Bedford County Documents

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           Letter from Col. Brodhead to Col. Lochry, 02 January, 1780

Dear Sir, I have received your favor of the 29th ultimo.
     The president of the State wrote me that the ranging Companies were raised by order of Congress, but I know of no Power he is vested with to discharge or re-inlist the Men.
     It would give me great Pleasure to see the men re-inlisted, during the War, and provided for as other Continental Troops, as otherwise they can be of but little Service, and if a reinforcement is not had by Spring, it will be out of my power to afford the Frontier that protection which I could wish.
     Mr. John Irwin, is, doubtless, the proper Commissary of issues, but if the Board of War did order a Magazine be established at Hannah's Town, that Honble Board did not think it proper to acquaint me with any orders concerning it, but have probably given orders to the Commy Genl. of Purchases. I don't know what you mean by "slighty and indifferent support," given to your County. I am very certain that your County has received much greater support since I had the Command of this Department than any other frontier County, and the late expedition to which your County contributed a very small force, was evidently calculated for the protection of your County, and in its Effects contributed greatly to the protection of Bedford & Northumberland Counties. But some Gentlemen may find a pleasure in complaint, even under the fullest gratification. If so, let them be indulged.
     Since you apprehend an impropriety in giving orders, agreeable to my request, I shall direct Captain Erwin to send up the Men, and I must request you to send me a Copy of your Instructions from the president of the State. I suppose you are authorized to procure a certified Copy of Captain Erwin's Muster Roll, and I request you will transmit one to me by the first opportunity, or deliver it to Capt Clark, to be forwarded by him. And should Captn Joseph Erwin refuse to send the Men upon the receipt of my Orders, I farther request you to arrest him, and send him here for trial.
     I have just received a very insolent and impertinent Letter from Captain Thomas Campbell, who, I request you will likewise arrest, and send to this place, where a General Court Martial of the line is already ordered, & he may have an immediate trial.
     Whilst the Ranging Companies were under my Command, I took all possible care to have them supplied, but I do not conceive it to be any part of my Duty to provide for troops who are under the immediate Command of any other Gentleman.
     I should be glad to hear from you by the first opportunity, and am with much respect & esteem, your obedt Servt, DANIEL BRODHEAD, Col. Commanding W. D.

           Letter from David Espy to President Joseph Reed, 05 February, 1780

I herewith send you the return of an Election of Justices held for the Township of Bedford. The Inconveniencies that we have been under for some Time past through the want of Justices sufficient to hold Courts can only be known to those who are acquainted with the scattered situation of this County. Two who lived near the Town have removed out of the County, and there is now only one besides myself within fifteen Miles of the Town, and he being Sub-Lieutenant is often abroad. The Consequences is that widows and Orphans often come from a great Distance and are either obliged to return without being able to call a Court, or they must collect the Justices from a great Distance, & I am obliged often to sit as one when it is not altogether proper.
     I am convinced this Inconvenience will be remedied by one of the Gentlemen now returned being commissioned. Mr. Proctor acted as a Justice under the former Government, from the Time the County was erected and gave general satisfaction. He is a Brother to the late Councellor of that Name. The other Gentleman I have not had the Opportunity of being acquainted with, as he is but lately come into the County; but make no doubt but that either of them will do their Duty.
     Above a year ago there was a Return of an Election made from this Town of six (It being the County Town) only two of which to wit. Samuel Davidson and myself were commissioned. The other four were George Funk, Jacob Saylor, James Bratly & Henry Wirtz, the first then did and still would decline accepting of it if he was appointed, because he does not write English well enough. The next upon the Return. Jacob Saylor, is a Man that would do no Dishonor to the Commission. He is a German and universally esteemed by the People, calm, steady, honest & sensible. I had a late Conversation with Col. Piper on the Subject, and had he been down, the Recommendation that he would give him, would satisfy Council that he is a fit Person to be appointed.
     It will be a great Obligation to the Justices who live at a Distance, as well as of great service to those who may have Business at special Courts, that two such Persons as Council shall think Proper, one for the Town & one for the Township should be Commissioned as soon as possible.

