 6 months, with a Request that the Appointments of the Officers may be confirmed & the Men put under the same Footing as other temporary Troops are. We have delayed any Answer because we were not acquainted with Genl McIntosh's powers. But as the Frontiers are in a most deplorable Condition & we find it very difficult to give them effectual Assistance by Militia, we have concluded to support & countenance the Measure. And we are induced thereto more strongly as his Excelle Gen. Washington has made a Requisition of 600 Militia to cooperate with the troops on the proposed Expedition. We find it impracticable to comply with this Demand in any Season & the Period of 2 months being too short for real service have encouraged these temporary Inlistments as being more permanent & producing better Troops. We find that including the 5 Companies already ordered by Congress, there will be about 700 Men raised on this Plan in Westmoreland & Northumberland & probably Bedford may follow the Example, if so they will make up 800 at least.
     We also forward to you an Extract of a Letter upon a Subject on which we formerly addressed you & request you will take into consideration whether the Mode suggested by Persons well acquainted with the Circumstances of this County may not be pursued so as to discharge their Militia. It seems to be a general Expectation that the Dragoons at Lancaster might serve the occasional Purpose of Guards & that in so doing they would be more usefully employed than our late Advices from thence inform us they have been.
     Your favour of yesterday has been duly received & as we fully concur with you in the Propriety & Necessity of Economy in all publick Expenditures, shall do every Thing in our Power to promote & encourage it. The firing of Morning & Evening Guns was not by our Directions & we shall order it to be omitted. We suppose the Militia followed the Example of the Troops they relieved. It is necessary that inward bound Vessels should come to at the Fort on many Accounts, but if firing is necessary on such Occasions we think a 4 pounder would be sufficient & the Officer commanding there has applied for one because he thought it might answer all his Purposes. From the Information received a Week ago the Officers of Proctors Regt & the Militia were disputing about the Stores, the latter wanted to have a Receipt signed on Time & upon Trust which the other refused without actual Delivery & we have Reason to believe that upon inquiry it will appear that the Waste if any was made while the Continental Regl was there this inquiry we would wish to be had immediately & have therefore wrote to Capt. McCullogh & when he comes to Town shall send him to you. Assuring you that on all Occasions we shall cheerfully cooperate with you in detecting & punishing any Abuses & Mismanagement from whatever Quarters they may proceed.
     I am Gent. Your most Obed. Hhle. Serv. JOS. REED.

          Letter from General James Potter to President Joseph Reed, 19 May, 1779

I Received a letter from col. Hunter with your compliments and two papers. He Informs me that a great number of the Inhabitants of that part of the county have left the County since the last stroake the savedges gave us, and many more are agoing. I have Just Heard that they have dun great dammage in Westmoreland County, and last week there was some Indians seen at or near Franks town. I think they are allways on some part of our frontier. In my letter of the third Instant, I Informed you of Capt. Corbey's coming to this place, he left the last sabath, with ten of his Hors, leving his Lieutn and seven hors. He is gone to Buffler Valley; in a few days I expect the Lieut, to go off after him. Then we will have left us in this Valley one Lieut. and 15 men, in three forts, as a guard, and on the fourth of June there time will he expired, then, it is more than probable, we, in this Valley, will have to fley untill the armey goes out, if there is not some Militia ordered us. I can't help being surprised that there has been no Militia sent to that part of Bedford county that Joynes us; neither to Franks town, nor Standing stone, except that small company of Buchanan's Battalion, that would not go to Fort Roberdeau. I am Informed that the people about Franks town are fleying from there Habitations. That small company of 30 men has encurredged the people of standing stoan Valley to stand as yet, altho' it is too few men for that place.
     Sir, I would not be understood as dictating to you, but I think the Back parts of cumberland should be ordered to guard there one frontier, and the people would do it much freer than march to a distance, leaving there famleys in daneger. It may be said that Cumberland County has no frontier, I acknowledge it, if County lines is ment for a guard, but if inhabitance is ment they may be said to be fruntier settlers, for there is no Inhabitance Northerly of the hack parts of them but Penn's Valley and standing stoan Valley, and they are in forts, and if not assisted with Guards will be obliged to leve them; for my one part I am sorry I have not mov'd off one year ago.
     I am well convinced that you do every thing in your power for the back Inhabitance. It is imposable for you to know the situation of every part of the country, and if you did it is Imposable to defend against such an Enemy.
     With the greatest Esteem, Your Excellencey's most obed't Humble Servant, Jas. Potter.
     P.S. This Valley is at too great a distance from sunsberey to be supleyed with the standing Armey, and they have enuff to do nearer the town.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 19 May, 1779

A return of an Election of Justices of the Peace for the Township of Barree, in the county of Bedford, being now laid before the Board & considered,
     Resolved, That by the Act of Assembly passed the 15th Feb'ry, 1777, each Township in cumberland, Bedford, Northumberland & Westmoreland, is restricted to one Justice of the Peace, & Robt. Smith, Esq'r, having been commissioned as a Justice of the Peace for the said Township of Barree, it is not within the power of this Board to commissioned another. If the Township is so large that one Justice will be inconvenient, application should be made to the Justices of the Peace at the county court to divide the Township, which being done, an election may be held for the Township so divided, and a Justice of the Peace duly commissioned.

          Letter from General Potter to President Reed, 19 May, 1779

Dr Sir, I Received a letter from Col. Hunter with your Compliments and two papers. He Informs me that a great number of the Inhabitants of that part of the County have left the County since the last stroake the savedges gave us, and many more are agoing. I have Just Heard that they have dun great dammage in Westmoreland County, and last week there was some Indians seen at or near Franks town. I think they are allways on some part of our frontier. In my letter of the third Instant I Informed you of Capt. Corbey's coming to this place, he left this last sabath, with ten of his Hors, leving his Lieutn and seven hors. He is gone to Buffler Valley; in a few days I expect the Lieut, to go off after him. Then we will have left us in this Valley one Lieut, and 15 men, in three forts, as a guard, and on the fourth of June there time will be expired, then, it is more than probable, we, in this Valley, will have to fley untill the armey goes out, if there is not some Militia ordered us. I can't help being surprised that there has been no Militia sent to that part of Bedford County that Joynes us; neither to Franks town, nor Standing stone, except that small company of Buchanan's Battalion, that would not go to Fort Roberdeau. I am Informed that the people about Franks town are fleying from there Habitations. That small company of 30 men has encurredged the people of standing stoan Valley to stand as yet, altho' it is too few men for that place.
     Sir, I would not be understood as dictating to you, but I think the Back parts of Cumberland should be ordered to guard there one frontier, and the people would do it much freer than march to a distance, leaving there famleys in daneger. It may be said that Cumberland County has no frontier, I acknowledge it, if County lines is ment for a guard, but if inhabitance is ment they may be said to be fruntier settlers, for there is no Inhabitance Northerly of the back parts of them but Penn's Valley and standing stoan Valley, and they are in forts, and if not assisted with Guards will be obliged to leve them; for my one part I am sorry I have not mov'd off one year ago.
     I am well Convinced that you do every thing in your power for the back Inhabitauce. It is imposable for you to know the situation of every part of the Country, and if you did it is Imposoble to defend against such an Enemy.
     I am, Dear Sir, With the greatest Esteem, Your Excellencey's most obed't Humble Servant, JAS. POTTER.
     P. S. This Valley is at too great a distance from sunsberey to be supleyed with the standing Armey, and they have enuff to do nearer the town. J. P.

