Bedford County Documents

  CR/XI/394  *{See legend below}
          Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 02 January, 1778

Ordered, That the Board of War be requested to furnish Herman Husband Esq'r, with Two hundred pounds of Powder & Six hundred Pounds of Lead, for the use of the Militia of Westmoreland County, in defending themselves against the Indians, and the like quantity for the use of the Militia of Bedford, for the said purpose.

          Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 09 January, 1778

The Council taking into consideration the appointing of a Waggon Master for the State, & Waggon Masters for the respective Counties, according to Law; thereupon,
     Ordered, That James Young, Esq'r, be appointed Waggon Master of the State, & that the following persons be appointed Waggon Masters of their respective Counties: ... Bedford County, John Cesna.

          Letter from John Piper to President Wharton, Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, 20 January, 1778

Sir, I would Beg leave to Enform, that on my Return from Councill the Distressing Situation of our fronteers oblidgd me to Call upon the Sub Its to Consult upon measures to prevent our fronteers from Being Entirely Evacuated, when we wire oblidgd to Adopt the following measures, viz: to Give orders to Raise 30 men for the defence of the Settelmt called the Gleads, 40 men for the Senter divission, Encluding Bedford, thirty men for Frankstown, and the same number for Sinking Valley, and thirty men to Guard the Inhabitants of Harts log Settelmt and Shavers Creek; the urgantCall for these men, and the Exorbitantt Prices of all articles, Layd us under the necessity of augmenting their Pay to five Pounds Pr month, the men to Be engag'd for the space of nine months, unless sooner dischargd. These People Have Repeatedly applyd to me, praying their Situation to Be Layd Before Councill, and Assureing Councill of their determinations to make a Stand - if they meet with this necessary Assistance, they Likewise Pray that a Suitable Person may be Appointed to Lay a Small Store of Provision at each Post to Suply Scouting Party, or other troops who may be Employd as Guards. If these measures are approven by Councill the People will Stand, and if Rejected, I have the Greatest Reason to Believe, that upon the first alarm from Indians A great Part of our County will Be Left desolate. These measures we Have Adopted is by no means to be understood as acting against Authority, But in Compliance with the order of Councill, of the 9th of December, and the Situation of our County Renders it impossable to Call the People out in Classes; these Considerations I Beg Leave to Lay Before Councill, and Refer to Col. Davis for further Enformation... P.S. The Pressing Call for Money obliges us to Press our demand for a further Suply, By this Bearer, Col. Davis, who is appointed to wait upon Councill for that Purpose.

          Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 31 January, 1778

A Petition of a respectable number of Militia of the fifth battalion of Cumberland County, representing their exposed situation & danger from the incursion of the Indians, & praying (in effect,) that the Classes now ordered into service may be permitted to go against the Indians, was now read & considered, & thereupon,
     Ordered, That agreeable to the order of the 9th of December last, in the case of the Counties of Bedford & Westmoreland, the fifth & sixth Classes of the fifth Battalion of Militia of the said County of Cumberland, now under orders to march to Camp, be employed in the immediate defence of the inhabitants of the frontiers of that and the neighboring Counties against the Indians; and that the Lieutenant of the said County be empowered to call out from time to time, such part of the Seventh & Eighth Classes of the Militia of the said County as shall be absolutely necessary for the defence of the Frontiers. And it is recommended to the Lieut. of the County of Cumberland to Correspond with the Lieut's of Bedford, Westmoreland, & Northumberland, so as to act in conjunction, as much as may be, for the public safety, and give this Council the earliest intelligence of his proceedings herein.

          Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 02 February, 1778

An order was drawn on the Treasurer in favor of Colo. Hugh Davison, for the Sum of Two hundred Pounds, to be charged to Colo. John Piper, Lieut. of the County of Bedford, & by Colo. Davison to be delivered to Colo. Piper.
     A Letter from Colo. John Piper. Lieut. of Bedford County, was read.
     A Petition from divers inhabitants of that Countuy, & a Letter from Colonel Davison were also read, the whole representing the situation of that County. And Colo. Piper's Letter informed Council that he was about to enlist a number of Men for nine Months; the same being considered,
     Ordered. That a letter be written to Colo. Piper, informing him that Councill were surprised at his having adopted such a measure, which he not been authorized to do by this Council, nor was it in the power of this Council to have done so.

          Letter from the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania to Bedford County Colonel, John Piper, 02 February, 1778

Your letter of the 20th of last month, a petition from divers inhabitants of your County, and a representation of the situation of your County, signed by Lieut. Coll. Hugh Davidson, have all been laid before the Council.
     The Council is much surprised to find, that you have gone into the enlistment of men for nine months, as they cannot conceive how it is possible for the order of the 9th of December, to be construed to give you any authority for so doing. They intended to authorise you to call out the Militia of your County for the immediate defence of the inhabitants, as a temporary measure, until Congress could obtain the necessary information, from which, to form a judgment of what force would be wanted to oppose those savages, and to take effectual steps at the Continental expence as hath been done in the Southern States, for chastising them, for which purpose a committee of Congress is gone to the westward. As it was expected that the people of your County would more cheerfully exert themselves in their own immediate defence, and more willingly turn out in this service, than in one more distant from home, they were not called to meet and oppose the army of the British King, but were permitted to remain at home, while the Militia of most of the other Counties have been called out, and in many of them the whole eight classes have been called, and have either served their turns, found substitutes, or become liable to pay the hire of substitutes. Of this money, considerable sums are already paid in, and the remainder is collecting from the delinquents. There does not appear any good reason why the people of your county should not exert their strength in their own defence, at such a critical time as this, on the same terms that the other parts of the State render their services.
     The Militia of almost every state in America has been called into the field, and in many places rendered very important services and gained great honour.
     Our Militia law, points out the mode of calling the people together for their defence, this Council has no authority to adopt any other plan, or establish an army, however small, on any other principles than what the law has directed: And indeed the confederation proposed by Congress, is directly against the establishing of a standing force of any kind different from the Militia. But, were it otherwise, the enlisting of men for nine months appears to be wholly improper and unnecessary. It is very improper as there is no fund for the payment of them, and it would be a most dangerous example to the other Counties, who would each have equal right to claim an exemption from Militia service; and unnecessary, as the Militia, by a proper exertion, is certainly able to defend themselves against a much more formidable enemy than is, at present, reasonably expected to come against the western frontiers. As to the price at which it is proposed to pay the men, this alone is a sufficient reason against the measure, as the same pay would undoubtedly be immediately claimed by the Militia of the other Counties, and perhaps occasion an uneasiness in the regular army, which might produce fatal consequences, from these circumstances alone there cannot be a doubt but that Congress would disapprove of it, and refuse to pay such advanced wages.
     The order of the ninth of December still subsists in full force, and it is all that the Council have power to do for you.
     Coll. Davison has an order on the Treasurer for the sum of two hundred pounds to be delivered by him to you, and to be charged by the Treasurer to your account.

          Letter from Colonel Hugh Davidson to the Supreme Executive Council, 02 February, 1778

In consequence of certain directions given by the honorable Council on the 9th of December last to Coll. John Piper, Lieutenant of Bedford County, to endeavour to raise a Company of Men, and Consult with the sub-Lieutenants about Measures for the defense of the said County, I would humbly represent to you that the Lieutenants and sub-Lieutenants have met, and considering the situation of the Frontier of the County, were of opinion that one Company would not afford any reasonable Prospect of Defense against the Enemy which they expect in the Spring. They think that about 160 men disposed in the following manner, viz: one Company of 30 men, one Capt., one Lieut., for the Western Frontier, (Glades;) one of 40 men, one Capt., two Lieuts., for the middle Frontier, including Bedford; one of 30 Men, one Capt. & one Lieut., for Frankstown; one such Company for Hart's Log and Shaver's Creek; and one such for Sinking Valley might do.
     They apprehend that that Number of Men may be raised in the County for the Defense of the Frontier if their monthly wages were advanced to five Pounds, they receiving five Pounds advance, and also finding their own apparel, which, perhaps, may be thought to he equal to the fifty shillings per month above the monthly pay allowed to soldiers by authority.
     They expect an assault when the winter opens, and can't depend upon the militia called out regularly in Classes, the most of them being poor, and the Condition of the County such that when one Part of it is attacked the Danger may be apprehended thro' the whole. Every one is concerned to consult for the immediate Protection of his Family & Connexions, and will not turn out, so that unless there be some such method as the above fallen upon to guard the Frontiers, and encourage the Inhabitants to stand, they expect nothing else than that the County will suffer most severely. The Lieuts. & Sub-lieuts. having some encouragement that a Number of Men would be allowed for the above Purpose, and also some encouragement from many in the County that the overplus, 50 shillings per month, would be paid by voluntary subscription of the Inhabitants, tried to raise some men, and several are engaged on that Footing, hut, scrupling that security they dare not go on, but humbly desire you to consider the matter, and if consistent with your Wisdom & Powers, grant them orders to proceed, or if such matter should not immediately lie before you, to use your Influence with the Assembly when sitting to give us help in our threatening circumstances.

          Letter from Robert Galbraith to President Thomas Wharton, Jr, 06 February, 1778

These will serve to inform your Excellency that upon my going to Bedford, I put the Warrant I obtain'd from the Council into the Hands of the Sheriff, who took Mr. Smith into Custody, upon which he delivered up the Records, Seals, &ca. Notwithstanding the Indian disturbances in the County, we had a pretty smart Court. The Grand Jury found several Bills, and a great many who were for some time past backward in taking the Oath came into Court and took it, so that I have the pleasure to inform you matters wear a good aspect now in Bedford, with regard to the Constitution.
     There was a large Court at Carlisle and a prity clever one at York, and the good People in each of the Counties seem'd exceedingly well pleased with the proceedings.
     I wou'd just mention to the Council, that George Stevenson, of Carlisle, (Attorney at Law,) has Issued Replevins, Ret'ble to last Term, in about a dozen Instances, for goods levied upon by order of the Lieutenants of the County, for Fines assess'd on Delinquents in their Classes of the Militia. The Plaintiffs in Replevin alledge That they are excusable, some for being employed as Deputy Commissar, others for Voluntarily entring and driving their Waggons in the service, &ca, and the Cause of Action accruing before the date of the Supplement to the Militia Law. The Issue of these Actions are impatiently waited for, as the Collecting of Fines in that County, much depend upon a determination in favor of the Lieutenants. As I am concerned for the Lieutenants, I wou'd be glad of the advice of the Council in this matter, and whether there has been any determination in Cases similar to these I've mentioned. A few lines, to the care of Wm. Lyons, Esqr. in Carlisle, by the Next Court may answer a good purpose. I wou'd also mention to the Council the Case of a certain William Montgomery who was tried at York-Town the last Sessions for Misprision of Treason.*. The matter came before the Court and Petty Jury, by presentment from the Grand Jury. The Petty Jury also found him guilty of Misprison of Treason. Mr. Smith, of York Town, and Mr. Stevenson, of Carlisle, who were both concerned for him, were going to move in arrest of Judgmt, but rather than risque a motion of that kind with the Court, who were but young hands, and no president of a Conviction of the kind yet established to my knowledge, I thought it most prudent to have the Verdict of the Jury Recorded, and Montgomery sent back to prison, untill the opinion of the Council was had in the matter.
     There were two evidences to convict him with the Petty Jury, that of Mrs. White, of York Town, and of Mr. John Wilson, late of Philada. His beheavour in Prison and after Tryal, I've been informed has been very insolent.
     As Time does not permit me to write to Mr. Serjant 1 wou'd take it kind if he was informed that, as I have not yet got a Clerk, and Northumberland Court does not come the week after York Town- It is at present out of my power to attend Northumberland, the other Counties I can & will.
     I wou'd be glad if Colonel Matlack wou'd send me first opportunity a Dozen of Tavern Licence, and Commission of Clerk of the Peace for Bedford County.
     I am, with the greatest respect, your Excellency's and the Honble Council's Most obedt humble Servt. ROBERT GALBRAITH. Rock Creek, February 6, 1778.

          Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 20 February, 1778

The Council taking into consideration the necessity there is of supplying the Citizens of the County of Bedford with Arms to defend themselves against the Indians,
     Ordered, That Will'm Henry, Esq'r, he directed to supply the Hon'ble Tho's Urie, Esq'r, with one hundred Riffles, to be by him sent to the Lieut. of the County of Bedford, for the purpose of arming the people of the said County.

          Letter from Major Gen. John Armstrong to Pres. Wharton, 23 February, 1778

Sir, As at present there appears to be a Scarcity of the important article of Lead, and it's certain a Mr. Harman Husbands, now a member of Assembly for our State, has some knowledge of a Lead Mine, situate in a certain Tract of Land not far from Franks Town, formerly surveyed for the use of the Proprietary Family.
     General Gates, President of the Board of War, having signified his earnest desire to see & converse with Mr. Husbands on the subject of the Mine, and being greatly hurried with business, I have at his instance undertaken the present line, that you wou'd please to use yr influence with the House of Assembly, and with Mr. Husbands, that he, as soon as possible, may be spared to consult with the Board of War, on the best measures for making a tryal of & deriving an early supply from that source.
     The General is of Opinion with me, that the Mine ought or may at least for the present be seized by, and belong to the State, and that private persons who without right may have sat down on that reserved Tract, shou'd neither prevent the present use of the Lead, nor be admitted to make a monopoly of the Mine. I'm of opinion that a few faithful Labourers may be sufficient to make the experiment, and that the Lieut, of the County, or some other good Man, may be serviceable in introduceing the business.
     I cannot doubt the Compliance of the honorable Assembly & Council.
     And am, Sir, with great respect, Yr Excellencys most Obedt humbl Serv. JOHN ARMSTRONG.

          Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 27 February, 1778

The Council taking into consideration the return of Justices from the several Townships in the County of Bedford,
     Ordered, That Henry Rhodes, Will'm Tyshur, James Wells, Francis More & David Jones, be appointed Justices of the Peace for the said County of Bedford, & that they be Commissioned accordingly.