           Letter from Thomas Smith to President Joseph Reed, 22 February, 1780

If public conduct misrepresented & intentions misunderstood, were sufficient reasons for one to be silent in all public affairs, I should long ago have declined all share in them, but circumstances often occur when it would be criminal to be silent or neuter; if any misrepresentation of mine can be the means of saving the Life of the meanest citizen, I shall think myself amply paid for more undeserved obloquy than I ever met with.
     My anxiety for the safety of the frontiers, my having been witness to so many scenes of Distress that thousands of families have had to struggle with, for two or three years past, will, I hope, plead my excuse for taking this liberty.
     Your Excellency need not be informed that retaliation is a fundamental Law amongst the Indians, & seems to take place even of self preservation. They have been severely chastized last summer, & the miseries they will undergo this winter in consequence of it, will render them desperate, & they will certainly make their last effort as soon as the season will permit, or at least they will pay us in kind; and the People on the Frontiers have been so much harassed for these several years past, that they can make but a very feeble resistance; many of them fled into the interior Counties, & rented Places, which rendered those who remain the weaker; without speedy assistance they cannot possibly stand it, but must abandon their settlements on the first invasion.
     It would undoubtedly be deemed presumption in me to give my opinion on the mode of defence. I am sensible that I am a very incompetent Judge - five Companies were raised last year for that purpose, but, tho', I believe the officers who were appointed to Command them, did every thing in their Power, yet they did not seem to afford so much protection to the Inhabitants as could have been wished, & this I doubt will generally be the case with temporary Troops; most of the mischief will be done before they can be ready for the Field, & the Expence is certainly more than an equal number of permanent Soldiers. To call out the Militia against Indians is liable to equal inconveniences; not one half are fit for that service, & they are scarcely arrived at the Place where the service is to be performed before their Time is expired, putting out of the Question the expence, & the inconveniencies that we have already experienced to result from calling out Farmers from their Farms.
     I believe that at this Time no Money will procure a sufficient Number of Men for the defence of the Frontiers even for a season; pardon me, therefore, if I suggest that if the Legislature was to offer a bounty in Land to such as would engage during the War for the defence of the frontiers against the Indians, & to be employed in that service only, & its faith Pledged that they should not be called away on any pretence whatever, & a certain portion of Cloathing given them. I think something like this would be more effectual than any other Plan that occurs to me; for there are many young fellows who are complete woodsmen, that are eager to engage against the Indians, if they had any security of such a reward at the end of the war; they are perhaps fitter for that service than veteran Troops, capable to take the Indians in their own way; but they cannot for a considerable Time be brought to like the regular service, nor will they engage without they have the most explicit assurance that they shall be employed only against the Indians.
     On every occasion that I have ever applyed to your Excellency, I have always found you so ready to do every thing in your Power to defend us from our savage foe, that I need not urge you on this occasion; it is sufficient for me to suggest the necessity of speedy exertions. I rest firmly assured that nothing will be left undone for the protection of those who stand so much in need of it. I wish it was in their power to co-operate effectually with the assistance that may be sent to them from the interior parts of the Country; their own exertions must be feeble through want of Provisions. I am really afraid of a famine on the frontiers before harvest; the hard winter has added to the scarcity that was the natural consequence of their being invaded every seed Time and Harvest for years Past.

           Circular of General George Washington, 26 March, 1780

Sir, Your Excellency will have received I presume before this, a Transcript of an act of Congress of the 25th of last month, calling on the several states for specific quantities of provisions, Rum & Forage for the army, and directing the articles of supplies to be collected and deposited at such places in each of the states, as should be judged most convenient by me. In the case of a defensive War like ours, which depends almost wholly on the movements and operations of the Enemy, it is difficult, if not impracticable, to fix on places of deposit for stores, which may not be rendered improper by subsequent events; and all we can do upon such occasions, is, to collect them where it shall appear from a comparative view of circumstances, that they will be probably secure and most likely to facilitate the purposes intended. I have considered the point with respect to the supplies required of your state, and I beg leave to inform your Excellency, that it appears to me, they should be deposited at the following places: Easton, Reading, Lancaster, Esterton, York, Carlisle, Sunbury, Bedford, Ligonier and Philadelphia. All the imported Rum & the Salt, and a thousand tons of Hay, and half the Corn required, to be collected at Philadelphia the remainder of the forage at the other places in proportion to the quantity of Flour to be deposited at them.
     I have the Honor to be, with great respect & esteem, Your Excellency's Most obed't serv't, G. WASHINGTON.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 03 April, 1780

Resolved, That the Quarter Master General of the Army be informed that this Board have appointed the following persons Commissioners of purchase, agreeable to the late Act of Assembly, Vizt: ...Charles Cessna, esq'r, for the County of Bedford.

           List of State purchasers in the different Counties of Pennsylvania... 04 April, 1780

List of State purchasers in the different Counties of Pennsylvania, with the persons to whom, and places at which, they are requested to deliver the hay and grain forage, until the further Orders of his Excellency the Commander-in-chief theron, or some new arrangement shall take place.
      City or State, County purchasers      ...Bedford,
     Places at which forage is to be delivered      Char's Cesna, Es'qr,
     Persons to whom forage is to be delivered.      Colonel John Davis & his assistants.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 07 April, 1780

Instructions were sent to the Commiss'rs of purchase in the City, and the several Counties, to purchase as follows, Vizt:
     ...Charles Cessna, esquire, for the County of Bedford, to purchase twenty-five Tons of hay; two thousand bushels of Corn, or four thousand bushels of Oats; and ---; at the prices aforesaid.

           Letter from George Washington to President Joseph Reed, 12 April, 1780

Since I had the Honor of addressing Your Excelly on the 9th Inst. and of transmitting you at that time a Letter of the 26th Ulto on the subject of the supplies to be furnished by Your State in consequnce of the Act of Congress of the 25th of Feby. I have more maturely considered the point with respect to the places at which they should be deposited, and I beg leave to inform You, it appears to me that they should be collected at the following places and in the proportions set against them respectively.
     ...Bedford 2,400 Barls. Flour, 850 Gals. Rum, 40 Tons Hay, 2,000 Busls. Corn.
     The ultimate places of deposit of the Salt must be governed by the requisition of the Commissary General. I have the Honor etc.