          Letter from Pres. Reed to the Board of War, 20 May, 1779

Gentlemen, Your favour of this Day has been laid before the Council, and with Respect to the Escort of the Stores from the Susquehanna we beg Leave to observe that Genl Sullivan must have misapprehended the Disposition of our Troops. We sometime ago ordered 250 Militia to march to the Relief of the Frontiers of Westmoreland & Bedford ~ of these a Part only has proceeded, Difficulties having arisen with Regard to the Residue, which we are now endeavouring to obviate; but it is not practicable for us to alter their Destination without giving just & general Discontent to the distressed People in those Parts. We presume he must mean the 5 Companies of Rangers, but these are not compleated or in any Respect so organized & provided as to march on immediate Duty besides they are scattered that it would be a Work of much Time, Difficulty & Expence to collect them for this Purpose. A Member of our Board, who has lately been at Sunbury, & is perfectly acquainted with the Circumstances of that Country, is of Opinion that the Stores may go in perfect Safety from the Enemy as far as Sunbury, where Genl Hand is posted, as Genl Washington informs us, for the purpose of forwarding Stores. We would also beg Leave to inform you that under the Qr Master's Orders 7 Companies of Men have been raised on the great Pay of 120 Doll. [Per] month, 1 Ration [Per] Day, & a Suit of Cloaths ~ this liberal Allowance has in a Manner destroyed all ordinary recruiting in that County; they are to be employed as Battoemen, but being regularly enlisted & arranged in Companies, we should hope that with proper Caution to the Officers they might take Charge of these Stores & proceed to Sunbury. But as the Terms of Law cannot be complied with, & the State of the Country in point of Tillage requires the utmost Attention, we do not think it will be practicable to procure Militia in any season for the Business. We find the keeping the Militia at Lebanon & Lancaster so long has had unhappy Effects on the minds of the People, & has produced several bad Consequences in that Service.
     With Respect to the Waggons we assure you this is the first Intimation we have had that any were wanted; we shall allways give every Aid & Support in our Power ~ but you must be sensible that when Laws are provided to regulate any species of publick Duty that the Terms cannot be dispensed with. When the Qr Master last Week made a regular Application to us in less than half an Hour he had the necessary Orders from us; & a similar Attention will be paid in future, allways presuming that as this Service is very burthensome, & especially at this Season of the Year that the Department will make its utmost Exertions before it calls for collateral Aid. We are informed that there are Numbers of Waggons at Lebanon, Pottsgrove, Estherton, & some at other Places, which were lately unemployed. We do not know the Arrangement of the Department, & therefore do not mention this as importing any Blame on any Person or Officer; they may be removed for some special Service, but while they are unemployed the People will think it hard to be forced from their Farms.
     As to the Forage when we consider the Consumption of it in many Instances, & the great Allowances made to the Troops by some Dy Qr Masters, we cannot be surprized at the Failure. If our Information is sent from Lancaster, a few such Regiments of Horse would exhaust the Country. A stricter Economy is indispensible to reconcile the People to necessary Expenditures.
     I am Gent. Your Obed. Hbl. Ser.
     P. S. Our Officers at the Fort on an oeconomical Principle have requested the Loan of a 4 pounder which we beg you to indulge them with untill ours come from Lancaster ~ to be delivered to Capt. McGinley.

          Letter from Pres. Reed to Col. Archibald Lochry, 21 May, 1779

Sir, Your favour of the 1st Inst. would have been answered immediately if the Express had not on delivering it withdrawn himself so that we have never been able to discover him since. His Anxiety to receive a Sum of Money for his Services the Inst. of his Arrival & without any Sort of Acct having been check'd ~ tho he was at the same Time told that he would be considered before he left Town may probably have disgusted him, delayed your Letters and the Money & put us to the Expence of procuring a special Messenger. It is a constant Practice for those who employ these People to agree with them for their Services & we would recommend it to you in future least the same Accident may happen again, as we cannot judge sufficiently of the Value of their Services. I now proceed to answer your Favour particularly.
     With Respect to the Inhabitants being put under Pay & Rations by a Vote of the County we confess we do not perfectly understand it nor who is to provide them. It is hardly to be expected that the Continental Commissary will victual the County out of the publick Stores & we have no such Authority nor the Means of executing it. We therefore suppose it can only mean such as are called out into actual Service in the Militia. These doubtless will be intitled but we see no Possibility of extendg it farther as every County may in like Manner order itself under Pay & Rations when the Calamities of the County are great we cannot therefore till we understand it more perfectly say anything farther on this Point.
     It has been no small Mortification & Disappointt to us that netwithstandg we gave all the proper Orders & made the necessary Provision for the Militia of Cumberland York & Lancaster amounting to 200 Men to march to Bedford & Westmoreland to relieve the People there while they put in their Spring Crops, such has been the Aversion of the People to the Service & such Delays have been effected as afford a melancholy Proof of the Decline of publick Spirit & even of Attention to the Duties of Humanity. An unhappy Innovation of the Militia Law in York County sometime ago has degenerated into a Disregard of it in the present Instance & must end in a total Subversion of it in that County if the other Parts of the State do not exert themselves to enforce a like Submission to the Laws there as elsewhere. The Lieutenant of the County finding as we suppose his Duty difficult has desired to resign which we have not complied with at present as his temporizing on former occasions has greatly contributed to bringing Things into their present State. Be assured that nothing has been omitted by us on the Occasion ~ as finding the Militia of the lower Counties in such a Temper we wrote to Genl Washington to entreat him to spare a few Men from Fort Pitt ~ I also have wrote to the Purpose to Col. Broadhead the commanding Officer there requesting him to give all the Assistance possible. The General has signified to us his great Concern for your Situation but seems to think the Weakness of the Garrison at Fort Pitt will prevent any Detachments from that Post ~ Col. Broadhead has given us assurance of his Disposition to do every Thing in his Power consistent with his Orders.
     In this View of Things your raising the Two Companies is quite satisfactory to us & we shall be glad to hear they are fully compleat. As they appear to have originated from Genl McIntosh's Letter we presented it to the Board of War with a View to obtain a Confirmation from them & Commissions in which Case the Charge will fall upon the United States whereas otherwise it will be a particular Charge. We have not yet had the Answer but as soon as we receive it shall endeavour to forward up the Commissions. In the mean Time we have by this Oppy sent ---- Dollars a part of which if necessary is to be applied to the raising Capt. Irwines Company of Rangers. We would wish you allways to keep in Mind that whenever Congress has adopted a Measure of this kind it is our Interest to pursue that reserving our own Strength to supply Deficiencies. We shall therefore be glad to be assured that the raising the 5 Companies of Rangers agreed to by Congress is considered as the first Service to be performed. When that is completed the next Attention will be to these Companies so as to have them in the best possible Order, but if they are thus raised & provided at publick Expence either of the Continent or State it will follow that should the publick Service require it they must co-operate in any Expedition or offensive Measure for the Security of the Frontiers & not confine themselves merely to the Stationary Defence of a single County. You will therefore be particular in the Expenditure of the Money keeping a proper Account of its Application & applying your Force in the first Place to complete Irwines Company. Should it happen that any Accident should befal him or any of his Officers decline the Service we authorize you to appoint others & shall commission them accordingly. ~ We do not see the Necessity of a Major for the two Companies, & tho we doubt not the Gentlemans Merit it is so unusual that it is liable to the Construction of making an Office for a Man & not providing Men for Offices. We do not know what is meant by the Remainder of the Quota of Arms from Council as we have not distributed any Arms to any of the Counties. ~ We are at a Loss also to conceive how the publick Arms should have fallen into the Enemy's Hands for tho the County may have suffered temporary Incursions the Enemy could never have had such a Possession as to destroy any Quantity of Arms. We should be glad of farther Information & will do every Thing in our Power to give the necessary Relief in this as well as other Articles. But we would wish you & the other Gentleman to bear in Mind that Calamity & Distress is not confined to the Frontiers we have a powerful Force on the Sea Coast occasionally falling upon different Parts of it & committing all Manner of Ravages ~ There is a great Scarcity of Bread & almost a total Cessation of foreign Trade, the Money has also depreciated to an astonishing Degree which added to the real Scarcity of these Articles we formerly had in Plenty puts it out of our Power to make that Provision for you or ourselves which was formerly to be done. If therefore in any Respect we fall short of your Expectations be assured it is not because we want the Will but the Power to do every thing that is reasonable as nothing could give us greater Pleasure than to see Safety Peace & Plenty once more restored to this Country.
     I am Sir Your Obed. & very Hble Servt.