          Circular to the Commissioners for purchasing horses, 10 March, 1778

It is determined by the Hon. the Committee from Congress, now at Head Quatrters, that a number of Horses shall be procured immediately in several States to mount the Cavalry, so that we may be upon a footing with the Enemy, as well Horse as foot. They have fixed upon the number of 250 as a proportion for this State, and have requested Council to undertake to raise them. It appears so important a piece of business that notwithstanding Council have their hands full, yet they could not withhold their services. They have, with the concurrence of the House of Assembly, nominated you to purchase Horses in the County of where they hope you can readily, with using proper industry, procure which number they have allotted for your County. You will please to attend to the description at bottom hereof of ye Horses proper for this service, and get them as near to that as in your power. Inform me from time to time of your proceedings, that I may communicate the same to the board of war. When purchased put them to some convenient place where they will be taken good care of until they are order'd to Head quarters. If you can meet with good saddles at a reasonable price I request you to provide some. With respect to pay, I am to inform you that the Committee will order into the hands of Council a number of Loan office Certificates to be paid on the first day of May next, as soon as Council are possessed of them, which, I hope, will he in a few days Day. I will either forward them, or some Cash to you, or perhaps both, as I may find myself possessed of either. I flatter myself that you can upon your own Credit make a beginning in this so necessary business, and depend that Council will very soon afford you every assistance in their power. There are many well wishers to our righteous cause in your County who have Horses that may answer the purpose, & will chearfully wait a few weeks for payment. I have no doubt of your alacrity and Judgment in this business, and as no price is limited, but relying on your prudence, discretion & Honor in the management of it, I make no doubt of its success, and that you will, as I requested before, give me the most early and frequent intelligence of your proceedings. If you have occasion for assistants you are hereby empowered to appoint one or more.
     a description of the Horses to be attend to as near as possible: That the Horses be sound and clean Limed, not less than five years old this spring nor exceeding Twelve years, Geldings, at least Fourteen & Half hands high, and not less than one-quarter blooded.
  Horses: 12  Counties: Bedford  Names: Mr. John Ramsey  Residence: Dublin

          Letter from D. Roberdeau to President Wharton, 17 April, 1778

Sir, The Confidence the Honorable the Representatives of our State, have placed in me, by a late resolve, together with the pressing and indispensible necessity of a speedy supply of lead for the public Service, induced me to ask leave of absence of Congress to proceed with Workmen to put their business into a proper train, and have reached this place on that errand, and having collected men and materials and sent them forward this day, purpose to follow to-morrow. My views have been greatly enlarged since I left York, on the importance of the undertaking and hazard in prosecuting it, for the publick Works here are not furnished with an ounce of lead but what is in fixed ammunition, on the other hand the prevailing oppinion of people as I advance into the Country, of Indian depredations shortly to commence, might not only deter the Workmen I stand in need of, but affright the back settlers from their Habitation sand leave the Country exposed and naked. To give confidence to one and the other, I have drawn out of the publick Stores here, twenty five stand of arms and a quantity of Gun powder, and intended to proceed this morning, but was applied to by John Caruthers, Esqr., Lieut, of this County, and Wm. Brown, Commissary of provisions for the Militia, who advised with me on the subject of their respective Departments, and by the account they gave of the orders from your Honble Board to them as to calling out and supplying the Militia, I find the State is guarding against the incursions of the Savages; this confirmed me in a preconceived intention of erecting a Stockade Fort, in the neighbourhood of the Mine I am about to work; if I could stir up the Inhabitants to give their labour in furnishing an Asylum for their Families in case of imminent danger, and prevent the evacuation of the Country. Mr. Caruthers, convinced of the necessity of the work for the above purposes, condescendingly offered one Company of the Militia, which he expected would consist of about 40 men, under my command, to co-operate in so salutary a Business; as it consisted with the orders of Council respecting the Station, being only a deviation of a very few miles; and that one other Company of about the same number should also join me for the greater Expedition, until the pleasure of Council was known, which he presumed might coincide with such dispositions, otherwise it might be deranged by an immediate Express, and that the pleasure of Council might be known without delay, I give this intelligence. If these measures are for the good of the publick wheel, I hope to be honored with a confirmation, and orders to the Militia to exert themselves in carrying the design into immediate execution; if otherwise, I rely on the well known candour of Council, that I shall not be suspected of any sinister design, in leaning to an offer freely made as above, from, I believe, the best motives; much less that I have presumed to interfere with the arrangements of Council, as this early notice is a full proof to the Contrary, as the whole is in their power as much as if nothing had passed betwixt the Lieut, and myself. I have only to add on this subject that your design of patroling parties of good Riflemen shall be encouraged by me. The Commissary, Mr. Brown, being destitute of money, I would have spared it out of my small stock, but that by my interferance 1200 Dollars, all he asked, was supplied by a public officer here, but further sums, will, he said, be soon necessary and he expressed much concern for the scarcity of provisions. I was advised very lately by Judge Mc-Kean, of a quantity of salted beef, in the neighbourhood of Harris's Ferry, and before I left York I applied to him by letter to advise me of the quantity and quality, with a design to purchase, as I intended to employ a much greater number of men than are already employed at the lead mine, to carry on the Business with vigour. If Council should think proper to order a quantity of said provisions up the Juniata, for the Militia, I should be glad of being favored with what I want thro' the same Channel. I intend to build such a Fort, as, with sufficient provisions, under the smile of providence, would enable me to defend it against any number of Indians that might presume to invest it. If I am not prevented by an opportunity of serving the State eminently by a longer stay in the Wilderness, I purpose to return to my duty in Congress in about three Weeks. Will Council favor me with the exemption of a number of men, not exceeding twenty, if I cannot be supplied by the Adjutant General who has orders co-extensive with my want of smelters and Miners from Deserters from the British Army, to suffer such to come to this part of the Country contrary to a preceeding order? If Council should think such a measure of exemption for the public good, I should be glad to receive their orders on that head. I would not intrude my sentiments on Council, but am of opinion, that besides the supplying of provisions to the Militia in Bedford, it is very important that the intended Stockade should be seasonably furnished with that article; therefore if it should not be thought adviseable to improve the above hint, that the provisions already mentioned in the neighbourhood of Harris's, should be left unnoticed until I shall have an oppo'y of furnishing my own supplies from that stock, if I shall be advised by Mr. McKean it is in my offer. My landing is at Water Street in Juniata, but I could on notice receive any supply from Standing Stone.
     I am most respectfully, Sir, Yr most obt & very hum. Serv't DANIEL ROBERDEAU.
     P.S. In my hurry I have not time to copy this which I beg may be excused.

          Letter from General Daniel Roberdeau to John Carothers (Cumberland County Lieutenant), 23 April, 1778

Sir, The enclosed was put into my hands to he forwarded to you by express. The inteligence it contains is abundantly confirmed by several persons I have examined, both fugitives from the fronteers & some volunteers that have returned for an imediate supply of amunition & provisions, to be sent forward to Sinking Spring Vally, as the Troops will be obliged to quit the service without they are supplied without Delay. Want of arms prevents those who would turn out, I shall furnish what I brought from Carlisle as soon as they come forward, but it is very unfortunate that these arms & the amunition which is comming by watter have been retarded by contrary wind, & probably the Lowness of the watter, to remedy this I have Dispatched two canoes this morning to meet them on the way. I am giving Mr. Brown, who is here, every assistance in my power, but your aid is greatly wanted to stimulate the militia & furnish arms, Amunition, pack horses, & every thing necessary in your Line of Duty. The insurgents from this Neighbourhood , I am informed, are about thirty, one of them (Hess) has been taken & confession extorted, from which it appears that this Banditti expect to be joined by 300 men from the other side the Aleganey; reports more vague, mention 1000 whites & Savages. The supply of provisions for so great a number renders it improbable, but in answer to this I have been informed by the most credable in this neighborhood, that strangers, supposed to be from Detroit, have been this winter among the Disaffected Inhabitants & have removed with them. If you have authority to call out the militia, in proportion to the exigence of the times, I think it of greate importance that a considerable number of men should he immediatly embodied & sent forward, to meet the enemy, for it cannot be expected that the Volunteers will long continue in Service, and I find that the recruiting the three companies goes on too slow to expect a seasonable supply from them of any considerable numbers; if you have not authority to call the necessary aid of militia, you no doubt will apply to the Hone the Council, & may furnish them with my sentiments, & to the board of war for arms & Amunition. With ten men here under the command of Lieut. Clugage, in continental service, untill the 1st Decr next, I intend to move forward as soon as the arms, ammunition and other thing's comes forward, to afford an escort to Sinking Spring Valley, where I shall be glad to meet as great a number of militia as you will station there, to enable me to erect a Stockade to secure the works so necessary to the public service, & give confidence to the fronteer Inhabitants, by affording an Assylum for their women & children. These objects, I doubt not, you will think worthy your immediate attention and utmost exertion, which I can assure you, making the fullest allowance for the timidity of some & credulity of others, is a very serious matter, for without immediate aid the fronteers will be evacuated, for all that I have been able to say has been of no avail with the fugitives 1 have met on the roads, a most Distressing sight of men, women & children flying thro fear of a cruel enemy.

          Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 23 April, 1778

Petition of John Young, (convicted in the County of Bedford, of having stolen 2 lbs. of lead, & sentenced to receive Seven Lashes,) Praying that his Punishment may be remitted, & the recommendation of him as an object of mercy by several Justices of the said County, (and offering himself a Soldier in the Continental Army,) was read; Thereupon,
     Ordered, That the Corparal Punishment of the said John Young be remitted, he entering into the Continental Army, to serve three Years or during the present war.

          Letter from Lieutenant Carothers to President Wharton, Supreme Executive Council, 24 April, 1778

I Recd your Letter of the 17th Instant, and am heartely sorrey that the State of Pennsylvania in general, & this County in particular, should be found so extreamely backward in marching out in Defence of rights so invaluable as those for which the Americans are now contending, when one manly effort would, in all human probability, work out our political Salvation. Since I received the order of Council, for the immediate march of the seventh and eight classes of this county, I have done every thing in my power to induce them to turn out, but notwithstanding my Diligence, with the assistance of many other Spirited friends to our American Cause, we have been Greatly Disappointed; about 370 privates, exclusive of officers, is now on their way to camp, the marching classes of the fifth Battalion I have been obliged to send up to Sinking Valley & Bald Eagle, which will amount to nearly 70 privates - the fronteers in those parts have been greatly alarmed of Late by a number of Tories who have Banded together, threatning vengence to all who have Taken the Oath of Alegiance to the States. This moment I Recd an express from Kishycoquilles for a supply of arms, & that Col. McLevy, of Bedford County, came there express himself with an account, that a body of Tories, near 320, in and above Standing Stone, had collected themselves together & Drove a number of the inhabitants from Standing Stone Town. Immediately Col. Buchanan & Col. Brown marched off with a few men who Could he got equipt, we are waiting with impatience the issue. I have applied to the Board of War for some ammunition, which I have sent up with 18 muskets, the property of this State, which, with some arms which General Roberdeau took up to those parts lately, will, I expect, be sufficient to arm those Classes - wither this force will be sufficient for the present exegency I know not. I look upon myself not sufficiently authorised to Call any more Classes of militia, if needed, without an order of Council for that purpose, in the mean time we think it our Duty to Do every thing in our power to bring those Deluded people to Justice. I expect every moment an account from Col. Buchanan, the particulars of which I intend to transmit to Council, in hope of their Instruction in the matter. The present bury of business has prevented my geting the returns called for by the order of Council of ye 2d Instant, as far forward as I expected - the resolves of Assembly, for raising the quota of this State for the Continental army. & the manner for compleating it, is Generally objected against in this County. I fear it will be Defecult to carry it into execution here. I have not room to mention any of the objections.

          Examination of Richard Weston, 27 April, 1778

Examination of Richard Weston, of Bedford county, Frankstown township, and State of Pennsylvania.
     That John Weston, his brother, asked him if he would go out to hunt. That he had heard at the Standing Stone that a company of men were going to join the English and the Indians, and his informant was Benjamin Elliot, in conversation with Francis Clugget. That he refused to go hunting, and that brother John and wife both came and entreated him to go, and he was prevailed on. That last Thursday was a week he set off with his said brother, and the same evening was led by his brother to a company of men whom they met in the woods, in Sinking Spring Valley, vizt., Samuel Berrow, Jacob Here, Michael Here, Peter Shaver, Peter Daly, Adam Portmerser, Peter Portmerser, and old Portmerser, the father of Adam and Peter, McKee, James Little, John Campbell and Wm. Campbell, William Hamson, James Armstrong, John and William Shilling, and others, whoes name he does not remember, making in the whole, with his brother and himself, the number of thirty one. That McKee, Jacob Hare and Samuel Berrow, in particular, urged him, with a promise of three hundred acres of land, to pick the same where he pleased, if he would go with the company to the Kittaning to join four or five hundred English and Indians, and to return to Fort Pitt, Frankstown and Sinking Valley, to kill the male inhabitants capable of bearing arms, who were in any kind of fort or place of defence, and all others of any sex or age who attempted to escape or elude their search. That if he refused to join said company, he would be hung or banished to the hay of Honduras, if the English prevailed over this country. That he went with the company over the Allegany mountain. That in their progress they were met by Indians, and that one of them shot his brother, and anothert of them scalped him. That after his brother was shot, McKee pulled a letter out of his pocket which he had got from an English officer in Carlisle goal, and with the letter displayed a handkerchief, crying peace, peace, brothers, but that the Savages ran off without giving attention. That immediately he returned with McKee, Jacob and Michael Hare, Little, Adam Portmerser, Peter Portmerser, William and John Shilling, Peter Shaver, William Hamson, and one or two more whose names he does not know. That he parted with some of them at the foot of Allegany, and with others in Sinking Valley, all of whom declared they never would return home or surrender themselves, but go to Baltimore and wait the arrival of the English Fleet. That he came home and surrendered himself to Captain John McDonald, at Edward Beatys. That McKey informed the company that he understood a number of English were to join the Savages, and about the tenth of next month to come upon this State. That he was informed by his brother, John Weston, that John Hess was to meet and join the company. Examination taken April 27th, 1778.
     That he heard Zebediah Rickets, now a prisoner, say, that if he knew how to leave his family he would go away, to avoid taking the oath prescribed by the State.
     Examination of Michael Warrick: That he lodged in Jacob Rowlers house last Saturday night; that a little before day he was awoke by the barking of dogs; that he heard soon after a person knocking at the door, and called said Rowles wife by name repeatedly, and asked if her husband was in the house; that she awoke her husband, who went out of doors and remained some time, returned and went to bed; that he awoke John Vansant.
     Examination of John Vanzant: That he asked Jacob Rowler who called him out, who answered he was not out.

          Letter from General Roberdeau to President Thomas Wharton, Jr 27 April, 1778

I have little more time than to refer you to the enclosed examination, taken in great haste, but correct as it respects the Testimony. The confiscation of the Effects of the Disaffected in these parts, is very irregular, and the brutality offered to the Wives and children of some of them, as I have been informed, in taking from them even their wearing apparel, is shocking. I wish the Magistrates were furnished with the late law respecting confiscation, and that they were more capable Ministers of Justice; the one I have seen is such a specimen of the popular election of these Officers as I expected. I am happy to inform you that a very late discovery of a new vein, promises the most ample supply; but 1 am very deficient in workmen. Mr. Glen is with me to direct the making and burning of Bricks, and is to come up to build a Furnace, by which time I expect to be in such forwardness as to afford an ample supply to the Army. The want of Provision, I dread, notwithstanding the active endeavours of Mr. Brown for it, is scarcely to be got; therefore I beg leave to refer you to hint on this subject in my Letter from Carlisle. Of 40 Militia, I have at most, seven with me, which retards building a Stockade to give confidence to the Inhabitants, who were all on the wing before I reached this. I send Richard Weston, under guard, to Carlisle Jail, to wait your orders; he is conducted by Lieut John Means, of the Militia. The inhabitants are hunting the other Insurgents, and hope they will all be taken, but wish any other the trouble of examining them, as my hands are full. 1 am, with Respectful Salutations to Council, Sir, Yr most obt humbl Sert, Danl Roberdeau.