   National Archives Record Group #93, War Department Collection of Revolutionary War Records 17859, Roll 71, #21297
           Inventory of the Military Stores at Fort Roberdeau, 19 April, 1780

An inventory of the Military Stores at Fort Roberdeau: 4 Dubel fortified 4 pounder with traveling Carage; 2 pair of Horse gears; 4 Box of Tubes; 6 Quick maches - Portfirer; 3 pounds Slo mach; 40 Canon Balls; 74 Cannon Cartridg; 40 grape heads; 12 Rouns Fixed Amunition; 52 Duzen of Musket Catridg; 40 Muskets and Rifels.
     At Huntingdon: 1 Dubel Fortified 4 pounder with a Traveling Carage; 4 Ramirs & Spunges; 2 Rifle Walpieces.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 01 May, 1780

A Resignation of Thomas Urie, Esq'r, a Member of the Board from Bedford, being read, Resolved, That the same be accepted and filed.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 09 May, 1780

An Order was drawn on the Treasurer in favour of the Hon'ble Joseph Gardner, for the sum of five thousand pounds, to be forwarded to Colonel John Piper, Lieutenant of Bedford county, for raising the Companies of Rangers for the defence of the frontiers.

           Letter from President Joseph Reed to Colonel John Piper, 09 May, 1780

Your Favours of the 8th of April & by Major Cluggage have been duly received.
     At the same Time there came down a Col. McLeavy with a Petition from a Number of Inhabitants from your County. The Amount of his Request was that Relief should be sent to the Valley where he lives & he proposed it should be done by Volunteers receiving Militia Pay. Major Cluggage being present in Council they seemed to differ in Opinion as to the Mode of assisting the County in its present Distress whereupon they were desired in Concert with Mr Scott the Member of Westmoreland to give us a Plan for the Relief of the County at the same Time assuring them that we should assist with Money, Arms & Provisions if necessary that a Company of Rangers should be raised as soon as Money could be procured for the Purpose of which we have daily Expectations. Many & great Difficulties occur in calling out Militia from the inner Counties, but still we should not hesitate to comply with this when the State of the Militia will admit in the mean Time we recommended the getting the Militia of the County in the best Order so as to be ready to repel any Incursions. Col. McLeavy appeared very much dissatisfied & has returned without receiving our Answer or settling the Affair on which he had come down. From the Temper in which he left this Place it is probable he may make a discouraging Report to the People which you will do well to explain. In the mean Time to give all the Encouragement in our Power we have appointed the Officers of the ranging Company & sent up --- to he employed by you in raising the Company unless the Exigencies of the County should require it to be laid out for immediate Defence & Protection. We also send you several of the Proclamations lately issued & as Experience has fully shewn the Inadequacy of every mode of Defence heretofore used against the Savages we hope this with the Encouragement you & the other Gentlemen of the County give will have good effects. The Officers nominated to the Companies were recommended by the Members of Assembly, we must request you to nominate the third officer if such Nomination is immediately necessary. But as the Security of the County is the great Object of our Care if the Appointments are not such as to answer this End we hope as it is your Duty you will let us know it in Time. We observe there are many Complaints against Capt. Cluggage in Col. McLeavy's Petition which we wish had been presented in Time.
     Wishing you much Safety & assuring you of our Intentions to render you every necessary Service.

           Letter from Col. Brodhead to Pres. Reed, 13 May, 1780

Dear Sir, The Mingoes are again prevailed on by English Goods & address to disturb our repose. They have lately killed and wounded several people in Westmoreland County & the Tracks of four parties have been discovered on that frontier within the last four Days, and two parties of Indians have crossed the Ohio between Logstown and this place since Morning.
     I have only the Cullings of the last years men left, and can do but very little to prevent their incursions, but do all I can.
     The Delaware Indians continue their professions of Friendship and some of them are now with my Scouts but having nothing but fair words to give them I expect they will soon be tired of this Service.
     For heavens sake hurry up the Companies voted by the Honble Assembly or Westmoreland county will soon be a wilderness.
     I have received a flemish acc't of the Regimental Stores part of which remain at Bedford, as soon as the residue comes up, I will send you an account of the articles rec' d. at this place.
     If it is possible prevail upon his Excell'y the Commander in chief to send up only five hundred good regulars and I will pledge my reputation to give a tolerable account of the Copperheads provided provisions (which are very scarce) are furnished in time for an Expedition.
     I have the Honor to be with the greatest regard & Esteem your Excellencies Most obed't. Servt. DANIEL BRODHEAD.
     P. S. Please present my respectfull Comp'ts. to Colo. Jno. Bayard.