          Letter from President Joseph Reed to Thomas Scott, 22 May, 1779

Your Favours of the 9th & of the 26th April are both before me, & would have been sooner answered but for Want of Oppy, the Person who brought them having disappeared ever since. You may he assured that we sincerely sympathize with you in the distressing State of your Affairs, & shall cheerfully give you all the Aid & Assistance in our Power. It has been very mortifying to us to see so visible a Decline of the publick Spirit & Animation which distinguished the State formerly. And tho' some may ascribe it to a Dislike of the Government & other local circumstances, I think it may very naturally be accounted for from those Principles which operate on human Nature in other cases; the Mind long employed on one Subject grows weary, & when calamity & Distress is added for any considerable Time, it naturally seeks for Ease & Relief. Our true Wisdom in such cases is not to strain Things too far, but take what we can get, least the Bow too long bent instead of retaining its Elasticity should break. In order to give the Frontiers some Relief, & at the same Time avoid pressing too hard upon the interior Counties, we ordered out 250 Militia last April to march immediately to Bedford & Westmoreland, but even this, either from real Inability, which can hardly be supposed, or from real Aversion to the Service, has been only in part complied with. It is mortifying in two Respects, first, As it shews a Want of Attention to our suffering Friends on the Frontiers, & secondly, as it discovers a Weakness in the Government. It would have a very happy Effect if the Gentlemen of the back Counties, as Times & Circumstances admit, would signify to them their Sense of being thus left, when Authority in its proper course had been used. conviction of Error arising from Reason & Judgment is much more forcible among a free & sensible People than any strained or violent Exertions of Power, even tho' they should effect a particular Purpose. We have wrote to Mr Lochry, approving of the Measure of raising the two companies referred to also in your Letter, but as Genl. Mcintish's Letter lays a very reasonable Foundation to put the Expense on Congress, we have been endeavoring to procure some Confirmation, or at least such a Reference to his Powers as may enable us to transfer the Expence, which will be heavy, from this State individually. This not being yet done, we would wish the first Exertions may be made to fill capt. Irwin's company, which is fixed on continental Establishment, & then to organize the others so as to make them most effectual. But we would wish to impress you & Col. Lochry fully with the Idea that the Officers & Men should understand themselves bound to co-operate in any Measure for the Defence & Security of the Frontiers generally, & not as we fear is too much the Case suppose themselves confined into a particular county; this is not only necessary for the Purpose of getting them paid in continental Service, but is reasonable whether they are provided by the State or the continent, for tho' upon this Occasion the Necessity of the case has induced us to adopt the Measure, yet you will easily see that consequences may flow from this Mode of raising Troops c incurring publick Expence, that common Prudence would direct us to make it as safe & palatable as possible. With Respect to the third Company we would wish to see capt. Irwin's first completed, as we feel anxious to have those companies fairly on foot. Upon the whole, you may rely upon every Exertion in our Power, & when we fail you must impute it to a Want of Power, not of Inclination.
     The Gentlemen of the council present, vix, the Vice Presid., Mr. Mackey, col. Smith, & col. Orndt, present you their Respects, &we hope as soon as your private Affairs will permit you will take your Place among us.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 29 May, 1779

An Order was drawn on the Treasurer in favor of Thomas Smith, Esq'r, (of Bedford), for the Sum of Fourteen Thousand Dollars of which sum he is to deliver to capt. cluggage the sum of Six Thousand Dollars, to be applied to the raising his company of Rangers; And he is to deliver to John Carson, at Carlisle, the Sum of Eight Thousand Dollars, to be applied in purchasing of Arms for the several companies of Rangers.
     A return of an Election of Officers in capt. Rhoads' company, in the first Battalion of the County of Bedford. was read, by which it appears that the following Gentlemen were Chosen, Viz: James Hendricks, first Lieutenant; Jacob Walker, second Lieutenant; & John Bowman, Ensign.
     Ordered, That commissions be accordingly issued.
     On consideration. Ordered, That col. John Piper, Lieu. of the county of Bedford, or the Sub-Lieutenant of the said county, be authorized to call out the Militia of the said county for their common defence, in case of actual invasion of the Country by the sudden incursion of the common enemy.

           Petition from William Holliday and three others to the Supreme Executive Council, 29 May, 1779

The Indians being now in the county the frontier Inhabitants being Generally fled, leaves the few that Remains in such a distres'd Condition that Pen can hardly Describe, nor your Honors can only have a faint Idea of, nor can it be Conceiv'd properly by any but such as are the subjects thereof, But while we suffer in the part of the County that is most frontier, the Inhabitants of the interior part of this County live at ease and safety.
     And we humbly conceive that by some immediate Instruction from Council, to call them that are less Exposed to our Relief we shall be able under God to Repulse our Enemies and put it in the power of the distressed Inhabitants t reap the fruits of their Industry. Therefore we humbly pray you would grant us such Relief in the premises as you in your wisdom see Meet. And your Petitioners shall pray &c. James Martin, S.L.t.
     N. B. There is a Quantity of Lead at the Mines in this county, Council may procure for the use of said county which will save Carriage & supply our wants with that Article which we cannot exist without at this Place, & our Flints is altogether Expended therefore we beg Council would furnish us with those necessaries as they in their Wisdom sees cause. William Holliday, P.M. Thomas coulter, Sheriff, Richard J. Delapt, Capt., Sam Davidson. P. S. Please to suply us with powder to answer Lead.

           Letter from Pres. Reed to Colonel Martin, 29 May, 1779

Sir, Your Favour by Col. Smith is duly received, & we sincerely sympathize with you in the distressing State of your Affairs. We should be very unhappy if we could charge ourselves with omitting any Thing in our Power for your Relief. But as early as February last the President went to Camp to concoct Measures with Gen. Washington for your Defence, & on the 30th March Orders were issued to the Counties of York, Cumberland, & Lancaster, to detach 250 Militia for the Support of Bedford & Westmorland. It was with great Concern we found their Orders so seasonably issued, and not as seasonably complied with. The first Difficulty occurred in York County, where it gradually increased, & ended at last in Neglect of the Order. Lancaster was likely to have complied fully, but finding York County had shrunk back, followed the Example. We greatly regret their Failures of publick Duty, for which the Injury to the Corps, & the great Distress for laboring Hands, & Fear of Famine, are assigned as Reasons, how just & sufficient we do not say, but are sorry to find you are likely to suffer so much by it. We have communicated the Orders & the Answers we have received to Col. Smith, who will be able to give you a more full Account. We have now done every Thing you have requested of us; inclosed is an Order from Gen. Roberdeau for 500lb Lead; 1000 Flints will go up to Carlisle by a Waggon, Mr. Smith has pointed out to us, & inclosed you have an Authority to call out such a Number of Militia as may be necessary for Defence, on an Emergency. We wish you to believe that we are fully determined to give you all the Relief & Assistance possible, & tho' distant from us, we shall pay an unremitted Attention to any Thing which concerns the Frontiers.
     I am Sir, with due Regard, your obed. h'ble ser P. S. Mr. Smith carries up the Commissions for your Officers of Militia.