          Letter from John Carothers to President Thomas Wharton, Jr 27 April, 1778

You have enclosed a True copy of General Roberdeau's Letter, Dated Standing Stone, 23d Instant, which contains a more perfect account of the insurrection in those parts than I was able to give council in my former Letter. The hack inhabitants are prodigiously Distressed, not knowing when those Vilians may bring down the savages to murder their families. How far those allarms may prove True cannot yet he known. There are many Disaffected persons gon out of the parts, but where or for what purpose we cannot tell; several have been known to purchase rifle guns, who always refused to turn out in the Militia. The Council, upon the perusal of the General's Letter, will be able to know what is necessary for me to Do in the matter. The classes ordered to do Duty there, cannot turn out for want of arms; I have sent up 100 arms, which was all I had in my possession, which, with 24 the general took with him, is all they have to trust to, & they only Muskets, which are not sutable for scouting parties in the woods, when it is well known the Tories are well armed with good rifles. I could purchase some few Muskets here, but the prices are so extraordinary high that I Dare not venture. I wou'd be glad to have the council's Directions if I am to purchase Muskets or rifles, & what prices I ought to give. I am, Sir, Your Very Humble Servt, Jno Carothers, L.C.C.

          Letter from the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania to Colonel Archobald Lochry, 02 May, 1778

...The Lieutenants or sub Lieuts of the Counties of Bedford & Westmoreland, are by Law empowered to call out the militia for the defence of the Frontiers, if so required by the Commissioners appointed by Congress; you will, therefore, attend to the orders of these gentlemen, as I have no doubt they will receive directions from Congress for this purpose.

          Letter from the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania to the Congress, 02 May, 1778

I had the honour to receive yr Letters of the 24th & 28th of April, covering three acts of Congress, of the 22d, 23d and 24th ultimo, which have the attention of Council.
     That of the 24th respects the remains of the Crews of the gallies lately employed on the Delaware, now reduced to about 200 privates. These, as seamen, are desired to navigate the gallies in Chesapeak. They are but Landsmen, but having been employed for some time at the oar, are probably tolerable watermen. As their service on the Delaware is now at an end, at least whilst the Enemy possess Philadelphia, I have ordered them to he marched up to this place. They may, perhaps, arrive in 8 or 10 days. How far the service on Chesapeak may suit with their enlistment or inclination, & what prospect there may be of their usefulness in the business of Council, I shall be able to determine when they come here. Perhaps they might be as serviceable on the Schuylkill & Susquehanna, as elsewhere, & ready in those situations to resume their former station, in case the Enemy leave the City.
     The recommendation of pardons, &c., lies for the meeting of legislature, fixed for the 13th Instant. Application was made by this state, early in the late winter, in behalf of the western settlers of Pennsilvania, then distressed by the inroads & murders of savages, set on by the Governor of Detroit.
     It was then understood that the Honorable Congress had taken the Case of these frontier people into their consideration, & employed Commissrs to enquire of & provide for their protection. Relying on the attention of Congress, I beg leave to forward to you, as inclosed, Copies of Letters just received from the Western Counties, displaying, the repetition of these ravages of Indians, who lay still thro' part of the winter, till very lately; and General Roberdeau opens the Idea of a further & very dangerous correspondence between the Commandant at Detroit & disaffected persons among us, some of whom he says have suddenly disappeared, & expected to be joined by others, to associate with Indians & others sent by the Enemy to scalp the Inhabitants & break up the Settlements. Further evidence of such a design appears from the Letter of John Proctor, Esquire, of Westmoreland, in the going off of Alexr McKee & the others from Fort Pitt. In their distress, the people very naturally apply to Council. Council recollect that the Commissrs of Congress, sent to the Ohio, are fully impowered to call out the Militia of Bedford & Westmoreland Co. Orders now go to the Lieutenants of Cumberland & Northumberland to embody & furnish as many as the Exigency may require.
     Allow me, Sir to remark that whilst the Enemy are possessed of the City of Philadelphia & the navigation of the Delaware, it is of the first importance to prepare the western & northern Counties from depopulation and destruction. The wisdom of Congress will doubtless interpose in a suitable manner. Council would not anxiously ask for the intended plan, but to satisfy the people looking up to them for relief. I shall be glad to have the honour of a Letter from you on this subject, giving such information as may be proper. I only add, that the Large Levies of men & arms in the back parts, & the disarming of their militia last year at Camp, in New Jersey, has deprived the settlers of the means of defence to an alarming degree. This requires to be attended to.
     The bearer hereof, brought the Letters from Westmoreland. He returns immediately, & will carry up any dispatches you may have for the General & Commissioners on the Ohio, or others.
     P.S. I beg leave to mention that Mr. Rittenhouse accompanies George Henry on the errand of procuring a supply of money; various calls particularly the pay of militia, having drained our Treasurer & made his application indispensible.

          Letter from John Piper to President Warton, Supreme Executive Council, 04 May, 1778

An affair of the most alarming nature (and as I believe altogether unprecedented) has happened lately in a Corner of this County, and wch I could not think myself justifiable in not communicating to the Honorable the Supreme Executive Council of this State. 'Tis as follows: a Number of evil minded Persons, to the amount of thirty five, (I think) having actually associated together, marched away toward the Indian Country in order to join the Indians, and to conduct them into the Inhabitince, and there united, kill, burn and destroy Men, Women and Children.
     They came up with a Body of Indians near or at the Kittanings, and in conferring with them, they, the Indians, suspecting some design in the white People, on wch one of their Chiefs shot one Weston, who was the Ring-leader of the, Tories, and scalp'd him before the Rest, and immediately (as if Divine Providence ever attentive to Baffle and defeat the Schemes and Measures of wicked Men,) the rest fled and dispersed.
     A very considerable Number of the well affected Inhabitants having, as soon as their combination and march was known, pursued them and met five of them, and yesterday brought them under strong Guard to the County Gaol.
     They confess their Crime and Intention of destroying both Men and Property; as these People thus in open rebellion are so numerous, there is great Reason to believe them as a part of a greater whole in some dangerous confederacy with the Common Enemy either at Phila or Detroit.
     Therefore it was as well my own Opinion as that of a Number of the Principal Inhabitants met for that purpose, that the Honorable council be immediately requested to order in their Wisdom such relief as may appear to be most expedient, either in removing those Prisoners to some Place of greater security, or else order Commissioners for their immediate and speedy Trials, wch last wou'd he the most grateful to the Country, who are extremely incensed against them, and think the prosecution wou'd be more easily effected where the Evidence is on the spot, and perhaps give an immediate Check to so openly avowed Rebellion.
     In the County of Westmoreland, at a little Fort called Fort Wallace within some sixteen or twenty miles of Fort Ligoneir, there were nine Men killed and one man, their captn, wounded last week; the Party of Indians was very numerous, so that between Indians (and the still more savage) Tories these backward Counties are in real distress.

          Letter from Samuel Hunter to President Wharton, Supreme Executive Council, 05 May, 1778

Agreeable to orders of Council I here inclose you the Returns and Strength of the four Battalions of this County Militia, I beg to be Excused for not having the Returns made to you sooner but it was not in my Power or it should be done, the fifth Class of the Militia that was doing Duty on the Frontiers has served their two months, and the People expects the Sixth Class to march there Imadietly, and has wrote me in case they have no men Stationed on the West Branch above Muncy, they will move their familys and leave it intirely, which will be a means of Breaking up that Settlement.
     I would have Ordered out the Sixth Class to Relieve the fifth that was there but could get no meat to Buy, that they could subsist uppon nor indeed could not have furnished the fifth class that served there only for some Beef & pork Bought by Col. Hugh White for the Continental Stores, and when that was done there was no more to be had to Buy in this County, as for flower, there can be as much had as would do the Sixth Class for two months.
     By some accounts lately from Bedford County the Frontiers there is very much alarmed at this present time, by a party of Indians that said was Discovered at the Kittaning, about thirty miles above fort Pitt, and in case this news proves true, the sixth Class of this County Militia must be ordered on the Frontiers at all Events, if we should bring Provisions up the River from Lancaster Couny to supply them only for one month at least, I have Ordered out part of Col. John Kellys Battalions to do Duty in Penns Vally for two months and they are found Provisions by a Contractor in Cumberland County.

          Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 06 May, 1778

The Council taking into consideration the appointing of Commissioners, agreeable to the Act of Attainder, &ca, Ordered, That the following persons be appointed, to Wit:
     For the County of Bedford - Robt. Galbraith, Tho's Uries & John Piper.

          Letter from Hugh Davidson to the President and the Supreme Executive Council, 15 May, 1778

Your were pleased to appoint me to act as a sub Lieutenant of Bedford County, which office I undertook & endeavored to discharge with Faithfulness & Dilligence, according to my knowledge & ability. But notwithstanding my willingness to serve the County & Public in any Capacity wherein I could have the Prospect of doing good, yet I am obliged to consider this office as attended with such circumstances with Respect to me, as induces me to beg leave to resign, and that you would appoint some proper Person to the Place, who may perhaps be more successful in it - I find that I cannot attent to the Business of it, without great injury to my private Business, and gaining the ill will of Numbers round me, and especially that I have not a Prospect of doing that good that may overbalance or equal the Trouble & expence that attends it either to myself or the Public. I cannot but suggest that our Board has been too weak to have influence among the People in the peculiar Circumstances of this County, this may be owing to the appointment of some Persons to it who were utterly unacquainted with public Business, little known in the County, and not of sufficient public Reputation & influence to stand against that Resentment of the People raised even by the due Exercise of their office, (for I apprehend that officers ought to have personal influence as well as legal Power or else Government will be weak) - I am prone to think that one occasion of this may have arisen from hence, that the Gentlemen in & near Bedford, who are confessedly best acquainted with public Business & capable of managing the affairs of the County, have on account of their former opposition to the Constitution of the State, & perhaps on account of some wrong Representations concerning them, been kept out of Places of Trust, even when our situation required all the assistance they could give. I think it not strange that it should be so, as I understand they have been represented as unfriendly to the cause of Liberty & Enemies to the State. But as I am fully persuaded that such Representations are false & Malicious, & that however they did at first oppose the Constitution, & still may desire amendments to be made in it, in a proper way, they are, not only from the urgent necessity of our circumstances, but from Inclination, disposed to avoid any opposition & support and carry on the legal authority in the County, I would therefore pray that for the good of the County, the strengthening of Government in it, and the sake of Harmony in this Part of the Commonwealth, it may please you to disallow of any Representations or objections against theur acting in any Places to which they may be thought fit to be appointed, resting assured that such Representations are not only a great injury to them, but to the County, which at this Time, so much needs their help.
     The above is submitted to the attention of the honorable Council by their willing & chearful Servant & subject. Hugh Davison.

          Letter from John Piper to President Wharton, Supreme Executive Council, 15 May, 1778

The orders of Council requireing an Exact return of the arms Belonging to this State are in our Possession which orders I would gladly comply with, But the distressing Situation of our County att present renders it next to impossable to assertain an Exact List of all the arms in Possession of the inhabitants of this County, But as I am Enformed there are two Hundred Rifles, and on Hundred muskets, But as soon as I can obtain an Exact List of old arms shall make report to Council, the orders for warning Classes to he in readyness upon the shortest notice which orders may be issued, But it is impossable in our Present Situation that sd orders will be comply'd with as I have great reason to Believe that not less than one third the men in our County are actually fled, and the rest who remain are Constantly on their watch Tower, and in dayly expectation of an attack from indians or torys, who seems at Present verey numeras and dayly Encreasing. Thus Sir, I have given a short sketch of our situation in Hopes yr Excellancy will Pardon my difficiancy that may arise from our destressed Situation. I am Sir, with greatest respect your most obedt Huble Servt, John Piper.

          Letter from Robert Galbraith to President Thomas Wharton, Jr, 16 May, 1778

The Courts at Bedford, Carlisle and York, are held with great regularity and propriety, and more business done in the sessions in a week, then used formerly to be done under the old Constitution. It is with pleasure that I acquaint you that a reconciliation is effected in Bedford County, between the Inhabitants, who for some time past were opposed to each other with regard to the Constitution and political sentiments. The matter originated between Mr. Smith and myself, and our endeavours with each Party had the desired effect. Mr. Woods, Mr. Smith & Mr. Espy, all applied at the Court for admission as attornies, and were by the Court admitted accordingly; previous to which they had taken the Oath of allegiance, and gave assurance of their sincere intentions of burying all past disputes in oblivion, and their hearty and sincere endeavours to assist government and its Laws and Officers to the utmost of their power. The Bench and Bar, as usual, Dined together two Days of the Court Week, and transacted business with great unanimity. I had several reasons for joining with them, (for I would inform, the application came from Mr. Smith to me) first, because a returning penitent ought to be admitted, and because they had it in their power to do a great deal of good or harm; they were old settlers, acquainted with business, still had the confidence of a number capable of giving uneasiness and trouble, notwithstanding we had brought them under the Law, "That forced prayers are not good," "is an old maxim, and convince a Man against his will and" "he'l be of the same opinion still," is another I well remember. The application coming from them, has every mark of sincerity; their getting admitted And bearing allegience voluntarily, &ca., is in my opinion, not only a sufficient acknowledgment to Bedford County, but the state in general. That by their assistance and advice their mouths are stopped from finding fault, the present Officers eased of a great deal of the Burthen of publick business, & the Council be no more troubled with long Epistles, &ca. For had not this been effected at last Court, there would've been a number of Replevins and other actions commenced against the present officers (that whether well or ill founded) would've done more harm than good, and to avoid this they say they want nothing but friendship, and that Justice may be done them. As I look upon myself hound to do every thing in my power for the good of the Cause in general, and Bedford County in particular, I would, at the request of Mr. Smith, (for I believe he is almost tired of writing to Council himself) mention the Situation of some Townships in Bedford County with regard to Magistrates. George Woods, Saml Davidson & George Funk, were elected for Bedford Town, and returned some time ago. Whether it would be proper to Commission Mr. Woods or not, as he is admitted an attorney at Law, I leave to the Council to determine; Mr. Davidson has been in the Commission before, and made a good Magistrate; George Funk is an honest Man, and may please the Germans; William Proctor, junior was in Commission before, and made a good Magistrate; Wm. Tod came to Bedford County to live shortly before I removed to York County, and therefore cannot say much of him from my own knowledge, but as he has been elected with Mr. Proctor for Bedford Township, may do very well. I am, uneasy concerning Cumberland Valley Township. Colonel Charles Cessna and Thomas Coulter are the two fittest Men in that Township for the Commission, and yet these two Men have not been upon good Terms these several years, and I imagine have had seperate Elections for that purpose. I should be glad the Council would reconcile matters that way. Mr. Coulter was in the Commission before, and made a good magistrate. The Council may receive information from Colonel Cessna, as I expect he is now in the assembly.
     I would be glad Colonel Matlack would send me, first safe opportunity, a Dozen Tavern Licences. I am, with the greatest respect, Your Excelley's and the Councils most obedt humble Servt ROBERT GALBRAITH.