           Letter from Colonel John Montgomery to President Reed on the state of the frontiers, 29 May, 1780

You will please to present the inclosed petition to the house. I wish it may have the Desired Effect. The petition States (but faintly) the Distressed State of the frontiers in this County (Cumberland). Sunday, the 14th Instant, the savages killd 18, took 8 prisoners in Woodcock Valley, and kill'd some in troop's Valley, the number I have not heard. A few days before these murders were Committed, a party of Indians killd six at Gene'l St. Clair's mill, and Burnt it, the Gen'r'l nearly escaping, and about the same time a number was killd on or near the Monongialae, 50 mills, with the inhabitants. Those Blood hounds are gone with their Prisoners and Booty, without any loss or being Pursued, which no doubt will incourage them to Return to our Frontiers in Greater numbers, which is genr'ly thought will be about Harvest. The People are without arms or amunition without assistance of any kind, and if troops are not speedily sent to their relief Sharman's Valley, I am persuaded will be the Frontier in two months. The removing the stores from Fort Robertson has greatly Discour'g'd and alarm'd the settlers in that quarter. What the motives are for removing them I Can't Conjecture. Had there been a few troops sent to that Post it wou'd have had a good tendency. I flatter myself that you will see the nessetty of Protecting and seporting the Frontiers, and make no Doubt but that you will use your Best Endeavors to obtain relief to those poor, unhappy Famillys that are exposed to the marcyless savage.

           Letter from Major Robert Cluggage to Colonel John Piper, 30 May, 1780

I make free to Write you Concerning the difficulty of the Times in those parts at Present which ought to be the Concearn of Every good man. A party of men from Cumberland and from those parts was Marched out to Wayley the Gaps of the aligenia Mountain Before we arived from your house when they went to the new gap above Frankstown they Found that a small party of the Enemy had Returned that Rout sume days Before the got there and had Taken with them a number of horses, yet still we supposed a part of the Enemy to be left behind which we have found to be true by the Discovery of William Phelaps. Last Friday where he had a Noble Chance of two indians Near the Threespring's at Aughweek had it not been for one of his Children that was with him which he was Doubtful wd have Falen into there hands if he had fired on them, he Emadiately Alarmed the Neighbours the Raised a party and pursued them for sume Miles Came to their Fire where the had Roasted a turkey and was just gon the indeans seamed to hed towards Pregmor's mil when the party Lost thire Tracks a Discovery has be made lately at Captn Simontons, from those Discoverys we may draw this Conclution those are spys a makeing a proper Discovery of the contery and when Reinforced I am doubtfull will Make a Heavy stroak if not timely prevented Comberland County have showed a deal of spirit on This Last Ocation to do Every thing in their power they ar willing to keep out a scout Constant and Run there Chance for pay if the could be found in provitions Squre Brown proposes to find Flower Salt and Whiskey there is Nothing but Meet a Wanting, the People of this place ar much Dissatisfyed about the Stoars Being Moved the purtest against Leting them go, what the Consequence will be I Canot tell as the party is not as yet arived. Mr Gil Breath and his party have Extraordinary hard duty on acount of Guarding thir Provitions such a Distance and haveing only 4 pack horses I think that be applying to Mr Smith, the might be some horses procured, sume Baggs is Likewise much a wanting, if the cannot he procured in that Line I think you wd he Safe in giving orders to hire sume for one trip or twoo. I am informed that there are some Beef Catle at Bedford I think twoo or three Drove Down by this Guard that is going up wd Save a grait deal of Trouble, I hope that post in Sinking Valley may be Defended as it is of Essential service in case men should wayley the Gaps of the aligenia as it is handy for the men to Receive sume assistance from I hope you will not Fail in doeing Every thing in your power as the times is Despert I think it will be Justifiable before god and man to Take dispert measures, I think it wd not be a mis to send down sume money to sume Carefull person to be laid out for meet or flower in Case of Needeasiety pray spare no pains in haveing an Express sent to Philadelphia with a full act of the State of this County. I have Directed sixteen men of a guard for Huntingdon which is to do proper Duty as inlisted troops and in Case of Mishehaveing to be punished as the same I hope the will have your approbation, any orders you send, send it in Writeing and keep a Copy of the same. Every thing that is in my power to assist you in at this Critical time is at your service.
     I Remain your Friend and well wisher, Robt. Clugage.
     N.B. I Drew out Captns Johnsons and Clugages pay Rolls for there time of Service and was obliged to mentions Sumes to Satisfy them as the intend to have them Judged at the Next Coart. I Took Recpt on the Back of there pay Rolls for the Money Payed.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 01 June, 1780

The following orders were drawn on the Treasurer, Vizt: -In favour of Charles Cessna, Esq'r, Commiss'r of purchases for the county of Bedford, for the sum of five hundred pounds of the Money aforesaid, for which he is to account.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 02 June, 1780

The Council resumed the consideration of the appointment of Lieutenants and Sub-Lieutenants in the several counties.
     Moved and agreed, that John Piper, Esquire, be appointed Lieutenant, and that Edward Coombes, William Halliday, James Martin, and Robert Culbertson, be appointed Sub-Lieutenants of the county of Bedford.