           Letter from Col. Brodhead to Pres. Reed, 05 June, 1779

Dear Sir, I am honored with your Letters of the 30th of last Month & the 22nd (?) of this instant. General McIntosh has ever been somewhat unfortunate in his representations & ideas of matters in this Department and I suppose you have already been informed that the greatest part of the garrison at that post, Fort Laurens were oblidged to be sent in or perish about the 16th of last month. Major Varnum with only 25 privates kept it untill the 26th and lived on Herbs Salt & Cowhides untill I sent him a supply to last a garrison 75 rank & file to the 19th instant and in doing this I was oblidged to rob the other Garrisons of every pound of salt provisions, at a time too when I had no fresh meat to subsist them, on. As to the propriety or use of maintaining that post I shall transcribe a voluntary opinion, I gave his Excellency the Commander in Chief on that point, Vizt., The throwing in of supplies to Fort Laurens is always attended with great Expence and a large Escort is required to Guard the provisions which are necessary to subsist a Garrison at that distance in the Enemies Country, without the Benefit of water Carriage, and the Frontier must in the meantime be uncovered & the Countrymen called out from their Farms, Should live Cattle be sent to that post the enemy may either drive them off for their future Consumption or destroy them when they please to do it, & consequently the Garrison must suffer. Besides it is an easy matter for the Enemy to come against it with a couple of pieces of artillery and a number of Savages Black & White by way of Kyahaga & make themselves masters of it before the siege can be raised. I might have added that the scalping parties do now hold up their Scalps & give the Halluh in sight of the Garrison but I am now at liberty to evacuate if I find I cannot support it. Genl McIntosh must have influenced his Excell'y into a favourable opinion of the use of that post as well as Fort McIntosh. Or the General must have reasons that I am a stranger to, however I shall establish a post at Kittanning in a few days which from the nature of that Country will be of great security to the Inhabitants, because there are but few passes I sincerely wish I had been permitted to co-operate with the Body moving up the Susquehanna because I think it would have answered a better purpose than a single body will, but the event must determine the propriety of the measure. You may depend on my close attention to the protection of the Settlements, but I have told his Excellency the Commander in chief that I can more effectually protect them with one thousand men acting offensively than with three times that number on a defensive plan, and I have received no answer to induce me to alter my opinion. I have lately wrote a very angry Letter to the Lieuts of Westmoreland County & desired him to show it to some of his principal. officers, this is on account of a backwardness in them to give any assistance in what they are required to do by the Command'g officers of this Departmt but I cannot avoid taking all possible care of them. And I beg you will write to them and inculcate a Spirit of subordination, which is much wanting. I have the pleasure to inform you that I have now a party out to take a Scalp or a prisoner, and another party is preparing for a Tour. I believe I could with the assistance of some Indian Goods Wampum & trinkets, engage the Delawares to pull off some of them under the Mingoes Scalps, but it will be difficult to do it with words only. I would readily agree to a premium for Indian Scalps but I should not chuse to offer a reward for the Scalps of the British untill I get some distance into the Indian Country, so as to prevent a perversion of the real design of Government. You may rest assured that every officer & soldier in my Regt entertain the highest gratitude to the State for the exertions of the legislature, and I hear of no late objections to the Government, but apprehend it is looked up to with proper respect. Col. Bayard has informed me that an ample supply is on the road & it is expected here in a few days, but I should have been happy to have been acquainted with the intended proportions to Officers & Men & under what regulations it should be issued & by whom, but I take it for granted that is left to me, since nothing has been said. I have no doubt of receiving a proportion of every necessary for my regt in time & I assure you I wish not to be supplied to the injury of the other Regts but mine must be confest to be one of the best of the line, and I trust that as soon as I have latitude provided, it is not too late, their action as it has heretofore done will claim your esteem, but in this desultory kind of action discipline will necessarily be relaxed for whiqh I am heartily sorry, yet dare not complain.
     Congress has furnished me with a considerable sum of Money to recruit my regt & I must wait with patience to receive tho State Bounty. As to the unhappy dispute between our State & Virginia, I conceive not a word will be said untill the Boundaries are fixed, both sides of the question. I despise unjust Claims but this is not the time for a Litigation. It is with pleasure I hear that the ill timed disputes in our State & I hope more Extensive ones (except the inquiry into a rascal Deans Conduct) have subsided. I hope to hear from you soon again, but I had almost forgot that I have another of your favors to answer, and I beg leave to assure you that I begin to fear we carry our defensive plan too far, this was prudent at first, but I conceive we are now in a Condition to reduce the Enemy & prevent their intended irruptions. This Country cannot be conquered and I am surprized that such rascals as Tories have now an existance amongst us, perhaps this may be owing to the pedling disposition of some of that Body who should be Honorable & whose Character ought to be sacred. I have many Garrisons my force does not exceed 800 effectives, but if I was at liberty I could with these compell the Savages to look to their Families. I beg you will not be too much Concerned about Westmoreland & Bedford Counties, I will take care of them, but they must be subordinate & assist in their own salvation and leave me to judge for them & not them for me.
     I have very little concern about the articles of which I sent my Son a list, nor do I wish to have them considering the present scarcity for I am assured you would indulge me as soon as another officer of my rank & I want no more.
     There is nothing I so much dread as a dishonorable peace, for Heavens sake let every good Man hold up his Hands against it. We have never suffered half I expected we should, and I am willing to suffer much more for the glorious cause for which I have & wish to bleed.
     It gives me exquisite pain to find you complain because I know your determination. I wish Congress had sunk double the sum they have ordered, People think nothing of the money & would part with it freely.
     I doubt the Enemies having gained an advantage over Gen. Lincoln unless they were in much greater Force. I have the Honor to be intimately acquainted with him & believe him to be an excellent Officer.
     I have taken the liberty to inclose Copies of several Letters containing interesting Intelligence, and I have now near 500 good men in readiness to oppose Mr. Butler should the intelligence I have received be authentic.
     I am greatly oblidged for the Honor you have repeatedly done my Son.
     I cannot conclude this scrawl without first earnestly intreating you to endeavour to convince the Inhabitants of Westmoreland of their mistake in refusing to obey the Commanding officers orders & relating a moving circumstance. How a part of my Regt was circumstanced at Fort Laurens, I have already mentioned, under these Circumstances as Westmoreland County had twice refused or neglected to send out men under Gen. McIntosh, I conceived they would readily send out a few Horses for the relief of their Countrymen & accordingly demanded fifty Horses from that County. But my men might have perished for them, not a Horse did they furnish, and had I not suspected them from their former Conduct, and ordered some of the States Horses my officers & soldiers must have perished, which they would have done before they would evacuate without orders. The difficulty of Governing this Department without resources is inconceivable but I am blest with a great stock of patience. I should have done myself the Honor to have answered Col. Jno Bayards Letter by this Express but I hope he will pardon me, I know the generous Connexion between you & whilst that lasts I beg a Letter to one may be received as a letter to both.
     With every mark of the most sincere Regard & Esteem, I have the Honor to be your most obedt & H'ble Servt, DANIEL BRODHEAD.
     I have begged Colo Stephen to write to Colo John Bayard.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 10 June, 1779

A Return of Justices Elect, chosen for the Township of colerain, in the county of Bedford, being read, it appears that Abraham Milley and John Cisney were Elected; and
     On consideration, Ordered, That Abraham Milley be appointed and Commissioned to be a Justice of the Peace for the county of Bedford.