          Note of the Continental Congress, 18 May, 1778

A petition from sundry inhabitants of the county of Bedford, in the State of Pensylvania, was read: Ordered that it be referred to the Board of War.

           Note of the Continental Congress, 18 May, 1778

A letter, of the 11, from Thomas Smith, of Bedford county, to James Smith, Esq. delegate from Pensylvania, was laid before Congress, and read:
     Ordered, That it be referred to the Board of War, and that they be authorized, in conjunction with General Washington, to take such measures for affording present relief to the western frontiers as can be adopted, consistent with the present state of the main army.

           Letter from the Supreme Executive Council to Congress, 19 May, 1778

The General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, having received accounts of attacks being made by the Indians on several parts of our Western frontiers, and that upwards of thirty persons have been lately killed by them in Bedford county, appointed a Committee to confer with the Executive Council on this distressing circumstance: this conference being had, we are unanimously of opinion, that it is our duty to apply to Congress for effectual assistance against the Savages as hath been afforded to the Southern States. This we conceive to be the more necessary in the present situation of our State, while the British enemy are in possession of our Capital. The great extent of our frontiers renders it almost impossible to prevent the sudden & horrid excursions of this Savage people, by any force which can be supported in forts or defences of that kind; but we conceive, that of an expedition were carried into the heart of the Indian country, and some of their towns destroyed, it would be much the most effectual defence, and be attended with less expence, and the loss of fewer men, than any mode of mere defence. We have a firm reliance on the wisdom of Congress in directing the measures in the present distressing situation of our affairs; yet we should be greatly wanting in our duty to the people whom we represent, if we neglected to solicit immediate and effectual assistance against an enemy, which, with small number of men, may depopulate a greater country in a few days than a large British army would do in a whole campaign. Signed by order of Council.

           Letter from the Board of War to President Wharton, 19 May, 1778

Sir, Enclosed you have Copy of the Board's Letter to His Excellency the General, on the Subject of an immediate Support to the Inhabitants of the Frontiers. It is unnecessary to enlarge on the Matter, as the Letter to the General will shew the Plan we have adopted. We have sent an Order on the Commissary General of MS. for half a Ton of Powder & a Ton of Lead, which you will please to dispose of in such Way as you shall think proper. On this occasion the Board cannot help mentioning, that a large Quantity of Ammunition, sent up to the Lieutenants of Bedford & Westmoreland Counties last Winter has been most Shamefully wasted by the Militia, & as Council must feel as Sensibly as we do on this Score, we have no Doubt but that the bare mentioning it will induce them to give strict orders, & take the necessary Steps for preventing this Evil in future as far as possible. We send also an Order on Mr. Henry for a Number of Rifles, if he can spare them, but as Col. Butlers Corps will probably want Rifles, will it not be best to wait for their Arrival, & let them be well equipt at Lancaster? In any other Matter pointed out by Council the Board will be happy to concur.
     I have the Honour to be with due Respect, Your very obedt Servt. By order, RICHARD PETERS.
     You have the Consent of the Board to order all Provisions purchased under the Law of this State, in Northumberland county, to be issued to the Militia, directing proper returns to be made to the Board; the Commissioners there may proceed in their purchases, as the Board see no other Way of Supply.

           Memorial of the Inhabitants of Bedford County, 19 May, 1778

The Inhabitants of Dublin Township, To the honourable Assembly, the Representatives of the State of Pennsylvania:
     We, your humble Petitioners, deeply impressed with a sense of danger to which we are exposed by the Indians, beg leave in a suppliant manner to lay our case before you, praying that in your deliberations, you may endeavour to adopt proper measures for our safety and protection. You are no doubt informed that the Savages have already begun to murder and destroy the property of the inhabitants upon the frontiers of this State; that those who have escaped their barbarities, fearing least they may also fall a prey into their hands, are flying to the more secure parts of the Country. As this is the case, what are we to expect but in a short time to lie open to all cruelties they are now obliged to suffer; our lives to be taken away in the most inhuman manner, our property to be wantonly destroyed, and ourselves and our families reduced to the greatest distress. These are the dangers to which we look forward with fear and anxiety, and these are the dangers against which we pray that in your wisdom you w'd make the speediest and most effectual provision. Besides, should the cruelties of the savages extend as far as us, you must know that we are not capable of ourselves to make adequate resistance; we must flie, and leave those who are now more remote from danger, exposed to all that inhumanity which we now dread, before the danger reaches us. We will chearfully contribute all the assistance in or power to the present sufferers; but should we ourselves become the sufferers, many circumstances will concur to hinder us from exerting ourselves effectually for that purpose. Farther, what will be the consequence of the savages ravaging the country and driving the inhabitants before them without any opposition, We shall shortly be deprived of the common support of life, nor have any secure retreat to w'h we may flie for protection. Hence it appears that the sooner we put a stop to their progress, it will in many respects turn out to our greater advantage. We would not pretend to dictate to your wisdom, any particular plan necessary in the present exegency, but only pray in the most suppliant manner that you would seriously consider our situation and proceed in the speediest manner against the evils that now threaten us. Neither do we lay these considerations before you to awaken in you the feelings of humanity. We apprehend you are sensibly affected with the view of our distressed situation, and will at all times act for the good of the people, whose sentiments you are supposed to speak. We only mean to shew you that as we are a part of the whole, so the whole must be rendered more weak in proportion to the loss we or any other part may sustain. Your hearkening to the voice of our petition, and endeavouring to give us the speediest succour in your power will increase our obligations to confess ourselves to be ever bound in duty to pray. JAMES COYL, JOHN MOORE, JAMES SHIELDS, JOHN TICE, JOHN SHEDAGARS, ANDREW MICHAEL, WILLIAM MARKS, ANDREW HAMMER, GEORGE SHEDAGARS, JOHN GALLOHER, DAVID WALKER, NICHOLAS WELCH, THOMAS HUNTER, JAMES MORTON, ROBERT RAMSEY, JAMES FLEMING, CAMPBELL LEFEVER, SAMUEL MORTON, JAMES NEELY, JOHN MORTON, THO'S BURD, ALEXANDER McCALROY. JAMES McBRIDE, GEORGE WILSON, JOHN STITT, JOHN APPLEBY, JAMES WILSON, JOHN WILSON, HUGH DAVIDSON, JOHN MORRISON, JOHN WALKER, PATRICK FITZSIMMONS, JOHN RAMSEY, WILLIAM CARTER, ROB'T NELSON, THO'S CARTER, JOHN BRISON, JAMES McCEE, CHARLES McGILL, HENRY HOLTZ, ISAAC LEFEVER.
     Endorsed: Petition from Dublin Township, Bedford County, Indian Incursions. Referred to Council.

           Letter from Tim'y Pickering, Jr., to Gen. Washington, 19 May, 1778

Sir, The inclosed copy of a letter from Thomas Smith, Esqr, will inform you of the distressed condition of the frontiers of this state. The counties of Westmoreland and Northumberland are equally exposed with Bedford. Other accounts correspond with that of Mr. Smith, and show that a general stroke is greatly to be apprehended: and that in addition to the barbarous savages the disaffected inhabitants are a terror to their neighbours, and that some of them mingle with the indians in committing those horrid cruelties.
     To repel the incursions of the indians and reduce the disaffected to obedience, nothing in our opinion will be effectual but a regular force under the direction of good officers. The inhabitants appear, many of them, to be a wild, ungovernable race, little less savage than their tawny neighbours; and by similar barbarities have in fact provoked them to revenge; but the innocent are now involved in one common calamity with the guilty, and all greatly disheartened; yet by the countenance of a few regular troops they would recover spirit and resolution, and be instructed in, and led to pursue, the necessary measures for the defence of their settlements.
     It is with regret we ask for aid in this case from the main army; but we are convinced none other will be equal to the duty. An officer of established reputation for bravery and capacity, commanding a regular corps who punctually obey his orders, will alone be able to inspire the people with confidence, and reduce them to such a degree of order and regularity as shall be necessary for their defence. Mr Smith has named the Butler's for this service. Either of them wd save the frontier: but if we are not misinformed Lieut. col. William Butler has been most conversant with the indians and their mode of fighting. We submit it therefore to your excellency, whether it will not be expedient to appoint him to this command. We conceive it will be absolutely necessary that his corps should amount to 250 men at least, and be composed of expert rifle men; the officers to be such as colonel Butler shall select, with your excellency's approbation, as best qualified for that kind of service.
     Such a deduction from the army we hope will at this time be attended with no material inconvenience, especially as it has been considerably reinforced, and draughts are daily coming in. Six hundred from the state of New York will probably be at camp by the time this letter arrives there.
     Congress have in contemplation an expedition against Detroit, or at least into the indian country, that they may strike at the root of the mischief. But should it be resolved on immediately the necessary preparations cannot be completed 'till September; and until then such a regular force as we have mentioned on the frontiers appears to us indispensible.
     Should these measures for the present relief of the frontiers meet with your excellency's concurrence, this may be put in execution immediately, agreeably to the power given by the inclosed resolve. But should you judge other means more proper and equally expeditious for the relief of the frontiers, we beg your excellency to determine upon them at once without waiting for the opinion of the board, as we fear a day's delay may prove of very ill consequence.
     By order of the board, TIM. PICKERING, junr

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 20 May, 1778

John Burd, Esq'r, informed the Council that John Ramsay, appointed to purchase Horses in the County of Bedford, had purchased Ten Horses, & was very desirous of having them removed to a place of Safety; thereupon, Ordered, That John Ramsay, of the County of Bedford, be directed to deliver the Horses purchased for the Army by him to the Deputy Assistant Quarter Master most convenient to him, to be forwarded to Camp immediately; taking two Receipts for the same, & forwarding one of them to this Council.

           Note of the Council to Delegates of Congress, 20 May, 1778

Sirs, Council recommended to the board of war at York, the furnishing of some powder & lead, & rifle guns to Colonel Carothers for the use of the Militia of Cumberland, & since that application was made for ammunition & victuals for the Militia of Northumberland. A letter of yesterday from the board is since received, signed by Mr. Peters, inclosing an order for a half a Ton of Gunpowder, & a Ton of lead for the use of the "inhabitants, who will embody themselves for the defence of the" frontiers of this State; the words stroked below being interlined. It is strange that after an application for the use of the Militia drawn out by the Lt for the defence of the frontier, & consequently to be paid & victualled by the Honourable Congress this ammunition should be expressly appropriated to associators going forth as volunteers, to the exclusion of the Militia; or at least treating their efforts as the exertions of persons not employed & paid by the United States. The insertion of the words above marked, between the lines, after the first draught, fixes this Idea of the board in our view. It seems strange to us, that when a most dangerous invasion has been made upon the Eastern part of this State, & when the Indians hired by an Enemy, who avow & justify in the face of all Europe, the horrid barbarities of such allies, have been for months past threatening to desolate the western Countries, so little provision has been made for the relief of the back Country that the informations of Council & Assembly have prevailed little, till one Mr. Smith of Bedford Co., has thought fit to interpose & point out the means of relief, & officers to be employed; that the supply of ammunition & arms & of victuals for the Militia, necessarily drawn out to oppose the savage foe, is either evaded or denied ; for the reference to the Commisrs for purchase in Northumberland is little better, as it is no secret that as provisions for the Inhabitants there are scarce, none can be spared.
     We desire your attention to these matters, & to have it settled, if not already done, whether Congress mean to pay & victual the Militia, necessarily embodied on the Western Frontiers, as has been done in the case of the Southern States. This may surely be expected in an invasion & attack made on Pensa, as part of the United States, & not on her own acct. If there be any hesitation we ought to know it, that we may take our measures, for between two dependances the County may be ruined.
     The order for ammunition, recited above, is now returned, to be drawn anew, so as to have it for the Militia, & as an issue for public use, not as a mere bounty to Associators. While this is doing the delivery may be ordered (to save time) to John Carothers, Esq., Lt of Cumberland Co., for the use of Westmoreland, Bedford, Cumberland, Northumberland, 1/4 part each, in case no other recent supply has been sent to the two former. No time should be lost in placing it in Mr. C's hands. Indeed, it seems strange how it came to be sent hither, especially, as considering matters in our view, the supply is so small The abuse which Mr. Peters mentions of waste of former supplies sent to Westmoreland and Bedford had already fallen under our notice, and had given us pain. These people are, we own, difficult to manage. The Lieuts. shall be admonished on that head.
     I am, Gent'n., with great respect, Your most obd't and very hum. serv't., G. B., Vice Pt.

           Letter from the Council of Pennsylvania to L't Sam'l Hunter, 21 May, 1778

Sir, It gave Council great pain to find the Indians had began their horrid ravages. Your Letter of the 14th Inst, on this subject has been here several days. In the mean time one hundred fire arms, of wch 31 are rifles, (being all in the state stores) are ordered from Northampton to Colonel Will Gibbon's at Harris's Ferry. These, it is hoped are on the way. Besides these Guns, seventy rifles have been procured from the Continental store here, & Mr. Hambright has undertaken to forward them with dispatch to the same place. Willm Hewit, Esquire, of your County, applying to us for ammunition & arms at the same time, he was prevailed on to proceed to York Town & solicit personally for supplies, assisted by recommendations from Council. Before this Gentleman could reach that place & communicate his Business, an order of the Board of War issued for delivering to our order at Carlisle or Lebanon, one Ton of Lead, & 1/2 a Ton of gunpowder; rifle & musquet properly sorted. From Mr. Hewit nothing is come, but the order is sent forward, in order that John Carothers, Esquire, Lt of Cumberland, may receive the Powder & lead, one fourth for your use. If Mr. Hewit appears, he is to take the care of forwarding them, & also the Fire arms, gone for Harris's to you. It is presumed, that the musquetts may be useful in stockades & houses. Be careful to avoid, as far as you can, the reproach fallen on the Militia of Bedford & Westmoreland of wasting ammunition sent to them last winter. This may be one reason why the present issue is smaller than could be wished. Perhaps Mr. Hewit may obtain Flints.
     The present attack of the Savages is doubtless concerted by our European Enemy, who avow in the face of the world, the employment of such horrid Allies. It is manifestly made in concert with the invaders of the eastern side of our state. Beyond all doubt, then Pennsilvania has a claim to be supported by the force & money of the United States, as was done lately for the S. States. Council & Assembly have therefore in a joint representation to Congress, set forth the case of our suffering settlers, & demanded the aid & protection necessary. And Council alone finding the victualing of the Militia of Northumberland, referred to the provisions purchased by Commiss in your County; a fund as Council apprehend, of a very scanty size, have urged upon the deleg of Pennsilvania to apply for proper and adequate supplies of food & stores for the Militia, necessarily embodied for the immediate defence of the County.
     The Board of War have desired Gen'l Washington to send Col. Butler & at least 250 rifle men from the army as an immediate succour to the Militia against the Indians. This aid, tho' small is also precarious. For tho' the British forces seem to meditate a retreat from our City, yet there is reason to doubt whether they will put out to sea, or force a passage thro' New Jersey to New York. Perhaps therefore, the Gen'l may be not hasty in sending off this detachment.
     Congress have on different grounds, & occasions, obtained from Council the stores of this state of most kinds. It is therefore necessary to depend on their issues at this time. Be assured, that every thing shall be done to influence them to support & supply the Militia.
     I am Sir, yr very hum. Servt, G. B., Vice prest.
     P. S. We inclose to you a Letter to the Commiss for purchasing proviss to issue what they may have procured to the Militia; tho' we expect little use of this allowance of the board of war; & we have accordingly stated this matter to Congress.