           Letter from Colonel John Piper to President Joseph Reed, 03 June, 1780

I am honoured with the Packet and cash from Council by Major Cluggage, I sent the Recruiting Instructions to Capt. Burd but I am sorry to inform Council that He sent Me his Resignation, the Situation of His affairs being sutch that he cannot Possably Serve. I mentioned in My Last re Gennerall St Clair, that the Indians Had Made an Incurtion into this county, which to our misfortune is More Generall than I at that time supposed, there Being upwards of twenty People Killed and taken, the consequence is that the Settlements adjacent to where the Murders were Done is Abandoned, the Militia turned out but for want of Provisions they could not follow the Enemy far, I have Done Every thing in My Power to Procure some, and thinking My self justifiable by the necessity of the case and warranted by the Letter I had the Honour to receive from Council, I have aplyed Part of the Money I Receved and shall be ablidged to apply More towards Procuring Provision. Spies or at Least those who are Suspected to be spies, have Been Discovered in Diffrant Parts, and we Have Every Reason to Dread the full of the next Moon will be fatall to us, without speedy and vigoras assistance we cannot stand our ground, Excuse My urgancy upon this occasion when our all is Depending, I cannot forbear being urgant.
     I understood by Major Cluggage that Charles Cesna was apointed Purchaser for this County. I immediately wrote to Him, and Have Rode to His House upon the occasion, But He has heard nothing of the apointmt, I would Have him go down but he could not think of Leaving his family upon sutch an uncertainty, but asured Me that if his apointment came up He would Do Every thing in his Power, it Might be of considerable Service to us upon this occasion if the Person who is nominated was enabled speedily to act, as our Greatest Demand at present seems to be for flour and Horses to transport the flour and other necessarys to the fronteer Posts, in Hopes of a speedy answer I have the Honor to be with all Due Respect your Excellencys most obedient and verry Humble Servt John Piper.
     Please turn to Postcript. P. S. Inclosed I send you a Letter I Recevd from Major Cluggage, which will Be a Coroborating Sircumstance that our fears are not groundless, if Council would Pleas to grant Me an order to Draw a further suply of Amunition if necessity should Require it, I had and allways shall be as Moderate in My Demands as Possable, but our Situation Requires that there should always be a quantity in Store, I am as Before, yours &c. J. P.

   History Of Bedford, Fulton and Somerset Counties, Pennsylvania / p 93
           Extract from the minutes of the County Commissioners, 05 June, 1780

The Board met agreeable to adjournment and the assessors of cumberland Valley, Air, hopewell and Turkey Foot attended with their returns. Those from the other Townships do not attend. The board, upon examination, find that some of the Townships have made returns to different Periods, of the depreciation, & that in some others no assessment has been madfe since the Revolution began. That the frontier Townships being some of them altogether depopulated & others mostly so & that on account of the present distressed situation of the County by the ravages of the Indians, it is impossible to procure any return from them. This being the case, the Board find it utterly impossible to lay the Taxes which, as the whole county is invaded & in a state of war, they trust will be sufficient excuse to the Legislature.

           Letter from Colonel John Piper to president Joseph Reed, 05 June, 1780

I would Beg Leave to Request a further supply of Amunition for the use of the Militia, and volunteers of this County. as there are a number of spirited Men, Both in this County and Cumberland, who are forming themselves into Companys to be ready upon Every ocasion to give the frontiers Every assistance Possable, and in.-ages to Me to raise a constant Patroling Party upon the frontiers of this County, provided I Can support them with Provisions and amunition. As I wrote a true state of our Situation to Councill in My Letter of the fourth Inst., I shall not Enlarge, in Hopes youl Pleas to answer My Present Dimand by this Bearer.

           Letter from President Joseph Reed to Colonel John Piper, 13 June, 1780

Your Favour of the 5th June was duly received. We have observed with much Concern that Supplies of Ammunition intended for the Frontiers as well as other Articles sent by casual Opportunities seldom arrive at the Place of their Destination without much Loss. The Bearer of this. Mr. Campbell, not going back thro your County we have deferred sending the Ammunition requested till a good Oppr offers. But we would request you on all Occasions of this kind to mention the Quantity & to send some suitable Person allways to take Care of it. We find much more Difficulty in the Means of Transportation than procuring the Articles.
     The publick Business has sometimes been delayed a whole Day while Members of the Council were employed in looking for Waggons or Horses - which is not only inconvenient but degrading.
     I do not mention these Circumstances as discouraging to you to apply when & for what is necssary but that the Business may be conducted with more Advantage to you & Care to us - As it will allways give us Pleasure to afford all possible Relief & gratify every reasonable Expectation - I am Sir your obed. Hbbl. Serv., Jos. Reed.