           Letter from Col. Brodhead to Pres. Reed, 24 June, 1779

Dear Sir, About a fortnight ago, three Men which I had sent to reconoitre the Seneca Country, returned from Venango, being chaced by a number of Warriors who were coming down the River in Canoes; they continued the pursuit untill they came to this side Kittanning, and the White Men narrowly escaped. A few Days after they returned, Captain Brady, with twenty white Men and a young Delaware Chief, all well painted, set out towards the Seneca Country, and the Indian warriors proceeded towards the Settlements. They killed a Soldier between Forts Crawford & Hand, & proceeded to Saweckly Settlement, where they killed a Woman & her four Children, & took two Children prisoners. Captn Brady fell in with seven Indians of this party about 15 Miles above Kittanning, where the Indians had chosen an advantageous situation for their Camp. He, however, surrounded them, and attacked at the break of Day. The Indian Captain, a notorious Warrior of the Muncy Nation, was killed on the spot, and several more mortally wounded, but the woods were remarkably thick, and the party could not pursue the villains tracks, after they had stopped their wounds, which they always do as soon as possible after receiving them. Captain Brady, however, retook six horses, the two prisoners, the Scalps & all their plunder, and took all the Indians Guns, Tomahawks, Match Coats, Mocksins, in fine every thing they had except their Breech Clouts. Capt'n Brady has great Merit, but none has more distinguished Merit in this enterprize than the young Delaware Chief, whose name is Nanowland (or George Wilson.) Before Capt'n Brady returned, Lieutt Hardin set out with a party of eleven choice Men, and I am certain he will not return without Scalps or prisoners from the Seneca Country.
     Lieutt Coll Bayard, with 120 Rank & file, is now employed in Erecting a Stockade Fort at Kittanning, which will effectually secure the Frontiers of Westmoreland & Bedford Counties, provided Scouts are employed according to my Directions.
     The Mohickins & Shawnese have sent me a string of White Wampum and a Speech, requesting me to take pity on them and suffer them to enjoy the Blessings of peace. I believe I have frightened them by bringing over to our Interest their chief allies the Hurons, lowas, Chepwas, & Pootiotomies. By the inclosed Letters & Speeches your Kxcellency will discover the change, and if I had but a small quantity of Indian Goods, I would make them Humble the Mingoes & capture many of the English, but unfortunately I am not in possession of a single Article to pay them with.
     I have now a considerable quantity of Provisions, & could make a successful Campaign up the Alleghany, but I am not at Liberty to do it.
     It would give me pleasure to know what reward might safely be offered for Indian Scalps.
     The wicked Waggoners & pack horse drivers have destroyed at least one sixth of our Spirits, &c. In future it had better be cased.
     I have the Honor to be, with the most Sincere regard & Esteem, Your Excellencies most Obedt & most H'ble Servt, DANIEL BRODHEAD.
     His Excell'y Govr Reed.
     P. S. A small present from Congress or from our State to my young Delaware Hero would be properly bestowed. His Excellency the Commander being now at a very great distance from Congress, I shall be much oblidged to you for making them acquainted with the Contents of your Packet.

           Letter from D. Bartrem Galbraith to Pres. Reed, 24 June, 1779

May it Please your Excellency, On the 21st Inst I recd a letter from Colo Greenewalt. who superintends at Lebanon, for a Continuance thereof, as there was no probability of the Stores being removed from that place; & from the mind of Council when I was last in Philada, thro' the expectation of the board of Warr renewing their orders for the express removal of the Stores at that place before this time, wrote him for Answer, that I was not Authorized by Council for the Continuance of a Guard at that post any longer, therefore expected that every endavour should be made use of for their removal ~ this I recd another from Colo Greenewalt to the Same effect, as also one from Colo Flower, Comy Genl of Mil'y Stores, (which I herewith transmit you,) in a Style of Language not very agreeable; however, I have answered him, & the Copy of which is also sent, that you might be furnished with a true State of the matter should any thing on that Subject come in course. In answer to the former, I called on the eighth Class of the Lebanon Militia, (being on the spot) least anything should happen untill your further Pleasure in that matter may be known, which I expect as soon as Convenient.
     On my return from Philadaa, at Lancr by Express I ordered a Subaltern & 18 men to Coxes-town, (from the Lebanon Guards) as a Guard for the Stores there; their time also expired the 20th Inst. I could wish with all my heart, that a Number of men necessary for Guards at these different posts, were provided as standing troops; for under the militia Law it is Impracticable to furnish Guards & do equal justice to the people ~ notwithstanding, Substitutes are not allowed of by a late Suppliment to the Militia Law, there is hardly any other on those Guards; the policy of the near to where Stores are placed, they lay out evry schame possible for performing their tower of duty there, as the can procure a Substitute for that duty much lower than for one to goe into the field. A Number of People amongst themselves say a Militia Law is good & necessary, yet our opinion is the meaning of Militia Laws are, that when our State is invaded our duty is to turn out, but those Guards at no many Various places are oppressive. I should not have ventured to put this in Letters to you even on hearing it, only to Show you the uneasyness & hardship the People look on it to be to them in their Situation as Farmers; perhaps not more than one man with a Woman & five or Six Small Children on a Plantation, if they goe two months, perhaps loose their Croop, on which their family's livelihood depend, or pay one hundred pounds; & say they would not regard it, were it to repel the enemie, but to run those risques to guard a few Stores they look on it hard. I have not as yet been able to send off the men for Bedford, but will call on untill I can raise them.
     I am your Excellency's most obedt Huble. Sert, BARTREM GALBRAITH, Lieut for Lancaster County

           Letter from President Joseph Reed to Captain Thomas Cluggage, 26 June, 1779

Your Letter of the 11th Inst has been duly receiv'd & Mr. Donally is appointed your 2d Lieutenant agreeable to your Desire. When Mr piper & yourself have fixed upon the 1st Lieutenant and made him known to us we shall readily appoint him - We were apprehensive that the Encouragement given to the Boat Service & other inferior Branches of the Susquehanna Expedition would injure the recruiting but as it eventually promotes the Same Object viz, the Safety of the Frontiers we can submit to it with more Chearfullness. Tho we hope that you will be able to recruit near your complement, tho' you may not fully reach it. It would have been very agreeable to us to have been informed of the exact State of the company, & we request you will do it as soon as possible - Mr Carson at Carlisle has undertook the Supply of the Articles promised in the recruiting Instructions & has actually supplied Capt. Irwins Comy We have forwarded some Money to him for this Purpose & shall supply him with more when necessary we would therefore have you apply to him. The favourable Reports received on all Hands from the Westward of the Disposition of the Savages since the capture of Gov. Hamilton give us Hopes that you may be able to co-operate with Gen. Sullivan who is very anxious to have a Body of good Woodsmen. There will not only be an Oppy of acquiring more Honour than their remaining merely defensive, but in such case it would be in our Power to Send you Supplies from this city which the scattered State of the Troops & Difficulty of carriage now in a great Measure prevents.
     We shall forward a Supply of Money by the first safe Oppy and if any one is coming down you will do well to direct him to wait on us for this Purpose.

           Letter from President Reed to Lt. Col. Alex. Brown, 27 June, 1779

Gentlemen, Your Representation of the 26 May has been laid before the Hone Council, and it is a Satisfaction to us to learn that the Non compliance with our Order did not proceed from any other Cause than Necessity. Having been appointed by the good People of this State to administer its Government, we do not consider any Disobedience or Neglect of Authority as an Injury to us in a private Capacity those who appoint us expect our Exertions for the publick Welfare, if they are defeated thro Necessity, Accident or Design we have discharged our Duty & a good Conscience the Consequences must rest with those by whose Means such Exertions failed of their due effect.
     In the present Case your Destination was fixed in Concert with his Excelle Gen. Washington who had given such Orders to a Body of Troops under his Command to support the Frontiers of Northumberland as in his Judgment made it quite unnecessary & even improper to send any Militia into that Quarter. Whereas the Counties of Westmoreland & Bedford not having such a Support it becomes necessary to send them some Assistance but I am sorry to observe that an almost general Disappointmt has taken Place. It is much to be wished that a proper Confidence should allways subsist between those who are called to plan & those who are to execute because in some Cases it being improper to disclose military Designs, they must fail for Want of the necessary Secrecy.
     We could have wished on the present Occasion that the Necessity of the Case & its Circumstances had been made known to us so that we might have made Provision therefor ~ for as the undertaking to judge & determine when our Orders may or may not be obeyed must in a little Time render the Militia entirely useless, we would chose to save ourselves the Trouble of giving out Orders & the Mortification of finding they were not complied with.
     With Respect to countermanding the Call of the 3d Class & exempting you from a Tour of Duty save on your own Frontiers you may be assured that nothing short of the most pungent & unavoidable Necessity will induce us to give any farther Orders on this Subject. If such a unavoidable Necessity should arise our Duty will demand it of us to give the Order & a like Principle would we trust induce you to obey it. General Potter's sentimts have their due Weight with us, but had he been informed of the Principles on which these Orders were given & the Direction of Gen. Washington he would probably have thought differently.
     We are happy to find the Appearances of Danger on the Frontiers had very much subsided we trust it is a happy Prelude to more permanent Security & that you will no more be distressed with these Apprehensions & Difficulties which have attended you for some Time past. With these Wishes & due Regard
     I am Gent. Your Obed. Hbbl. Ser.