           Letter from the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania to John Carothers, Lieutenant of Cumberland County, 21 May, 1778

Council have had yr Letter of the 12th Instant, before them for some time; without delay they backed your call on the Board of War at York for arms & ammunition. You were silent as to the number of Rifles that might be in good repair at Carlisle, whereupon 48 Guns of that sort were procured here, & sent to you by a waggon two days since, the Waggoner's name is McEwen; the Brigade he belonged to was directed by one Williamson, they went by way of York Town.
     As the Board of War sent to Council an order for one ton of lead & half a ton of Gunpowder, rifle & musket, in such proportion as should be proper, it is likely that no rifles nor flints have been ordered. The order too had improper limitations in it. For this reason it was sent to our delegates in Congress to be amended, & sent without delay to you. One-fourth of this issue, is appropriated to the use of yr County, and the other three to the relief of Northumberland, Bedford & Westmoreland. Tho's Hewitt, Esq'r, of Northumberland, left us for York Town, recommended for a supply of Rifles, flints, & fire arms, to be sent to Saml Hunter, Esq'r at Augusta. The proportion of powder & lead for that County he may perhaps call for; arms for the same, are, it is hoped, by this time at Coll Gibbon's at Harris' Ferry.
     Council & Assembly have made a strong representation to Congress of the urgent necessity of defending our frontiers agt the Indians as they did those of the Southern States; and Council yesterday wrote to the delegates of Pennsylvania. to know whether it was intended to supply food & all other necessaries to the Militia, embodied for the public defence, that measures may be taken accordingly. It appears, that General Washington has been requested to send 250 riflemen at least, under Colonel Butler, from his army to assist the Militia; but at this important hour, when the British forces show signs of retreating from Philad'a, & while it is uncertain whether they will embark, or force a passage thro' New Jersey, it is doubtful whether any detachment whatever will be made.
     Council had some time since learned with regret, that the Militia of Bedford & Northumberland, had inconsiderately applied to inferior purposes the ammunition issued for their defence. The Board of War now reminds us of their wasteful conduct. It is recommended to you to prevent as far as in your power, such reproach falling on the Militia of your County.

           Letter from Board of War to V.P. George Bryan, 27 May, 1778

Sir, The board have been favoured with your letter of the 25th instant. In addition to the order for ammunition, the board directed that Mr Henry should, if possible, furnish you with 100 rifles: a copy of the order is inclosed. Besides these, Genl Roberdeau has had orders for and recd a number of arms for the guard at Sinking Spring Valley. All the public workmen are busily engaged in repairing arms; but all do not supply the demands of the army.
     In our letter of the 19th instant, we inclosed a copy of our letter to Gen1 Washington, proposing that about 250 riflemen should be sent from camp for the immediate defence of the frontiers. The General has favoured us with his answer, informing that he had ordered that number to march forthwith. They consist of part of the 13th Virgina regiment, (the other part being already at fort Pitt,) & Col Brodhead's regiment. About 100 of the latter were of Col Morgan's rifle corps ; and both this & the 13th Virga regt were raised on the western frontiers. This force, we trust, will effectually secure the frontiers, and we hope enable the inhabitants to return to their settlements.
      In consequence of their report & the resolve of Congress thereon, the Board supposed 300 militia had been stationed at Bethlehem & Easton: but by the return of their messenger they find there have been none at either place, nor at Allentown. Those at Reading are discharged, except about 50 for the town guard.
     On the 6th instant, we wrote to Col Grubb, at Lebanon, desiring to know the number of his guard, and the manner of forming it; but have received no answer. A guard there is indispensibly necessary; but of what strength we cannot determine. We will write to Col Flower on the subject, that as few as possible may be called from their occupations to perform military dnty.
      I am, Sir, very respectfully, your obedt servt, TIM. PICKERING, junr. By order.

           Letter from Thomas McKean to George Bryan, Vice-President of the Supreme Executive Council, 27 May, 1778

Your favor of the 21st came safe to hand, together with the extracts of Colo. Piper's & Councillor Urie's Letters.
     It may be well to make examples of some of the most wicked of the prisoners in Bedford, as soon as practicable; but when I reflect on the Savages having scalped eleven women & children, within five miles of the town of Bedford; that the people must all be in arms; that these criminals might escape for want of testimony or the Attorney General's presence, who cannot well bear the expence of so long a journey without some salary' that before a Precept could be sent to the Sheriff of that county, and the legal time for summoning Jurors, &c., being allowed, we should be in the beginning of harvest, with the Court; and more especially that in great probability the Enemy may soon evacuate Philadelphia, which happening, will require me immediately to resign my seat in Congress, and to repair thither, as there will be an absolute necessity for a Judge on the spot. I say, Sir, when I consider these things I am rather of opinion it would be advisable to defer holding a court there yet. As there will no doubt many more of those wretches be made prisoners, it would be as well, in my judgement, to prevent the expense of two courts, within perhaps two months, & try them all at once. If you think differently from me about holding court in Bedford at this time, be so good to mention it to Mr. Atlee, who can write a Precept & sign it, and afterwards send it to me; he may fix any day for holding the court that he thinks proper, it will be agreeable to me.
     I condole with poor Mrs. Wharton on the death of the President. There is nothing new here. Jo. Bone will be executed to day, in pursuance of your warrant. Why did not the General Assembly choose a new President. I am, dear Sir, With great regard, Your most obedient servant, Tho. M'Kean.

           Letter from Thomas McKean to V.P. George Bryan, 27 May, 1778

Dear Sir, Your favor of the 21st came safe to hand, together with the extracts of Colo. Piper's & Councillor Urie's Letters.
     It may be well to make examples of some of the most wicked of the prisoners in Bedford, as soon as practicable; but when I reflect on the Savages having scalped eleven women & children, within five miles of the town of Bedford; that the people must be all in arms; that these criminals might escape for want of testimony or the Attorney General's presence, who cannot well bear the expence of so long a journey without some salary; that before a Precept could be sent to the Sheriff of that county, and the legal time for summoning Jurors, &c., being allowed, we should be in the beginning of harvest, with the Court; and more especially that in great probability the Enemy may soon evacuate Philadelphia, which happening, will require me immediately to resign my seat in Congress, and to repair thither, as there will be an absolute necessity for a Judge on the spot. I say, Sir, when I consider these things I am rather of opinion it would be advisable to defer holding a court there yet. As there will no doubt many more of those wretches be made prisoners, it would be as well, in my judgment, to prevent the expense of two courts, within perhaps two months, & try them all at once. If you think differently from me about holding the court in Bedford at this time, be so good to mention it to Mr. Atlee, who can write a Precept & sign it, and afterwards send it to me; he may fix any day for holding the court that he thinks proper, it will be agreeable to me.
     I condole with poor Mrs. Wharton on the death of the President. There is nothing new here. Jo. Bone will be executed to day, in pursuance of your Warrant. Why did not the General Assembly choose a new President.
     I am, dear Sir, With great regard, Your most obedient servant, THO. M'KEAN.

           Letter from John Carothers to President of Council, 28 May, 1778

Sir, The Indians Continue their savage cruelty upon our frontiers; Numbers of families are obliged to fly and Leave their all to the mercy of a savage foe, and numbers fall victims to their unabated cruelty. Col. Buchanan, the bearer, will give council a particular account of the Distresses of the frontier of this county, and the murders Lately commited in that Quarter; the unarmed state of the inhabitants, notwithstanding the assistance already given by the public, adds greatly to the calamity. The Quota of ammunition for this county I have sent to the fronteers; part to Canogogige & path valley, & part to Kishycoquilles, but the number of men obliged to be under arms in this Last place, makes the Quantity to each man very trifling, and numbers to have none at all. I have given strick charge with respect to unnecessary waste of the ammunition. Mr Hoge, a member of councils, wrote me some time ago about a number of Muskets which might be had upon application to a certain gentleman, If Col. Buchanan be of opinion that muskets would be any how usefull to them, (if rifles cannot be had,) perhaps they might yet be had. I have purchased about twenty rifles, & sent up to Kishycoquilles, at between ten & twenty-two pounds ten shillings price, & could perhaps, get a few more. If I thought myself Justifiable in giving thirty pounds a piece, I would be glad to have the opinion of council upon that matter. The rifles sent up by council I have sent to Canegogige & path valley. There is another matter I beg Leave to mention to council, sometime ago a number of Tories got in arms near Standing stone, of which council has had information already, Whereupon a number of officers and men (not of the classes called to do duty) who were Looked upon to be best woodsmen, were obliged to turn out, & had a very severe march, almost to the Kittaning & back, being often in great Danger from the Indians, five, out of six spyes they sent out, were killed, & suffered much, Likewise, for want of provisions. The matter now is, how these men are to be paid, as numbers of them very usefull and necessary on this expedition, were induced to turn out by their officers promising that they should be paid. I would also beg Leave to ask council what is my Duty with respect to Deserters from the militia, whither I should Levy the fine from them, or send them back to camp, or whither a militia Deserter can be Tried by a court martial not in actual service we have Just now taken one, Brown, who Deserted from Col. Watts' Class, & sent him to prison, & it is thought before we Could procure a guard & send him to camp, there to have his tryal, that his Class would be discharged, & Likewise all the militia who were in actual service when he Deserted, & of consequence all who could be evidence in his case. I understand some dispute happening between him and one of his Company officers, was the reason why he came off; & perhaps there may be something more Criminal in his case than mere Desertion. The Deserter insists upon paying his fines, & Declares he will never serve in that company, for he thinks they would take his life. If I thought a court martial of Col. Watts officers could try him on their return home, or after they come home, I would write to him on this matter, but as with me it is doubtfull, I request councils Direction in this & all similar cases.
     I am, sir, with respect, Your very Humble servent, JNo CAROTHERS, L. Co Cs.
     P. S. It is probable if an expedition is formed against any of the Indian Towns near the fronteers of this county, that Numbers in futer Classes may that not be Called then to do Duty, would be induced to march, provided they had a promise from council of exemption from Duty when their Class might be called. Numbers of the militia of this county, who were called to camp Last winter, Lost their Blankets, and are constantly applying to me for the pay, agreeable to an order of Council for that purpose. If Council, therefore, may think it my Duty to pay said Blankets, I would be glad of there Directions in the matter. J. C., L. Co.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 29 May, 1778

Ordered, That the following named Persons be appointed Agents, according to An Act of General Assembly, entitled "An Act for the attainder of divers Traitors, if they render not themselves by a certain day, & for vesting their Estates in this Common-Wealth, and for effectually discovering the same, & for ascertaining & satisfying the lawful debts & claims; thereupon," to Wit: ...For the County of Bedford, Rob't Galbraith, Thomas Urie, & John Piper.

           Letter from John Harris to V.P. Bryan, 03 June, 1778

Sir, I have Rec'd several letters from Collol Hunter lately, mentioning the Distrest situation of Nothumberland Coty, &c., it appears absolutely necessary that some Person should Receive, Store, provide & forward any Stores the Publick may order up the Susquehanna, Juniata, &c., during the present Indian Warr; a Quantity of flour is wanted, not a Cask or Bag to put it in; the inhabitants are leaving sd county in Great numbers. I pity my Bleeding Country, & am willing to assist the supplying the County of N'thumberland by any means in my power, or forward any Article up the different branches of this River, from (time to time.) I am as Good a judge of the Navigation, in Either Boat or Canoe, on our River, as can be found. I Expect to send up a Quantity of Stores to the lead mines, up Juniata, at Water street, as soon as I Receive a letter from Mr. Roberdeau, wch I hourly Expect, the present flood, to convey by water shou'd not be lost, as perhaps no other may happen till next fall; the Qr. Master can furnish provisions for Boatmen or any Necessary Escorts, &c., if the Inhabitants in their fright are suffer'd to move off as they are doing, & assistance not soon sent up the Crops will be lost in many frontier places, that may be saved by their Geting timely aid from the Publick; a Quantity of Arms, some powder & lead, is here for Nthumberland Cot'y, which I Expect will be forwarded To morrow; theres Two Good Store houses at my Dwelling plantation, Exclusive of a Sellar 50 feet by 40, under my Dwelling house, soe that there's plenty of Store Room for the public use, (if wanted); there's a Great concourse of Publick Waggons, &c., with Stores on the Reading Road, too few flatts at the ferrys here, & what there is will not be properly attended, that the publick may suffer for want of a few men employ'd by the publick (to assist in my opinion.) I have Rented my Tavern, ferry, &c., & am at leisure to assist the Transporting Stores, &c., up the Susquehannah, as offer' d, if proper Instructions is sent me. You'l please to write me by the Bearer, Mr. Whitsall, if you judge it necessary.
     I am, Sir, with the greatest esteem, your most Obedt & most Humble Servt. JOHN HARRIS.
     P. S. Excuse haste & Blunders. J. H.

           Letter from the Supreme Executive Council to the Freeholders of Bedford County, 04 June, 1778

To the Freeholders of Bedford County. If the freeholders of any Township have chosen proper persons for to be commissioned as Justices of the Peace, it would be of great use to send down returns to Council of the Names signed by the Judges of such Elections. But in case they have neglected to meet & chuse on the day heretofore appointed, then let another day be fixed on, & an Election be holden for this purpose, & on a return by the Judges, Council will think themselves well able to issue Commissions, seeing they are by the Constitution to Supply all Vacancies, & in this mode they would act fully up to the Letter & Spirit of the Constitution.

           Letter from General Roberdeau to Secretary Matlack, 06 June, 1778

Sir, If your orders are positive for returning the Books borrowed they must be complied with, but if otherwise they will be retained, as they will be useful in a very little time in determining a point on the same subject they were called for; therefore I shall wait your answer, as these books cannot be procured, as I know, any where else at present. My Sisters acknowledge your polite notice, and hope with me to congratulate you shortly in regaining our Capital.
     I am respectfully Sir, yr most obt hum1 Sert, DANIEL ROBERDEAU.
     P. S. If possible let Books remain, of which care shall be taken. Desire Mr. Foulke to buy me a few quires of good paper.