           Letter from Colonel John Piper to President Joseph Reed, 22 June, 1780

The Situation of the Frontier Inhabitants must be my Apology for troubling you upon this Occasion. One of our greatest Difficulties at present arises from our Want of a proper Supply of Provisions and Horses to transport Provisions to our frontier Garrisons. Mr. Brown has been pleased to make us an Offer of some Flower that he has on hand for our present supply, provided we can furnish Horses to carry it off. I would therefore earnestly request you to consider our present Situation, and, if possible, furnish us with about six good Horses and one Driver, which, with four Horses we already have, I apprehend might be sufficient for the present. Being well assured of your good Disposition and Readiness to do every Thing in your Power for our Relief I shall not further urge, but request that if the Horses can be obtained you'll please to order them to the Care of Mr. Francis Cluggage at this Place, who I am confident will take proper Care of them, and will punctually obey your Directions from Time to Time. In Hopes you'll please to consider our present Situation and grant us a speedy Relief, I am Sir with great Respect, you most obedient and Very humble Servant, John Piper.
      P.S. I would further Request that you would please to order Mr. Cluggae to procure a Quantity of Forage for the Supply of the public Horses that are frequently under the Necessity of calling at this Post.

          Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 26 June, 1780

A letter from Colonel Piper, dated the 3d instant, informing, First of captain Burd's resignation of his commission. Second, Of the Indian Incursions. Third, The receipt of the Money sent him.

           Letter from Joseph Reed, President of the Supreme Executive Council to Colonel William Scott, 12 July, 1780

Your Favour of the 4th Inst. has been duly received. & am glad to find the Volunteers have been made up agreeable to the Law. The Inhabitants of the Frontiers are very much alarmed with Apprehensions of the Indians during the Harvest. You will, therefore, immediately direct them to march one half to Bedford County & the other to Westmoreland, when they are to be directed by the several Lieutenants of the Counties as to Station. Col. piper is Lieutenant of Bedford, & Col. Lochry of Westmoreland. We are sorry you sent down a Waggon for Arms as we have them not in the Store, nor are they to be procured in this City. Our Direction therefore is that you procure as many publick Arms as possible, & of which there must be a considerable Number in the County, & if an Deficiency, that the Captain be authorized to call on the Captains of the Ranging Companies last Year for the Arms furnished them, & which were left in the Counties when those Men were discharged. The Lieutenants of these Counties must, & will, doubtless, exert themselves to procure them, & as they were Riffles they will be of more real Use than any which could he sent from here if to be procured. The same of Ammunition.
     I must intreat you to exert yourself in procuring Flour as the French Fleet is hourly expected & we are at present in a very unfit Condition to receive them, for Want of that necessary Article.
     Inclosed you have a Resolve of the Council for putting the Arms provided last year for the Ranging Companies into the Hands of the Volunteer companies.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 15 July, 1780

Application having been made by the Lieutenant of York county, respecting the destination of the volunteers raised in that county, and the providing them with arms.
     Resolved, That the said volunteers be formed into two companies, the one to march to Bedford, & the other to Westmorland, there to act under the direction of the Lieutenants of those Counties, respectively, so as to afford the most effectual protection to the frontiers.
     Secondly. That the commissioners of purchases for said counties, respectively, do furnish the said troops with rations, agreeable to the Continental allowance.
     Thirdly. That the Lieutenants of Bedford and Westmoreland do make diligent inquiry with respect to the arms furnished last year to the Ranging companies by this State, and cause the same to be delivered, for the use of the above companies, so far as the county of York may be deficient in giving a suitable supply.
     Fourthly. That the Lieutenant of York do return, as soon as may be, a list of the men, and that he take due care they be all qualified, both as to age and health, agreeable to the directions of the act of Gen'l Assembly.

           Letter from Colonel William Scott to President Reed, 01 August, 1780

I Rec'd your Excellency's Orders of the 25th July on yesterday after sunsetting, when I had Paraded one Company of Volunteers and ordered them to March this morning for Bedford; but they are now Set off this evening for Philadelphia, under the Command of Captain James Mackey, a Gent'-Man who has Served several years in our army and was recommended to me by sundre Gent'men of my acquaintance, as one Who behaved with bravery. His Subb'm are Lieutenant David Coulson and Ensign Philip Galacher, both of which have don duty in the army some time past. The Company consists of fifty Men, exclusive of Officers. The other Company are not yet full, and as soon as they can be collected we will send them also. I have this morning sent Expresses to all the Sub-Lieutenants in this County, requireing them to Call out the Militia according to Orders. I will in obedience to your Excelency's Orders, (and also from inclineation) exert my Self to the utmost of my Power, and report my Success by every opertunity; and begs leave to Subscribe myself your Excellencey's Most Obedient, very Humble serv'T, Wm. Scott.