           Letter from George Woods to Thomas Urie, 04 July, 1779

I have just upertunity, as fare as Carlisle. to convey you a few lines; last Saturday was a week, a man and his daughter, of the name of Brikinridge, in wood cock valley, was kild & Scalpt by the indians. The action was Don hard by hartsock's Fort. Frenkstown is intirely Evequated. Mr. Holliday lives at the flat Spring, in your Vally; we have all Indeverd, with Piper, what lies in Our power, to rease a fue men to kape Frenkstown Settlement together. but all to no purpose. Mr. Holliday Applied to Colln piper for men to bring off the Stors, but was Obleged to Lave them there. The Indeans after Doing the above mentioned Damages. They Drove off a considerable many horsis. When the Enemy are so fare into Our contery you must know the Situation we are all in; not a single Solger or Militia man appears in this county for Our Defence. I just now here that Colla piper has Got a guard at his hous. On Receiving the late Instructions from Council, Colln Smith, Mr. Martain has indevered to bring out a fue of the Militia from the Townships of Are & Bethul, but his Orders are immediately countermanded by Colln Piper, as I understand. Dear Sir, you know well whate Situation Our county is in respecting the conduct of the Lieutenants, you have often mentioned to me Some of their fealings, & now Our poor Starving contery, when they have Got Something on the Ground for Gethering, Dare not Go out to Save it. Our county Seems to be pointed out for Distruction; every other frontier Settlement has Some Notice taken of them & assistance Sint them; in the name of wonder, if you are a member of council for our county, will you never Get us taken Notice of or Git us a share of Reliefe according to the rest of the Contery. I wish you would Spake your mind as freely in council respecting Some of Our officers as you Do here; 1 think we would be soon in a peter Situation. I am certain you have a Gentleman now at the head of your Board that would not Suffer us to be used in the mannor Did he but Knaw it. Your Soon Robt is Gon is Gon out with capt. Erwin. I understand John Montower has come into Fort pitt & some Indeans with him, I understand he has taken in hand to bring in Simon Guirty. Capt. Bradly latly retook two prisoners, five Scalps & Killd One Indean, he is Gon out again, in Company with Montower & two Indeans, in Order to bring in Girty, which I hope They will perform.

          Letter from General George Washington to the Supreme Executive Council, 05 July, 1779

(This version of General Washington's letter has been transcribed from the Pennsylvania Archives. The version which is reproduced in The Writings Of George Washington, Volume 15, Pages 376-378 differs only slightly. Since more people would have access to the Pennsylvania Archives, it was thought that it would be the appropriate version to transcribe here.)
     I am extremely concerned to find by several letters from General Sullivan that he is like to be disappointed in the independent companies which were to reinforce him from the State of Pensylvania. The consequences of this disappointment will certainly he very injurious. They may be more than injurious. For want of these he will be obliged to reduce his operating force to establish the necessary posts of communication, too low, perhaps, to act with safety and effect, or he must leave his communication and convoys in the most precarious state. I have advised him rather to hazard something in the last respect than in the first, with an assurance that I would again solicit the aid of the State to strengthen the posts in his rear and assist in protecting his convoys. I must entreat in the pressing terms that the council will be pleased, without delay, to take effectual measures to have the number of men originally requested, sent forward. If the independent companies are not ready I beg their place may be supplied by Militia, to he relieved periodically. The Council are fully sensible of the importance of success in the present expedition and of the fatal mischief which would attend a defeat - we should perhaps lose an Army, and our frontiers would be desolated and deluged in Blood. A large reinforcement has been sent from Canada to join the savages. They are collecting their force for a vigorous opposition, and if they are successful their devastations will exceed any thing we have yet experienced. Their means will be increased and their cruelty will be emboldened by success and sharpened by revenge.
     It was not in my power to send a greater continental force. I stretched this string as hard as it would possibly bear, and relied on the further aid of the States more immediately concerned. I hope I shall not be eventually disappointed. I flatter myself the council will think my anxiety on this occasion, natural and will excuse my importunity.
     With very great respect and esteem, I have the honor to be, Gentlemen, Your most obedt Servt, Go. Washington.
     P.S. I shall be much obliged to the Council to communicate what they will have it in their power to do, to General Sulivan that he may take his measures accordingly.

   History Of Bedford, Fulton And Somerset Counties, Pennsylvania /p93
           Extract from the minutes of the County Commissioners, 05 July, 1779

The Members above mentioned (meaning James Martin and Samuel Davidson) are still very desirous of contributing every Thing in their Power towards defraying the common Expenses of the war, but find it impossible for the other Members of the Board to attend at this Time, or for the Township and assistant assessors to do the Duty required of them by the Act of Assembly, as many of the Townships are chiefly evacuated, and the Inhabitants thereof obliged to leave their Habitations on account of the many Ravages & Murders committed by the Savages on the Frontier. They, therefore, are wholly at a loss to know what is best to he done in the very distressed situation of the County at present, unless the Humanity of the House of Assembly will afford them Relief in the Premises.

           Letter from William McAlevy to the Supreme Executive Council, 20 July, 1779

Whereas, About the middle of Aprill Last was a year, there was an Insurection made by a tory party of in the county of Bedford, and Your Petitioner having the Honour to command as Collenel the third Battalion of Bedford county Millitia, Imediately upon notice of their Rout I called as many of the Batt'n together under arms as could conveniently he collected, in order to pursue them, and at frankstown met with a party of Collenal Buchanan's Battalion of Cumberland County Militia that had marched up the Juniata River in order to Joyn us, when I was informed that on their march up s'd river they had come past one of the insurgent's houses, viz: Jacob Haus, and had brought with them four horse * * and a man's Rideing sadle, and intended to secret them till their Return and carry them Back as a private acquesetion for private use, which i looked upon as a piece of Injustice to the Commonwealth, and had the Horses Brought to see if they were fit to Carrey Loads with us, but found they were not. I then, not knowing that there was men apointed in the county for such Cases, nor having any man there to give them in to charge to, I ordered them to be sold at publick vendue, which was accordingly Done for Ready money, and not, at the time, at an undervalue; the men, however, that Brought, being Call'd in haste from home, had not money with them to pay, but said they would pay as soon as they Returned home. There being then Neither time nor paper to take obligations, and the men being looked upon as sponsible, there was nothing further Done, save that the vendue paper was kept, with the Names and sums, which List, as soon as I Returned, and understood that there were men Commissioned for that purpose, I gave to Messrs. Thomas Urie and John Piper, two of them, to collect the money, which they apeared willing to Do, but has since Declined it, and the money is not paid. But I have some time since Recd a Letter from Mr. Robert Galbraith, ordering them to send the creaturs to him, which was not then in my power, as the Horses had Been sold several monthes, and the List Returned to Urie & Piper, which I cannot think he was Ignorant of before he wrote to me. Your petitioner therefore prays that of your wisdom you may be pleased to give such order concerning the above affair as may tend to Discharge me from any further trouble concerning it and may be most conducive to the good and welfare of the State, and your petitioner shal, as in Duty Bound ever pray.
     N. B. - be pleased to send your petitioner an answer to the above petition by Mr. John Harris, member in assembly for cumberland County, or by the first safe opertunity. William McAlevy. The names and sums are as follows:
      Bedford Co'y ... george Hutcheson, to 1 horse          .30 f.0 d.0
      cumberland Co'ye george galbraith, to I mare           22 10 0                          Do ...John montgomery, to 1 sadle          19 0 0                          Do ...Lanty Junkens, one mare          35 0 0                 galbraith, to one mare          67 0 0                     173