           Letter from Board of War to V.P. Bryan, 08 June, 1778

Sir, Your letter to the delegates of Pennsylvania, in Congress, dated -----, with the petition of divers inhabitants of Northumberland County, praying for some means of defence to be afforded them against the Indians, were referred to this board, who, after considering the same, & conferring with the two gentlemen who presented the petition, agreed on a report to Congress for raising a company of one hundred men, agreeably to the resolve passed thereon, which is inclosed. The large allowance to every man who shall find his arms & accoutrements; it is hoped will go far towards a supply of the company.
     You observe in your letter to your delegates, that frequent applications have been made to this board for arms & amunition. That all these demands were not amply supplied, arose from the scantiness of the public stores, particularly of arms & lead. The same difficulty still continues. It is certainly of the first importance to arm tho Continental troops. Every assistance, compatible with this main object, requisite for the security of the frontiers, we have been, and always shall be ready to afford. We wish it were possible to prevent the misapplication of such aid. Of the amunition issued by the board, last winter, to some of the western counties, it was confessed that the greater part was probably wasted. A more recent instance of waste happened at Sinking Spring Valley. Gen'l Roberdeau ordered a certain number of cartridges to be distributed to the people; but when the Indians committed some depredations not far distant, & the men were to turn out, scarcely a cartridge was found in their possession. It would be a most valuable acquisition could you devise some measure to put a stop to this fatal mischief.
     As the Lieutenant of Northumberland county is authorized to superintend the company, it may be proper for you to instruct him to satisfy himself, by an examination or muster of the men who shall be inlisted, that they are able bodied, & fit for the duty for which they are raised.
     Pay will be issued upon an application to the board of war, upon a muster roll of the company, certified by the Lieutenants, or, in his absence, the Sub-Lieutenants of that county.
     I am sir, respectfully, your most obedt servant, TIM. PICKERING, Junr. By order of the Board.

           Letter from General George Washington to Daniel Roberdeau, 15 June, 1778

Sir: I was favoured with your letter of the fourth Inst. The number of applications for manufacturers and artificers of different kinds could they all be complied with, would be a considerable loss to the army.
     But as the establishing the smelting of lead is of very great importance, I have directed Serjeant Harris to repair to you at York Town; and this day given general orders for an inquiry to discover if two others, who understand the business can be found in camp. If there are any such, I shall have them sent to you. With great respect, I am etc.

          Letter from Robert Cluggage to (unknown), 17 June, 1778 {Maintained by Fort Roberdeau Museum}

By express I send you the situation of this garrison and the late movements of the enemy in these parts. The thirteenth, the Indians killed or took one woman and three children near the Standing Stone Town. A number of the enemy have been discovered in these parts. The 14th about twelve o'clock in the day one was discovered within two hundred yards of this fort. I immediately sent a party to this spot. They found the marks of issue. They searched in every quarter but could not over take them. The proceeding night two or three of them was discovered by one of the sentinals creeping up to the wall, He notified the sgt. of the guard. He immediately got three more of the guards together and fired on them. He drove the rest of them away without returning the fire. The same night one Hollidays house at Frankstown was attacked. Luckily there were nine men with arms in it. The enemy set fire to all the out houses and burnt them to the ground. The dwelling house the men defended until day break. At that time they got relief. There was not any killed in either as far as we can learn - from every circumstance we may believe that there is a number of the enemy amongst us.
      Twenty four of the militia left me yesterday. I hourly expect the remainder to leave me. Enclosed I send a return of the time the militia arrived at this post and the time of their leaving it. The inhabitants is entirely fled or forted for fifty miles below this place. The guards I am under obligation to keep on the road to defend provisions coming here make me excessively alarmed.
     If there is not more men ordered to this frontier, I am afraid it will be in a distressed situation. There is scarcely one day but I receive expresses from one quarter or other praying for assistance. It grieves me to think that I am not able to afford any.
     I have already mentioned the situation at Standing Stone. If that place is not defended I know not how this place will be supported. Scarcity of paper make me write short. The bearer, an inhabitant, has undertaken to present these lines to you. Pray satisfy him for his trouble.
     Pray let General Roberdeau know our situation as I am not able to write to him. I am your humble svt 1st Robt Clugage
     N.B. Major Alexander McHatton commanded the Cumberland County Militia which has been on the Frontier the two months past was here and informed me that he would be willing to remain three or four months longer in the defense of his country. To my knowledge he is an experienced man in the way of Indian wars. He likewise understands the woods well, &c.
     I would be sorry to complain against any militia officer but as yet I have never been acquainted with one that for the term of two or three months could bring their men under regulation. Therefore I pray if it is in your power he will be continued. I am certain if General Roberdeau knew him as well as I do he would give the same recommendation of him. As above 1st R.D.

           Letter from Col. J. Potter to Mr. Stewart, 17 June, 1778

Sir, This Day Receving an Express from General Potars with the foloing inteligance.
     A copy of a Leter from Col. Long to General Pt., which is as folowes. ~ Sir, 14 of this instant alarming acount from Licoman, Concerning a few inhabitance who taking their Station at Covinghavings & ware Returning to Licoman with an ascort of Militia, under the Command of Coll. Hoskman, who ware atackted By twelve Indians, six of our Peopel were kiled & two Mising; there ware also the seam Day, at Layal Sock, three Men kiled that weare hunting Catel; we had some time ago an Indian prisenar who had Come Down, Seninghoning, who informs of thoes twelve Indians who did the Murder, he also informed me of Numbar who are Detarmened to com Down & Murder all that is on the East & west Branches of Sescquanaha; I intended to heave sent him Down to Col, Hunter, in order to satisfy him, but an Eavel Disposed person Belong to a lower Gorason shot him as he ware Sleaping in the gard Houce; we are also in Formed of twenty Parsones kiled on the North Brentch of the River, together with a prisinor that Mead his Easceape who gave information that the Nordring indians Are Detarmined to Distroy Both Brenches in this Mon. I Remean your humble sa., &: &:
     There weare a party of Capt. Pealear's Men in the Nitany Valy this Day & Brings in an acount that the Discovered a Numbar of tracks Leading Down Logan's gap, the tracks weare quight fresh & to Apearance to be upwards of thirty in Numbar.
     From yours to sarve. Copy. JAS. POTTER, B. G.
     Dr Mr Steward, yesterday Receving theas Acounts from our fruntears, besides Divers Repourtes from Standing Stone, our Inhabitance is in greate Distress as there armes and Amunition is Deteaned By thoes men that the Armes weare sent by. I Expeck that Murder will be Don every Day in oure inhabitance. I Coulde wish that in your wisdomes Nigh Do somethin in this Mater, Excuse heast all from your frend.

           Letter from James Dunlap to Jonathan Hoge, 22 June, 1778

Dr Sir, Before this reach you you will perhaps hear of 4 persons being killed, one wounded, & 8 Captivated between the Standing Stone and Col. Chegages. Though this, which came by express, was found not to be true, yet the people, even in the path Vellay, who was Colected in bodays, is so panick struck that they return tremblin to their houses. Their fears are greatly increast (& well they may) by the want of arms, there not being more than every Tenth man arm'd, and the greater part of those such as Wou'd Turn their arms against us, shou'd the Enemy be permited to advance. And these Emissaries take great incouragement from our defenceless situation. And numbers of them having left their habitations were supos'd to be join'd to the Savages, Cannot fail to increas the aprehention of the well affected. You doubtless Can remember, Sir, that this County, and in particular, the path Vellay, which is a part of my Battalion, & indeed the whole Battalion, was as well arm'd as any part of the Continent, but Cherfuly gave them up when the publick stood in need of them. This will surely have great Weight with the Council. I therefore beseech you, Sir, to use your utmost influence with your Brethren to furnish us with such means as may in a Common course of provedance prevent those evils that must unavoidably follow the depopulation of so large a tract of Countrey. I am of opinion that there is great quantatys of rifle guns in some of the Continental stores, that is not nor Will not be made use of in the Continental Army, and perhaps might be had if applied for.
     Colonel Culbertson, who Carrays this, is going to Camp and wou'd Take that business upon himself, if Council see fit to appoint him.
     The Verray Idea of a Savage enemy Comein upon defenseless famaleys Will be sufficient to arouse the Council in their defence. Therefore, shall say no more, but that I am, with all Cincerety, your rail friend & Humb Servant.

           Letter from General Assembly to V.P. Bryan, 23 June, 1778

Sir, From the apparent inroads of the Indians on the Western frontiers of this State & that of Virginia, Instigated, as they have been, for the peculiar purpose of subjugating the United States, I had expectations, & still have that Congress wou'd take up this matter in a general or Continental point of view, from which apprehension & the allarming nature of the thing, I took the liberty, some three or four Weeks ago, to throw out a few promiscuous thoughts to the Delegates of this State, in Congress, submitting to their prudence what farther use shou'd be made of them, (a Copy of which I intend you with this) bnt have not learn'd whether those hints came to their hands.
     That the Indian depredations are still increasing is beyond a doubt, & the devastation of Country now much greater than when I wrote the delegates, altho' of the particular murders I have not heard, since those related in General Potter's letter, sent you by Major Myles, only that a woman & two children were missing, & one man wounded at the head of Kishacoquillis Valley. I cannot yet learn, with certainty, whether there is any Indian Town in reasonable reach, on either Branch of the Susquehanah, but think it probable there must, if so, such Town or Towns might be readily destroyed, without much previous preparation ; and one or at most Two hundred Men sufficient for any of these. Shingaclamoose (if now inhabited) is but a few days march above the great Island. However expedient a vigorous attack on their Towns may be, so near is the Harvest, and of so much importance to the future support of the people and army that I'm inclined to think we must for the present be content to act on the defensive, for the reaping & gathering in of the Harvest; yet so extensive is the Frontier, even on this side the Alleghany Mountain, and so inadequate the measure that it's distressing, even in idea, altho' the best that the nature of the case will admit. The Inhabitants must agree to reap, &c., in such associstfed bodies as may be practicable, with guards appointed to cover them, whilst others, if to be spared, will Patrole behind them, or from one settlement to another. I conceive that all the Militia you can at this season of the year well draw from Lancaster & York Countys, with a small part of Cumberland, will not be sufficient to cherish & support the back parts of Cumberland, Northumberland & Bedford Countys; so that there may be a necessity of drawing some from Chester & Berks also. Yesterday Lieut. Sharp, of Shareman's Valley, told me he thought that in the space of one month Carlisle must be the frontier of this part of the Country, and that many Familys are actually fled in, I know to be fact. Yet it is equally true that various false reports are propagated, & that many have fled too hastily & without just occasion. So that on the whole a notice to such Militia as the Council may think proper, to hold themselves in readiness on a sudden Call, may for the present be sufficient.
     There is still another method to be taken that might contribute much to stimulate the frontier Inhabitants to their own defence & the protection of their property. That is a farther distribution of Arms and ammunition among them, in the back Battalions of the three Counties mentioned above; whether this is in your power is matter of doubt, perhaps the Board of War cou'd assist you.
     I shou'd be faulty in not informing you that a report prevails here that our people are in quietness at Fort Pitt, and some Indians coming into that place to a Treaty. The authority I cannot well give.
     I am, Sir, With sincere regard, Your most obedt humble Servant, JOHN ARMSTRONG.

           Note of the Continental Congress, 23 June, 1778

Ordered, That the Board of War estimate the expence of the fort lately built by Mr. (Daniel) Roberdeau, in Bedford county, in Pensylvania, and report the same to Congress, with their opinion by whom the same ought to be defrayed.

           Letter from John Carothers to George Bryan Vice-President of the Supreme Executive Council, 28 June, 1778

The continued importunity of the fronteer Inhabitants of this & Bedford Counties, for assistance of men, arms & ammunition, to enable them to make a stand against the continued incursions of the Indians, until they could get the fruits of the earth, (which is very promising in those parts) some how secured; or until they could get relief from the intended expedition against the Indian Towns; Obligeth me to trouble Council with this Letter.
     Notwithstanding The assistance already given by Council & the Board of War, in the way of arms & ammunition; the one-third of those who ought to be armed are not yet supplied. I Recd the Council's Letter of the 20th Instant, by Mr. Jno. McConnal, with an order from the Board of War for 500 wt of powder, 1200 wt of lead & 80 rifles, but there was no lead to be had here, nor any rifles in repair; I was obliged therefore to lake 40 Muskets in Lieu of part of the rifles ordered, which by no means satisfied the people applying. John Harris, Esqr, one of our representatives in Assembly, & Col. McAlevy, of Bedford county, was with me yesterday, supposing it to be in my power to send more militia to their assistance, at the same time aledging that without pretty Large assistance from the interior parts of this State, the fronteer would by no means he able to save their crops, which at this time appears to be a very important matter. In consequence of the order of Council, Dated at Lancaster, the 2d of May Last, I have sent out the first Classes from the 4th & 7th Battalion, to Kishycoquilles & Standing Stone Valley; They turned out very poorly, not more than 60, & with great Difficulty we got those few armed, as the inhabitants tip that way, when ever they got I arms in their hand whether public or private would by no means part with them, not knowing the hour when they might be attacked in the way, or in their houses; but this guard is so small for so extensive a fronteer, that the inhabitants wants that confidence & security necessary for the preservation of their crops, and without some further assistance of men, arms & lead, the inhabitants of this county, Bedford, and Northumberland, upon the river Susquhana, & Juniata, will he obliged to fly and Leave their harvists, which without doubt will reduce hundreds of families to the utmost Distress. The English army being now left the State, perhaps Congress may find it in their power to allow some assistance from the lower counties Militia, to those distressed people, making no doubt but these counties will gladly Embrace the opportunity of acknowledging former favors of the like kind. Whether Congress has any other Stores of Lead than those here, I know not; but notwithstanding the order from the Board of War, for 1200wt we could not obtain 100wt. These people are waiting with great impatience, and hoping that Council will do every thing in their power for their relief. I am with respect, Sir, Your very Humble servent, JNO. CAROTHERS, L. C. C.

           Note of the Continental Congress, 09 July, 1778

The president laid before Congress a bill drawn on him by John Baynton, deputy pay master general, in favour of Colonel John Piper, for 2,074 14 4, Pensylvania currency, being the amount of pay due the militia of Bedford county, in the continental service:
     Ordered, That it he referred to the Board of Treasury.

           Note of the Continental Congress, 10 July, 1778

The Committee on the Treasury brought in a report: Whereupon,
     Ordered, That a warrant issue on John Gibson, Esqr. auditor general, in favour of Colonel John Piper, for five thousand five hundred and thirty two and fifty two ninetieths dollars, to answer a draught in his favour from John Baynton, deputy pay master of the western district, dated Fort Pitt, April 27, 1778, for 2,074 14 4, Pensylvania currency; the said John Baynton to be accountable.