           Letter from Colonel John Piper to President Joseph Reed, 06 August, 1780

Your favour of the 3d of June with the Blank Commissions have Been duly Recevd. Since which we Have been anxiously employed in raising our quota of Pennsylvania Volanteers and at the Same time defending our fronteers, but in our Present shattered Situation a full Company Cannot be Expected from this County when a number of our Militia Companys are Intirely Broke up and whole Townships Layd waste. So that the Comunication betwixt our uper and Lower districts is Entirely broke, and our apprehentions of Emediate Danger are not lessond But Greatly Agravated by a most Alarming stroke. Capt Philips, an Experienced good woods man Had Engaged a Company of Rangers for the space of two Months for the Defence of our fronteers, was Surprisd at His Post on Sunday the 16th July, when the Capt. with Eleven of His Company were all taken and Killd. When I Recevd the Intelligence, which was the day following, I marched with only ten Men directly to the Place, where we found the House Burnt to Ashes, with sundry Indian Tomahawks that had been Lost in the action, But found no Person Killd at that Place. But upon taking the Indian tracks, within about one Half mile we found ten of Capt Philips' Company with their Hands tyd and Murdered in the most Cruel Manner.
     This Bold Enterprise so Alarmed the Inhabitants that our whole fronteers were upon the point of Giveing way, but upon Aplication to the Lieut of Cumberland County He Hath sent to our Assistance one Company of the Pennya volunteers, which, with the volanteers Raisd in our own County Hath so Encouraged the Inhabitants that they seem Determined to Stand it a Little Longer. We hope our Conduct will Receve your Approbation, and youl pleas to aprove it By Sending your Special order to our County Commissioner to furnish these Men with Provisions and other necessarys untill Such times as other Provisions Can be made for our Defence. As Colonel Smith will Deliver this I Beg Leave to Recommend you to Him, as He is verrey Capable to Give full Satisfaction to you in Every Particular of our Present Circumstances.
     N.B. As Colonel Smith, the Bearer, promises to take Particular Care of what May be Committed to His Care By Council for the use of this County, youl therefore Pleas to Deliver Him for the use of this County the following Artickles, viz: Five Hundred wt of Powder and Lead in Proportion. One thousand Gun flints. One dozen falling Axes. Six Camp kitties. 1/2 Rheam Writing Paper.
     As we are much Distressed for want of the above Particulars your Complyance will be a means of encouraging what Remains of the County to Stand this Season, as allso Serving the Publick & he who has the Honour of subscribing himself as Before.

           Letter of Abraham Smith to Pres. Reed, 07 August, 1780

Sir, I Received the orders of Council for the Volunteers to be put in motion in order to join the main Army, and for those Classes of the Militia to be in readiness, it was unfortunately long Coming to my hand. I have Sent agreeable to said orders to put the Volunteers in motion, which were Raised on this side of the north mountain, but unfortunately I have Sent one Company of them to the fronteers of Northumberland County and the other to the fronteers of bedford which was in a very Distressed Situation. About three weeks ago the Indians Come on a Scout of a Capt. and twelve men in a place Called Woodcock valley and not one of the party escaped they lay I believe ten days without being buried. I went with a party from this County and covered them the best we could which was a very Disagreeable task.
     I am apt to think it will be a very Distressing and Disagreeable Circumstance to the fronteers to have the Volunteers taken from them. My Reason for sendg them there as soon as they were ready was to Suport and assist the Inhabitants in Saving their harvest. I am afraid the Melitia of this County will not turn out so well as I could wish. But your Excellence may Depend that every exertion in my Power Shall be used on the occation as I am fully Convinced of the Necessity of our utmost efforts this year in order to Save the Country. This County is now very scarce of Amunition and I have not been able to find any trusty hand and waggon to Send for any but I expect one before long when I flatter myself that Council will Supply us with a sufficient quantity of Powder Lead and flints. I Doubt if the number required of Militia turns out we will not be able to arm them in this County as we have already furnished the Volunteers out of what State arms was here but we have yet a few muskets but they all want bayonets. I am happy to inform you that we have this year had a very plentifull harvest in this County and an appearance of fine Corn and plenty of fruit, and also a good Disposition in a number of the People to receive and give Credit to the State money, if they could get it, but very little of it has Come to this part of the County yet, but if ready money of any kind could be had there Could be plenty of Supplies Purchased, there may a Difficulty arise about Procuring waggons as I believe there is no waggon Master that acts for this County.
     I have the honour to be, your Excellences most obedient Humble Servant, ABm SMITH.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 17 August, 1780

A return of Justices from the township of Bedford in the county of Bedford, being read, by which it appears that Andrew Todd and William Proctor. Esq'rs, were duly elected Justices of the said township.
     On consideration, Ordered, That Andrew Todd, Esq'r, be appointed a Justice of the Peace of the county of Bedford, and that he be commissioned accordingly.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 19 August, 1780

Ordered, That Captain Joseph Stiles, Commissary of Military Stores, be directed to deliver to Thomas Smith, Esquire, of the county of Bedford, or his order, three hundred weight of gun powder, twelve hundred weight of lead, and 1,000 flints, to be by him forwarded to Colonel John Piper, Lieutenant of the county of Bedford, for the use of the Militia of s'd county.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 23 August, 1780

Ordered, That Jacob Saylor, Esq'r, of the town of Bedford, in the county of Bedford, be appointed & commissioned to he a Justice of the Peace for the said county.