           Letter from President Joseph Reed to Lieutenant John Piper, 24 July, 1779

The letter of which the enclosed is an Extract has been laid before this Board, & as this is the first Information we have had of any Late Ravages of the Indians it has given us much concern & Surprise. We trusted the inhabitants of your of your county were fully apprized of the Measures we took for their Relief as early as last March. Either Help must be drawn from the County itself or its Neighbours - if the Militia Laws are supported & rigorously executed there can be no Doubt but a county would find in itself very powerful Resources against Danger & Destruction, but if Officers are harassed by Suits, Replevins issued when the Fines are imposed, & every Step taken to harass & oppose those who are acting to the best of their Judgement & Ability under the Laws of the State, the consequences will undoubtedly be ruinous to the County - nor will their Neighbours be disposed to assist them when they see them wanting to themselves. We hope these Remarks are not applicable to the County of Bedford, and that this Board might show the fullest attention to them we ordd 125 Men, properly officers, to march from York & Lancaster to cover the Inhabitants of Bedford during their Seed Time & Harvest. Why those counties did not obey the Orders will be a proper Subject of Inquiry by the Members of Assembly. We are by no Means satisfied with the Reasons we have heard, but are fully conscious that nothing was omitted by us either in Time or Circumstance to give the desired Relief. To repeat our Order will we apprehend be quite unnecessary as we do not know that greater Regard will be paid to the 2d than the first. We hoped that as long as capt. Cluggages company stayed in the County, & we understand it is yet there, it would have afforded the Inhabitants some Assistance. On the Representation of Mr. Smith, Member of Assembly, that the Townships of Air & Bethel could from their Situation give Assistance to others less exposed, we passed the inclosed Resolution, which was forwarded to Mr. Martin, one of your Sub-Lieutenants, who, we were informed lived at such Distance from you that in an Emergencie there would not be time to send to you, & therefore in such case gave him Authority to act himself. If any other Use has been made of it has been contrary to our Intention, as it is our earnest Wish that all publick Business should be conducted in its proper Line & regular channels. -And we beg you & every other Gentleman acting in publick Authority to be assured that this Board will upon all Occasions support the Officers of Governmt in the faithful Discharge of their Duty agt any Opposition, either be vexatious Suits in Law or of any other kind; as they we trust will endeavor so to act as to afford as little just cause of complaint as possible. if there are any Supplies necessary for your county we desire you will acquaint us, as the Intimation that your county is pointed out for Destruction appears to us to have proceeded rather from Mistake than otherwise.

           Letter from Captain Thomas Cluggage to the Supreme Executive Council, 06 August, 1779

This Morning arived at this post, Bringing With me what men I could collect on the Way. I think from the accounts of my Bruther, that the Number of the Enemy in those parts must be Large. I am sorry that I had not been on the Fruntiers at the time it happened, but on Receiving your Leter Directing me to apply to Mr Carson, in Carlisle, for such Articles as was wanting for my men, it Caused me to be abroad - as Near an ac't as I Can Give is mentioned in his Letter to the Board of War. - I hope you will Excuse me in Writeing Short at this time, as the Express was Waiting when my Bruther's Letter was Wrote,
     I am Your Hbl Srt, Thomas cluggage.
     N. B. This Moment there is Twelve men arived, and with them and what can he Speared from this garrison, I Will march Emadietly to morrison's Cove.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 10 August, 1779

Colonel Piper, Lieutenant of Bedford county, having made a return of officers to be commissioned for the first Battalion of Militia of the said county, vizt:
     Thomas Smith, Colonel; William Tissue and Oliver Drake, Captain; Christy Agency and William Nicholls, First Lieutenants; Gorge Bruner and Henry Abrams, Second Lieutenants; George Shaver and David Standiford, Ensigns.
     In the second Battalion, John Galloway, Captain; and in the Third Battalion, Samuel Thompson, Captain.
     Resolved, That the said commissions do issue.

           Letter from President Joseph Reed to Captain Thomas Cluggage, 20 August, 1779

It is with some concern we find you have not yet made any Return of your Transactions in recruiting your company of Rangers. I desire you would immediately transmit a Return of your company and as we have been informed you have indulged them in going to their own Houses we must inform you that such a Procedure if it be true is very disagreable to us & disreputable to you: & more especially as Gentlemen of Note in the county are complaining to us that their Protection is neglected & the county suffering - Surely there must be something wrong in this Business which you must endeavor to rectify without Delay. Upon the Receipt of this therefore we require you to embody your company & take such Station as col. Piper shall think most for the Interest of the county & the Frontier generally - And we recommend to you to exert yourself to satisfy the just Expectations of the publick and render the Services for which the corps was raised.
     I am Sir, with due Regard Your Obed. Hbble Servt.
     P. S. Mr canon of Carlisle is provided with sundry necessaries for which you are to apply to him.

           Letter from President Joseph Reed to John Carson, 21 August, 1779

Your Favour of the 9th Inst, has been duly received, and we are well pleased with your care in purchasing such Articles as can be procured for the Rangers, You will please to go on in the Business & complete them as far as possible. Blankets cannot be git here, Mr. Thompson has searched the Town thro' without Success, he will give you an Account of what he has procured which is to be delivered into your care & distributed to the Troops in due Proportions.

           Letter from Pres. Reed to the President of Congress, 24 August, 1779

Sir, I have the honor of sending you by Mr Searle, sundry papers received from Colonel Broadhead, and enclosed in his letter herewith.
     I also beg leave to inform Congress, that two of the Companies of Rangers raised last spring, under their orders, are gone with Colonel Broadhead on an expedition against Some Indian Town up the Allegany. The one consists of forty five men, the other fifty three good woodsmen, and eager to revenge the barbarities they have sustained from the savages. One other Company is at Bedford, where thirteen persons were lately murdered. Captain Kemplin, of Northumberland, never was recruited to more than fifteen or twenty, most of whom were killed or captured in the late invasion of that Country by McDonald. The fate of the fifth I have not been able to obtain, but have reason to think it is now in Northumberland. We have been able to provide them with most of the necessaries but blankets. We have most pressing solicitations on this point; and as their disposition & spirit seems likely to produce some general and beneficial service, I shall be very happy to be able to gratify in an article which is really indispensable to soldiers without tents.
     I have the honor to be, with great respect, Sir, Your most obedient & humble servant.

           Letter from John Carson to President Reed, 04 September, 1779

I received your favour of the 21st Ult, by Mr. Thompson. The articles he procured for the rangers are likewise Arrived at this place, Vizt. Knapsacks, hunting shirts shott pouches, powder horns, & Tomahawks.
     I know not the number of each as I have not yet received them from the quarter Master. I had furnish'd the Troops with the greatest part of the forementioned articles before Mr. Thompson left this place to go to Philadelphia; (The Tomahawks Excepted) however they may or part of them he wanted, if they should I shall distribute them to the Troops agreeable to your directions. I shall use all the industry I can to provide Blankets for the men, but despair of meeting with success, as I fear they are not to be had here.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 05 September, 1779

A Letter from Mr. McClean, of York Town, giving an account of the proceedings of a court of Oyer and Terminer at Bedford; also, the proceedings of committees at York Town, and requesting to be excused a farther attendance at Bedford.
     Ordered, That the same be farther considered.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 07 September, 1779

An order was drawn on the Treasurer in favour of the Honourable Thomas Urie, Esquire, for the sum of three hundred and ten pounds and seven shillings, the amount of his pay as a Member of this Board from the seventh day of June last to this day, at three pounds (per) day, anti Mileage of four hundred and eighteen Miles, at one shilling anti six pence (per) Mile.