           Circular Letter of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, 14 July, 1778

The following draft of a circular letter was read in Council and agreed to, viz :
     In Council, Philadelphia, July 14, 1778.
     Sir, The attack which has been made by the Indians and others on the Frontiers of this State having been laid before the Congress, and a consultation held between the Board of war and Council, they have agreed upon the following arrangement for defence, to wit:
     A Detachment of Col. Hartley's regiment to march from New jersey to Easton, there to join Col. Kowatz, who has under his command a small number of horse. The remainder of Col. Hartley's regt, now in Philadelphia, to march immediately to Sunbury and join the two companies lately raised at Wyoming. Col. Broadhead's regiment, now on their march to Pittsburgh, to be ordered to the Standing Stone. For this purpose you are to order out the first, second, third, & even the fourth class, if it be necessary, to make up this number; the men must be had. But it is necessary to add to these continental troops a considerable body of militia; Council have therefore determined to order to Sunbury three hundred militia from the county of Northumberland, four hundred from the county of Lancaster, and one hundred and fifty from the county of Berks; to the Standing stone, three hundred from the county of Cumberland, and two hundred from the county of York; to Easton, from the county of Northampton, three hundred men, and from the county of Berks, one hundred and fifty men.
     You are therefore to exert yourself to get into the field three hundred men of the militia of your county, and march them immediately. It is expected that there is Guns sufficient in your hands to arm them. Ammunition and Provisions will be supplied to you by order of the Board of War.
     The arrival of a powerful fleet from France, having a considerable number of troops on board, with orders to act in conjunction with the Continental Army, and now actually blocking up the British Fleet in the harbour of New York, has induced the Congress to determine to make a vigorous effort to destroy the whole British force now in that city, and there appears to be a reasonable ground to hope for success in the attempt. This determination makes it highly improper to detach any part of the main army for the defence of the frontiers. If the attempt to reduce the whole British force should be crowned with success, it will undoubtedly be attended with the most salutary effects in removing the enemy from the frontiers; as it cannot be doubted but that they must see the impossibility of their continuing with any hope of success, their attack on us, when we shall be able to employ our whole force against them. And we are confident that the blow given by the indians will be severely revenged before the war with them will be closed.
     [To the foregoing are appended the following (apparently) notes or memorandums to be further used. A. & B.]
     The arrangement of the board of War. They Expect Militia to join promise ammunition, & orders to the Commissary for victuals --- Stations for Militia to repair to ---. Arms as the Case may be, at Northamp., Reading, Lancaster or Hummelstown, Orders issued to furnish these. Classes ordered & numbers to be aimed at. Blockade of N. Y. by Land; & port Shut by French fleet, wch as it promises by one Capital Stroke to finish the war in this Country, requires all attention, & the keeping entire the Army. Therefore no detachment can be expected.
     To Northampton.
     There is at the town of Northampton a sufficient number of Arms to supply any deficiency, which, however, we hope will not be considerable.
     Cumberland and York.
     To be supplied from Carlisle by the board of War, and if this supply is not sufficient, application must be made to Mr Rittenhouse & Mr Dehaven, at Hummelstown.
     Berks & Lancaster.
     To apply to Wm. Henry, Northumberland & Northampton.
     Delaware may be defended by Northampton & New Jersey Militia.
     1st, 2nd, third, & even fourth, if necessary, to raise their numbers.
     Same, or to use such other means as are in yr power in the present distressed situation.
     Northampton county, 300. Easton.
     Northumberland co., Sunbury, 300.
     Cumberland co., Standing Stone, 300.
     Berks co., 150 Sunbury, 300. 150 to the Eastwd, 150 to the Westd.
     Lancaster co., Sunbury, 400.
     York co., Standing Stone, 200.
     Chester co., Bucks co., Philada co., Bedford.
     Northumberland to Sunbury, 300, & two Companies raised at Wyoming last winter.
     Berks, 150.
     Lancaster, 400.
     Standing Stone.
     Cumberland, 300 Easton, Northampton. 300
     York, 200 Berks, 150
     500 450
     & Broadhead's regt 300
     July 14, 1778.

           Circular Letter from the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania to Lieutenants, 16 July, 1778

Sir, The Council, confiding in your known zeal, and your abilities as a general officer, have appointed you to take the command of the force raising for the defence of the States in the Neighbourhood of the river Susquehanna.
     It is proper to acquaint you that Col. Broadhead's regt, now on a march to Pittsburgh, is ordered by the Board of War to the Standing Stone, and we have ordered three hundred Militia from Cumberland & two hundred from York County to join them. Part of Col. Hartley's regt, consisting of about one hundred men, are now on their march to Sunbury, by the way of Lancaster and Harris's ferry, to be joined by two companies lately raised at Wioming; and Council have ordered to this post, four hundred militia from Lancaster, three hundred from Northumberland, and one hundred & fifty from Berks county. The remainder of Col. Hartley's regiment, probably about eighty men, is ordered to march from New Jersey to Easton, where they will join Col. Kowatz's small party of horse & a small company from Wyoming under the command of Col. Butler, and we have ordered one hundred and fifty men from Berks & three hundred from Northampton county to join this force at Easton.
     The Board of War will furnish the necessary supplies of provisions and ammunition. We are informed that Col. Hartley's regiment is furnished with thirty rounds of Cartridges a man, and have with them besides this quantity, ten thousand spare cartridges.
     The rapid movement of the enemy down the river Susquehanna requires your immediate exertions to repel them, and thereby encourage the inhabitants of the frontier to return home, and to secure our people, if possible so as that they may reap their harvest in safety.
     The uncertainty what movements the enemy will make, renders it impossible to give you any other than General orders for a vigorous exertion of your whole force for the security of the people ; and we confide that your good understanding will improve every opportunity which may offer to the publick advantage.
     General Mclntosh, who commands to the westward, having rec'd intelligence of the ravages of the Indians, has we just now learn, ordered Col. Broadheads regt up the Susquehanna river.

           Letter from Gen'l James Potter to Vice President Bryan, 25 July, 1778

Dr Sir, The Inhabitance of this Valley are all Returned, and Cuting there Greain. I left Sunberry last Sunday afternoon, the people are Returning to all parts of the County, altho I am Convinced the will not all Return, as there was a great Number of Tenants who will not Return. I am in Hopes that the greatest part of the Greain will be seaved, the loss that this County has sustained is verry great by Runing away in the manner they did, I think 40,000 pounds would not make good the losses. Col. Broadheads coming to this County at the time he did will do great service to it.
     I Cant Help Expressing my fears of the Inhabitance sufring in Cuting their Harvistes, the Militia are so slow in turning out, the Gaurds are weake, we have in this pleace one Capt, two Sargts 25 men for two forts; yesterday evening two men of Capt'n Finley's Company, of Col. Brodhead's Reg't, went out from this place in the plains, a little Below my fields, and met a party of Indians, not exceeding five in Number, whome they engaged, and on the first fire, one of the Soldiers, named Thomas Van Doran, was shot dead on the spot, the other, Jacob Shedacer, Ran about 400 hundred yards, and was persuwed by one of the Indians, both their guns were unloaded, they attacked each other with their Knives, our Gallant Soldier Killed his Antagonist; But hard was his feat, for after this Hard won Victory, for so it really was, another Indian came up and shot him, so that he and the Indian that he last Killed, lay within two perch of each other; it is the opinion of us that saw the ground, that one or two Indians was killed or wounded, where the engagement first began, thus Greatly Died our two worthey Soldiers, and sold their lives at such a price as no enemy would be fond of purchasing at what Soldier at his Death, would not wish to purchase such Lorels as is Justly due to those brave men? These Soldiers served with Col. Morgain in the last Campain.
     These enemys are allways Taking off some one or other, this day week they Killed a man and a woman near the standing stone, and there being no Gaurd there it ocasioned the Inhabitance all to Run away and leave their Greain, some Cut and some not.
     The Distress of this Cuntrey is great, and there is no Reale Remedy under Heaven But by Carring war in too our Savidge enemy's Cuntrey, you Cant conseave the pleasure it would give me to see it dun.
     When the Militia that the Councal Has ordered out Come hear, I will go and station them on the frunteers and give them Orders, I do not just approve of the Orders that have Been given, when it is dun I will let Councal know the Disposion.
     I am, Dr Sir, your Most Obedient and Respectfull Humble servant, JA' POTTER.
     P. S. The Enemy in the action with the two Soldiers left 3 guns, two thomhaks, &c.

           Statement by Robert Galbraith, 02 August, 1778

John and James Armstrong confessed to me the subscriber, in the Goal of Bedford County that they were under arms to join the Enemy at the Kittaning against the United States in Company with the others within named.
     Certified by me this second Day of August, 1778.

           Letter from John Piper to George Bryan, Vice-President of the Supreme Executive Council, 07 August, 1778

Honourd Sir, I By this opportunity beg leave to Lay before you the Distressed Situation of the frontiers of Bedford County, from the frequent Encursions of the Savages into our Settlements, Have oblidged us to call a number of Militia upon duty to prevent the total devastation of our Country; we are mutch distressed in this county for want of a proper Person apointed Pay Master to enable us to discharge this unavoidable by necessary Expence, I would therefore aply to yr Hounour for direction which is the proper channel through which I ought to apply for a suply of cash as our distance from fort Pitt Renders it almost impossable to aply there for every suply of cash that is necessary in hopes Sir, youl pleas to consider our Situation and Grant sutch Council and Direction as to your Honour May apear most Elligable. Am with all Due respect, you Honours most obedt Humble Servt, John Piper.
     P.S. I Receivd an order from the Board of war for three hundred wt of powder and Six hundred wt of Lead for the use of this county. John Piper.

           Letter from the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania to Dr. Wm. Shippen, 08 August, 1778

Sir, Beside the militia at Sunbury there are two other bodies in Continental service which will also require a supply of medicine. One body consisting of five hundred men at Standing stone, on Juniata, in Bedford County ; the other consisting of four hundred & fifty men at or near Easton. You will therefore please to pay attention to these two bodies at the same time that those at Sunbury are supplied. The Council wish to know immediately what prospect there is of getting the medicine to Sunbury especially, that an answer may be given by the express to Coll. Hartley's application.

           Letter from Col. T. Hartley to the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, 10 August, 1778

Gentlemen, In my last to you of the 2 Inst, I mentioned the steps I had then taken, & the situation of these Frontiers. Since then I have disposed of the militia who have arrived, at different posts, for the Protection of the People. Every man of my own Regt who could possibly go, I have also sent upon Command.
     We have lent every aid to reap & get in the Harvest, much more will be saved than I could possibly have imagined.
     Berks County has furnished its Quota of militia. Lancaster Conty has fallen far short. Northumberland County distracted & distressed; many of the Inhabitants fled & not returned, could afford but few men to act in the general scale of militia. The Wyoming Companies have not joined me, nor have I heard of the detachment of my Regt sent to Northampton. From these causes all our exertions here must fall short of the services wanted by an unhappy & intimidated Frontier.
     My object, as I mentioned in my last, was to fix some principal Frontier posts, which we were to maintain, if possible; & grant as many smaller detachments for the Protection of particular settlements, as we could. All the People of the West Branch above Wallace's (who lives near Muncy) had fled & evacuated their settlements ~ so on the North-East Branch, all above Nescopeck Falls were gone. I was resolved to hold posts at both these extremes, and have an intermediate one on the head waters of Chelesquaque there had been a small work began near one Jenkinses, about five miles from Nescopeck Falls, near Brier Creek, this I have garrisoned. I have a Body in the Forks of Chelesquaque, but the left Flank on the West Branch, which was most exposed, & where the greatest present danger appeared, I visited, & as I before observed, found all the settlements, above Wallace's evacuated, those about Muncy & below, wavering & doubtfull. Indians daily appearing ~ no women or Children having ventured to return. The inhabitants strongly pressed that they should have Troops amongst them, & that some Fortress should be Built to cover that part of the Country, & afford an assylum to their Families in case of necessity. Genl. Dehas and several other gentlemen were with me, we considered & examined on all sides; we found none of the Houses properly situated to admit of a stockade Fort of any real use. We found those settlements in Danger, they were usefull from their Fertility of soil, & the Industry of the Inhabitants, besides being the Frontier for if these people once gave way, there would not be long an Inhabitant above Sunbury or Northumberland ~ a valuable Country would be depopulated & some thousand persons ruined, added to this, if the settlements toward the Bald Eagle & great Island were to return, & to be covered & supported, there was a necessity for a secure post about mid-way. Upon the whole, we were clear of opinion that a Fort ought to be Built near Saml. Wallace's, about two miles from Muncy Creek, I therefore, directed one to be laid out accordingly, a rough plan of which I enclose you. The Bastions are to be built of Fascines & clay ~ if there is not leasure to compleat the whole of the same materials, the Curtains are to be finished with Stokade, these, with the Hutts, will answer the purpose intended ~ such of my men as are there with the militia & Inhabitants, are at work; the publick will have to pay but a small expence; thousands of pounds will be saved, as well as many Lives.
     It may be said that these Forts are of but little Security to tho Inhabitants, that Indians may pass them, so it is possible, but their depredations will not be so great. The Confidence of the People will be raised by the works, & from the beginning of the works to the present time a party has been intimidated by having an Enemy in the rear, especially if the latter was of a superior Force.
     From the above reasons, & considering the Inclosed sketch of Paths, &ca., compared with the map of Pennsylvania, I hope my conduct will receive the approbation of the Honourable Council.
     The savages have again appeared in some sort of Force. I send you inclosed a Copy Coll. Butler's letters to me, & my answer, also an account of an affair which happened yesterday morning about the time I left Wallace's.
     The Indians have gained so much plunder & have met with so little opposition, that I imagine they are Induced to pay another visit to these Frontiers. The western & northern Expeditions will not affect several of the Barbarians who are committing these depredations. As no injury has been lately committed in Cumberland or Bedford, if two-thirds or three-fourths of the militia ordered to the standing stone, were seat to this place, I could employ them very usefully. I am happy enough to agree wall with the militia, I hope they will do at much good as can he expected from them.
     It will be necessary that we should hare at least two Iron four or six pounders, for the work I have mentioned, also ten or twelve swivels; I hope you will be pleased to send them on to Coxes Town as soon as possible, from whence we will endeavour to get them up by Water or some other means.
     The militia of Northumberland are poor indeed, they complain, many of them, of having four or five months pay due to them, this would be a present relief to them if they had it, be pleased to send a sum for that purpose, money is also wanted for other uses. The attacks upon the Frontiers are really become serious.
     We are subject to some inconveniences here, but shall, with the utmost alacrity, do all the good we can. The Harvest prevented me last week from sending a Detachment on the Indian paths, we hope to attempt it the close of the present week ~ as I have not ordered the Wyoming Companies to Join me, I presume the Detachment of my Regt in Northampton County, is ordered to march here ~ I shall dispose of it as well as I am able. The Bearer, Col. Antis will be able to give you further information. I am, with great respect, Yr. Honors most obed. & mo. Hble servt, THO HARTLEY, Coll, Commandant. P. S. Aug. 10th. By several fresh advices, we shall probably soon have some of the Barbarians to attack the settlements.