           Letter from John Piper to the inhabitants of Quemahoning Township, 01 September, 1780

I Received your Petition to me directed by the Hand of Mr. Black, I am fully sensible of your situation and the Difficulties you labour under by reason of the exorbitant Demands made upon you by the Sub-Lieutenants of this County for large sums of Money to Pay the Hire of two Men annexed to the Bedford Company of Pennsylvania Voluntiers. I look upon it as a grievance upon the said remaining Inhabitants of the Frontier Inhabitants of this county, and as such I have already remonstrated to Council, and likewise to Mr. Powel a Member of the House of Assembly for this County, I assure you Gentlemen the Proceedings of the Sub-Lieutenants of this County in Demanding such large Sums of Money from the Distressed Frontier inhabitants, is Contrary to my Judgment, & apprehend contrary to the intention of meaning of the act, for I am fully of opinion the meaning of the act, was to call for two Men out of a Company, where there is a company and not from the few remaining parts of Companies that are assembled in small Parties on our extended Frontiers who for considerable time past have been holding their weapons with the one Hand and Labouring with the other, & I am of opnion that if the measures that have been adopted by the Sub-Lieutenants of this County are persued to their ful extent, it will instead of Supporting the Frontiers, he a means of effectually breaking them up, neither do I see any method of redress by Petitioning our House of Assembly, These Gentlemen are my sentiments, and I am sorry so far from having an Actual Hand in the present distressing measures, that I have never been so much as consulted upon the matter, I am sorry to tell you Gentlemen, that it is not in my Power, as I apprehend to give you relief in yr Difficulties.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 17 November, 1780

Colonel John Piper, Councillor elect for the county of Bedford, appeared in Council, and took the oath of allegiance, and oath of office required by the Constitution, and thereupon took his seat accordingly.
     A return of the general election of the county of Bedford, was received and read, by which it appears that the following gentlemen were duly elected, vizt: councillor - John Piper, Esq. Representatives - John Burd and Joseph Powell, Esq'rs. Sheriffs - John Cessna and John Bennet, Esq'rs. Coroners - John Wilt and Samuel Graves, Esq'r. Commissioner - Cornelius McCauly. Assessors - Robert Moore, Thomas Furguson, Robert Galbraith, Peter Smith, Frederick Ambrose, and John Todd.
     On consideration, Ordered, That John Cessna, Esq'r, be appointed and commissioned to be Sheriff of the county of Bedford, and that John Wilt, Esq'r, he appointed Coroner of the said county.
     John Cessna, Esquire, Sheriff elect for the county of Bedford, now offers Charles Cessna and Samuel Moore, of said county, as sureties for the faithfull performance of the duties of his office of Sheriff; which this Council approve.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 18 November, 1780

The Council took into consideration the act of the General Assembly of this State, directing that one of the Justices in each respective county be appointed to preside in the respective Courts of common Pleas, General Quarter Sessions and Orphan's Court; whereupon,
     Resolved, That pursuant to the powers vested in this Board by the said act of Assembly, the following gentlemen be appointed & commissioned for and during pleasure, vizt: ...Bedford - Barnard Dougherty, Esq'r.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 21 November, 1780

Colonel John Piper, elected to represent the county of Bedford in this Council, having resigned his office of Lieutenant of the said county, & Colonel George Ashman being recommended as a proper person to be appointed to the said office: On consideration,
     Resolved, That colonel George Ashman be appointed and commissioned to be Lieutenant of the said county.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 25 November, 1780

Resolutions of the Hon'ble the General Assembly of the twenty-third twenty-fourth instant, were received and read, by which it appears that the following gentlemen are appointed to the several offices annexed to their names, vizt: ...John Cessna, for the county of Bedford

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 29 November, 1780

A return of Justices for the township of Colerain, in the county of Bedford, was received and read, by which it appears that Gideon Ritchey & Abraham Miley, were duly elected Justices for the said township: On consideration,
     Resolved, That Gidon Ritchey, Esquire, be appointed a Justice of the Peace for the county of Bedford, and that he he commissioned accordingly.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 04 December, 1780

An order was drawn on the Treasurer in favour of David Espy, Esquire, Prothonotary of the county of Bedford, for the sum of 800, State money, to be by him paid to William Holliday, Esquire, Paymaster of said county, for the purpose of paying the company of volunteers under the command of Captain John Moore.
     On consideration, Resolved, That the said company of volunteers be now discharged, and no longer considered in the pay of this State.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 19 December, 1780

Colonel Piper, member of this Board, Bedford county, having represented that Major John Cessna, in consequence of orders from a committee, dated 14t July, 1776, signed by Messieurs Woods, Smith, Galbreath, Espy, Dougherty, Nagel and Davidson, and also upon a like direction from Colonel Woods, dated the sixth of January, 1777, had taken the arms of persons who did not go themselves into service; and that for the execution of said orders, he is now prosecuted at common law;
      Resolved, That all officers not abusing their powers, ought to be indemnified by the publick; that, therefore, this Board direct the Attorney General, or his Deputy, to defend said suits at the charge of this Commonwealth, if on inquiry he shall find that Major Cessna is prosecuted for the performance of such public service, and has not acted oppresively therein; and that in case of the absence of the Attorney General, or his Deputy, the Court of Common Pleas appoint some gentleman of the law to defend said suits at the publick expence.


* A-: American Archives, Series -; JC: Journals of the Continental Congress; CR: Colonial Records; 1: PA Archives, First Series; 2: PA Archives, Second Series; etc; WW: Writings Of Washington / Volume / Page(s)