           Letter from Thomas Smith to the Supreme Executive Council, 15 September, 1779

Colonel Martin one of the Sublieutenants of Bedford county, on his leaving Town lately, sent a few Lines to me, informing me that when the Indians made the late incursions into that country, he thought himself under an indispensible obligation to call out a few of the Militia and Station them in such places as to afford the utmost protection to the few Inhabitants yet remaining in that almost desolated Country, that such a small number could do by ranging along the Frontiers & meeting each other at Stated Times & places and communicate their discoveries to each other. That he was happy to find that this mode gave great encouragement to the People, & he hoped they would be able to relieve them at the expiration of their Tour - but to his great mortification there was not a grain of Powder more than what was delivered to the present Scout which would be soon exhausted & if a Supply was not soon afforded those who were willing to turn out in defence of their helpless neighbors would not have it in their power - the Consequences would most certainly be an evacuation of the whole country - and intreating me to apply to the council for a small Quantity of that on which their preservation so much depends, not doubting but that Council would afford them every assistance in their Power as soon as they could get any Powder - which when he was in Town he believed they wer scarce of.
     Altho' I am convinced that council have done every thing in their Power for our Protection this summer, yet it has been our misfortune not to have had a single Man either for our own defence or escorting Stores to Fort Pitt, except a few of our own tired out Militia, and a few Men of Capt Clugages company, who don't seem to he extended wide enough & only afford protection to one corner, altho Col. Martin & myself by differing in Political sentiments which but too often gives rise to a lasting Personal enmity, are not upon such friendly Terms as I would wish to be on with every Man, yet Justice to his conduct requires me to declare that if it had not been for his patriotic exertions and indefatigable application, there had not by this Time been an Inhabitant in the whole County.
     In compliance therefore with his request, I intreat that Council would furnish the Lieutenant with a small Quantity of Powder as soon as possible - I will do every thing in my Power to have it sent up without delay. Monday. I am gentlemen your very Humble Servt Thomas Smith.
     P. S. I have almost lost the use of my Hand which I pray may be my Excuse for this scrawl.

           Letter from Richard Delapt and others (apparently) to the Supreme Executive Council, 17 September, 1779

This Day arrived here capt. Samuel Paxton, with twenty-one Men, who had been out at Frankstown on a Tour of Militia Duty, by order of colonel James Martin; the capt. reports that during his stay at that Place, which was about sixteen Days, He, with some of his Men, ranged the Woods at least ten Miles around the Fort. And last Week he discovered at the Head of Frankstown Waters in the Allegany Mountain, a Rendezvous Place the Indians have had for some time past; there was erected ten Bark Houses in their Way, each of which would do for three to sleep under, it appeared that three of the said Shades or Houses had been occupied about three or four days before. We mention this as one circumstance of our Fears; We understand that Colonel Broadhead has destroyed the Indian Towns in the Forks of Allegany, and we think it a great thing; but at the same Time we lie exposed here, and from the nature of Indians they look for revenge, and of course we must be the first Victims of their Rage, as we lie nearest and most convenient to them. We are also without Powder to enable us to defend ourselves, even if we had Men, and such Backwardness appears in some of our officers, that we dread the Consequence. We hope your Excellency and the Honourable council will take the Premises into consideration, and send such relief as you may think most proper for the safety of this part of the Commonwealth.
     We are, with due respect, Your Excellency's Humble Serts, Richard Delapt, Thomas Anderson, Michael his X mark Feather, Henry Wertz, Jacob Sayler, John Graham, Jacob Thersh, Thomas Hay, William Eules.

           Letter from Ephraim Blaine to President Reed, 22 September, 1779

Sir, The daily consumption of Flour for the support of our Army is very great, and our Magazines quite exhausted. This will require the greatest exertion in the Commissaries of Purchase to procure that Article, otherwise the Army will undoubtedly suffer for want of Bread ~ The quantity demanded from my district is One hundred & fifty thousand Barrels, (Seventy thousand of which is the quota for this State). To execute this business under the present unhappy Spirit of Extortion and Monopoly which prevails generally with Mankind, will require the Aid of the Executive and Legislative Authority of the respective States ~ I beg your Excellency and Council would please to grant such assistance as your Wisdom may see prudent, to enable me to procure the quantity demanded.
     Annexed your Excellency has the names of my assistants in this State. Should you approve of them please to signify it by line, and such as you disapprove of please to mention, and recommend those whom your Excellency know to be active men and capable to answer the public demands in the Execution of their Offices ~
     For the City & County of Philadelphia Chaloner & White, Bucks County Nicholas Patterson, Chester William Evans, The lower district of Lancaster Matthias Slough, the upper Cornelius Cox. Berks Peter Aston Junr. Northampton Robt Lettis Hooper (resignd) York Town Henry Miller. Cumberland & Bedford James Smith. Northumberland William Maclay.
     They have all taken the Oaths of Office and Allegiance and have been active in the execution of their respective duties.
     I have the honour to be with much Esteem & Regard Your Excellency's most Obedient & most humble Servant EPH. BLAINE, D. D. G

           Letter from Captain Thomas Cluggage to President Joseph Reed, 10 October, 1779

I Recd your Letter some time agoe, Daited Augt 20th, which Surprised me very much that you have not Received my returns of my Progress in Recruiting at Different times before the Date of your Letter, as I have sent Expresses with Different Letters as far down as Carlisle, allowing them to be forwarded by the first opertunity from there. But it's likely the ware miscarried by some means, therefore would be glad to know by what means I am to send you returns - whether by Express or no; if by Express, how the are to be furnished with money to pay their Expences.
     You say you have been informed I have Indulged my men with leting them go to their homes. I acknowledge I have Indulged a few of them, such as had Grain to Reep, (and save it) as it appeared to me to be a loss to the State to let grain be destroyed for want of reaping whare it is so very scarce as it is in this frontier, rendered so from the different Incursions of the enemy. I am very much Surprised to hear that Gentlemen of Note in the County have had reason to complain of me, as I am conscious I have done every thing that could be expected from me towards Protecting the Suffering Frontiers of this County. But Sir, I must inform you that there are Gentlemen in this county that would not be Satisfied with my Conduct Except I would furnish them and their familyes with a gard at their own houses, so that the might follow their Labour without Dangour; however, that is out of my Power; for it woud take at least a regament to afford that Protection to every famaly in the Quarter I am Stationed in, and have grate reason to think it must be some of these Gentlemen that have Loged the Complaint; therefore, in order to Justify my Caracter, would take it as a fovour if you would Let me know the Gentlemen's names by first opertunity.
     My Company has been Revewed, and Past muster, 3 Officers & 43 Rank and file, one of the Latter killed or taken. I have made aplication to Mr carson for the necessaries promised - I have recd Some of them, But no Blankets Except four; the are very necessary at this Season of the year, and Can't be done without; therefore would be glad Mr Carson Could be furnished with them by some means, as I have promised them to the men. Would be Glad to know who I must apply to pay the Doctor's Bills, as I have Been under the necessity of applying to one for some of my Company, and payed him out of my own Pocket.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 25 October, 1779

A return of the General Election for the county of Bedford being now made, the same was read; and it appears that the following Gentlemen were elected, Vizt: Representatives - John Burd and Joseph Powell. Sheriffs - John Cesna and James Anderson. coroners - John Wilt and Abraham Miley. Commissioner - Allen Rose. Assessors - James Little, Samuel Moore, John Todd, Robert Galbraith, Thomas Ferguson, and Jacob Hendershit.
     And a return was also made of a Councellor chosen at the said Election, but the Honourable Mr. Urie, duly Elected and sworn into the Council, not having resigned his seat, the said return cannot be receiv'd.
     Resolved, That John Cesna be appointed and commissioned to be Sheriff of the county of Bedford. John Cesna, Esquire, now offers Robert Brachey, Abraham Miley, and John Wilt, as sureties for the faithfull performance of his office as Sheriff of the county of Bedford. And the same, or any two of them, are approved of by this Board.
     A letter from Captain Cluggage, dated 10th instant.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 25 October, 1779

The Petition of divers Inhabitants of Dunning's Creek, in the county of Bedford, praying redress of some Grievances from the Sub Lieutenant, was read, and referred for further consideration


* A-: American Archives, Series -; JC: Journals of the Continental Congress; CR: Colonial Records; 1: PA Archives, First Series; 2: PA Archives, Second Series; etc; / Volume / Page(s)