           Letter from Lt. John Caruthers to V.P. Bryan, 13 August, 1778

Sir, With much Difficulty arms have been procured for the Militia ordered from this county to standing stone, some of the men are gone and some are now ready to march, but for want of camp kettles, haversackes & canteens, which articles are not to be had here, the men are very uneasy, and numbers on that account refuses to march untill they are supplied at least with kettles. Col. Broadhead's reg't marched this morning to Pittsburgh, well supplied, which has enraged the militia to see themselves neglected. I am perhaps in as uneasy a situation as can be imagined, in this respect, as the militia look to me for every thing, & I know not how to have them supplied. The Quarter Master here says he has none of those articles, nor knows nothing where, nor how they may be had ~ if it be my Duty to furnish the Militia with those necessaries, I would be glad to be informed by Council, where to apply for them ~ in order to quiet the minds of the men who are this moment on the parade, I was obliged to send express to Lebanon for a few kettles, but with little hopes of success. I am Sir, with much respect, your very H. Servant, JNO. CAROTHERS, Lieut, of Cumb'd County.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 15 August, 1778

Thomas Smith, Esq'r, of the County of Bedford, attended in Council, & represented that the Board of War had under their consideration the building of a Stockade Fort at the Town of Bedford, & that the said Board was desirous of being informed of the Sentiments of this Council respecting the propriety & necessity of it.
     On consideration of the advantages to be derived from such a fortification in the keeping open the Communication with Pittsburgh, especially while an expedition to the Westward is on foot, Council are of opinion that the erecting of such a fort will be very proper.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 18 August, 1778

It being represented by Rob't Galbraith, Esq'r, & others of the County of Bedford, that there are in the Goal of the said County divers persons said to have been guilty of treasonable practices, & one man said to have committed Murder;
      A list of the persons said to have been guilty of treasonable practices was laid before the Council, and on consideration of the many important trials which will probably come before the Supreme Court, & of the danger there may of the said Trators being rescued, as well as other difficulties which the people of the County of Bedford now lie under, which render a speedy trial of the said offenders highly necessary,
     Ordered, That John Armstrong of the County of Cumberland, Esq'r, Barnard Dougherty & Jas. Martin of the County of Bedford, Esq'rs, Archibald McClean of the County of York, Esq'r, & John Hubley of the County of Lancaster, Esq'r, be appointed & Commissioned to enquire, on the Oath of good & lawful men of the said County of Bedford, of & concerning the said offences, & to determine the same according to law, &ca.
     Ordered, That a Dedimus Potestatum be made out, authorizing & empowering Robt. Galbraith & John Piper of the County of Bedford, Esq'rs, or either of them, to administer to the aforesaid John Armstrong, Bernard Dougherty, James Martin, Archibald McClean & John Hubley, Esq'rs respectively, the Oaths or Affirmations required to be taken to qualify them for the Office & trust reposed in them by the Commission so to be issued.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council to Gen. J. Armstrong, Ach. McClean & John Hubley, one to each, 24 August, 1778

Sir, The Council have issued a commission appointing you together with Barnard Dougherty, James Martin, Archibald McClean, and John Hubley, Esquires, to hold a Court for the trial of divers persons confined in the Goal of the County of Bedford on a charge of treasonable practices against the State, &c. They have been induced to issue this commission, in consideration of the many important trials which will probably come before the Supreme Court in the interior Counties, and of the danger there may be of the said traitors being rescued as well as other difficulties under which the people of the County of Bedford now labour, which render a speedy trial of the said offenders highly necessary.
     From your disinterested patriotism and love of justice, rather than from any reward which can be with propriety offered to you, the Council are induced to hope and expect that you will cheerfully render this necessary service to your country.
     The expences of the Gentlemen named in this commission, while they are within the County of Bedford will be paid by that County, and the other expences in going and coming incurred out of the county will be a State charge according to law and Council have ordered that a dayly pay of forty shillings be allowed, and paid to each of them while they shall be engaged in this Service including the time of their journey, over and beside the expences to be paid as is already mentioned.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 10 September, 1778

On consideration of the returns & petitions from the County of Bedford respecting Justices of the Peace,
     Ordered, That John Hains, Thomas Wilson, Samuel Thompson & Matthew Dean, be appointed & Commissioned to be Justices of the Peace for the County of Bedford. Commissiones to each delivered to Mr. Cessna, Member of Assembly for Bedford.

           Letter from General John Armstrong to Vice-President Bryan, Supreme Executive Council, 10 September, 1778

Altho' I highly approve yr Ideas for the relaxation of part of the Penal Laws, yet find at this place yt the populace will be divided in sentiment on that point. This is a conveyance I did not expect, and have only a moment to write, but hope in a few days to write you again by Mr. Duncan. I have heard of the charge agst Mr. Flower & see ye issues in the papers, but of the manner of proceduer in tryal or on what evidence we know not; There are many important things to these States which I know to be wrong & ill conducted, but how they will be remedied God only knows.
     We are disagreeably amused with a story of the Assemblys favouring the petition of some notable Tory, thereby at once giving disgust & dispensing with the Law, but think it must be wrong reported, Mr. Whitehill & John Burd are principally blamed, I wish the house may be well directed, no man has yet said any thing seriously to me on the ensuing election, but have heard hints as that but few of the members for this county would be sent back - I cou'd wish to have a few thoughts from Coll. Bayard thro' yr Pen, no news from the West.
     I thank the Council as well for the intimation by secretary Matlack's letter as for their confidence fully expressed in the subject of it, I man the important tryals at Bedford, from which I should most heartily wish to have been excused having in substance determined not to touch any thing of that sort again. 1 am always a debtor to my Country, but am persuaded there is a time when the publick must resign their claims of that sort, and to which in my own feelings I have now an ample supercedius. Private circumstances also happen to be against my going, yet god willing I do in this instance disagreeable as it appears to be intend going up, and the last Tuesday of this Month is the time appointed, Messrs Hubley & McClean should be pushed that they do not fail to attend. I am dear Sir, very respectfully yours, John Armstrong.

           Letter from Colonel Timothy Matlack to Justices of Philadelphia, Bucks, Chester and Bedford Counties, 14 September, 1778

Gent:- I am directed by Council to inclose to you the set of Assembly for the Election of Justices of the peace, &c. Just passed, in order that you may be enabled to give your aid in supplying the County of (Chester) with Justices of the peace as by law directed. It would seem that Legislature intended by the last Clause in this act to enable Council to appoint in all Districts, who have already had an opportunity of choosing, but by the use of the word when, this seems doubtful. Had where been (line 2d) used instead of it, no difficulty had remained. As to future neglects, their authority will be sufficiently clear. However, the Executive power is not disposed to deprive the Freeholders of this privilege, for in them is the Choice. Tho' their claim be dubious, the Commission issued by Council will heal all defect.
      You are therefore, Gentleman, authorized by Council some or one of you, to issue your writ or order without delay to the Constables of every vacant District in the county of (Chester,) and take care to transmit the return made; whither it be the names of Justices Elect, who should be persons who have give assurances of allegiance and renunciation of the King of Great Britain, or the refusal and neglect of the freeholders. Direct, to me in this City. By your attention to the foregoing the County may be supplied speedily with Magistrates.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 19 September, 1778

Ordered, That John Armstrong, of the County of Cumberland, Esq'r, Bernard Dougherty & James Martin, both of the County of Bedford, Esq'rs, Archibald McClean, of the County of York, Esq'r, & John Hubley of the County of Lancaster, Esq'r, be appointed & commissioned to try & determine, according to Law & the custom of this Commonwealth, a certain Henry Bunthunt, alias Henry Bunter, now confined in the Goal of the County of Bedford, Laborer, charged with having killed & murdered a certain Daniel Wencil, Son of a certain John Wencil, of the said County of Bedford.

           Letter from the Supreme Executive Council to John Hubley, 19 September, 1778

I am directed by Council to reiterate their request that you will give the public your assistance on the Court of Oyer & Terminer, to be holden at Bedford, for trial of the Traytors who took the desperate Course of Joining the Indians against their Country. As this flagitious crime appears to have been committed by multitudes along the frontier, there is the greater & louder call for immediate and exemplary Justice. It is hoped that your affairs will not so much interfere as to prevent you from going up. General Armstrong will, I understand, be there; but lest his infirmity of Body hinder, it would be very satisfactory to hear that you made a point of attending.
     The time fixed is Monday, the 29th Instant. I have it in my power to say that the Commissioners will have authority effectually, to deliver the Goal, as a Commission is gone up for the Trial of a person charged with murder, left out in the first Commission thro' want of information of his name, & the application of the Child he is said to have killed. I am, Sir, &c, T.M., Sec'y.
     Directed, To John Hubley, Esqr, Lancaster, and to Archd McCleane, Esqr., York.

          Letter from John Hubley to T. Matlack, 01 October, 1778

Sir, Just this moment I have received, by the Hands of Mr. Bailey, Printer in this Town, yours of the 19th Ulto., respecting the Business at Bedford, which I suppose was begun the 29th Septr, and it seems by yours as if Council had, before yours, urged the same business, if so, I never received their Letter, nor have I seen their Commission or do I know the Purport of it further than that, among others, my name was inserted in the Commission for holding a Court of Oyer & Terminer at Bedford. Mr. McClean, at York, wrote to me some Time agoe, informing me thereof, and also that General Armstrong had appointed the 29th Septr for being at Bedford. But it was out of my Power to attend at that Time, as very Particular Business will require my attendance at Philada next Week, which I engaged to attend before I knew of the Commission. Had I been informed before the Day fixed, possibly I should have made it suite, so as to be able to have given my attendance, but as Things have fallen out it was out of my Power. However, I hope the General and Mr. McClean are gone up, as in my answer to Mr. McClean I strongly pressed his attendance, and informed him how I was situated.
     I am, Sir, Yr very-h'ble Serv4t, JOHN HUBLEY.

          Circular Letter to the agents of several counties, 09 October, 1778

By order of the Council, I request you may without delay return to me schedules with appraisments of all the goods & chattles belonging to Traytors which you have seized, By the Law under which you act, these ought to be sent to me as register. Before any sale be had a careful attention to the directions of the Law is necessary to secure you from the difficulties which may arise from a neglect of them. It is the opinion of the Attorney General that real estates in respect of marriage are forfeited during the husband's right to the profits. You are, therefore, to seize such for the use of the commonwealth, & to make return to me thereof, as in other cases.
     Monies arising from the real estates of Traytors ought to be lodged with the Treasurer without delay. And as the wives & children will presently urge the Supreme Court for some support, it will be expected of you to enable the court to consider of such applications by sending to me all the accounts of sales & other information you can as early as may be.
     I am directed to remind you of the necessity there is to pay strict attention to preserve the woodland on forfeited estates, and that no waste of any kind be committed upon those estates.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 28 October, 1778

A Record of conviction of Henry Bunthurst, alias Bunter, of the Murder of Dan'l Wensel, before a special Court of Oyer and Terminer, held at Bedford for the County of Bedford, the 21st day of September, 1778, was read.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 28 October, 1778

A return of the Election for the County of Bedford, to Wit: Sheriffs - Thomas Coulter & Francis Clugage. Coroners - Cornelius McAuley & Robert Eliot.
     On Consideration, Ordered, That Thomas Coulter be appointed Sheriff of the County of Bedford, & that he be Commissioned accordingly.
     Ordered, That Cornelius McAuley be appointed Coroner of the County of Bedford, & that he be Commissioned accordingly.
     Thomas Coulter offers Henry Rhoads, Gideon Ritchey, and Henry Didier, of the County of Bedford, as sureties for his faithful performance of the duties of his Office, & the same are approved of.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 29 October, 1778

Ordered, That Henry Bunthunt, alias Bunter, now under sentence of Death, be executed on Saturday the fourteenth day of November next, at the usual place of execution, between the hours of Ten o'clock in the forenoon & Two of the Clock in the afternoon. & that a Warrant be issued to the Sheriff of the county of Bedford for the said purpose.

           Proclamation of the Supreme Executive Council of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 30 October, 1778

Whereas, The following named persons, late and heretofore inhabitants of this State, that is to say: ...And Richard Weston, Yeoman; now or late of the Township of Trunkston, & Jacob Hare, Michael Hare & Samuel Barrow, Yoemen; all now or late of the Township of Barree; all now or late of the County of Bedford: ... have severally adhered to, & knowingly & willingly aided & assisted the Enemies of this State, & of the United States of America, by having joined their Armies within this State.
     We, the Supreme Executive Council aforesaid, by virtue of certain powers & authorities to us given by an Act of General Assembly entitled "An Act for the attainder of divers Traitors, if they render not themselves by a certain day, & for vesting their Estates in this Commonwealth, & for more effectually discovering the same, & for ascertaining and satisfying the lawful Debts & claims" thereupon, Do hereby strictly charge & require the said ... Richard Weston, John Hare, Michael Hare, Samuel Barrow ... to render themselves respectively to some or one of the Justices of the Supreme Court, or of the Justices of the Peace of one of the Counties within this State, on or before Tuesday the fifteenth day of December next ensuing, & also abide their legal trial for such their Treasons, on pain that every of them, the said ...Richard Weston, Jacob Hare, Michael Hare, Samuel Barrow ... not rendering himself as aforesaid, & abiding the trial aforesaid, shall from and after the said fifteenth day of December next, stand & be attainted of High Treason, to all intents & purposes, & shall suffer such pains & penalties, & undergo all such forfeitures, as persons attainted of High Treason ought to do.
     And all the faithful subjects of this State are to take notice of this Proclamation, & govern themselves accordingly.

           Letter from Robert Galbraith to the Supreme Executive Council, 04 November, 1778

To his Excellency, the President of the Supreme Executive Council. May it please your Excellency, the situation of my affairs is such, that I find it exceedingly inconvenient to hold the offices which I had the honour of being appointed to, in the County of Bedford, any longer, having removed to York Town, where I now reside. I therefore beg leave to resign, and do hereby resign the offices of Prothonotary, Clerk of the Peace, Clerk of the Orphan's Court, Recorder of Deeds and Register for the Probate of Wills, &c., as also the Commission of the Peace which I hold in and for the county of Bedford, and pray that this may be accepted of as a resignation. I am with the greatest respect, your Excellency's, and the Honourable Councils most obedient humble servant, ROBERT GALBRAITH.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 05 November, 1778

An order was drawn on the Treasurer in favor of the Hon'ble Thomas Urie, Esq'r, or his order, for the sum of One Hundred and fifty Pounds, in part of his Wages.

           Note of the Continental Congress/Report of the Board of War, 05 November, 1778

A report from the Board of War was read; Whereupon, War Office, November 4th, 1778.
      By accounts received from the frontiers of this State at and in the neighborhood of Fort Roberdeau it appears that large numbers of the Militia of this state have been called out, but that few have staid at the posts even for their tour of duty. That they have left the officers commanding there in great distress, all on the very day of the expiration of their times, and a great proportion, on one pretext or other before that period. That they are under little or no command, and of course useless and very expensive. It is therefore thought that if the companies raised for the defence of the frontiers and now under the command of Capt: Thos Cluggage, Capt: Black and Capt: McDonald could be reinlisted and augmented (their times of service expiring the 15th of Decr. next) the States would save money, and the service required would be better and more certainly done. The plan for raising the two Regiments intended to go on the Western expedition was to give a suit of clothes Bounty and the usual pay on the men's engaging for one year. From the smallness of the number engaged in those Regiments there is a large proportion of clothing intended for them now on hand at Winchester in Virginia which would serve the companies which are the subjects of this Report, or the clothes might be sent from hence as should be found most convenient. The Board therefore beg leave to report to Congress;
     Resolved, That the three companies commanded by Captains Cluggage, Black, and M'Donald, raised for the defence of the frontiers of Pensylvania, be re-inlisted and compleated to their full complement, for the space of one year, from the 15 day of December next, unless sooner discharged by Congress.
     That every non-commissioned officer and private inlisting in the said companies, receive as a bounty a suit of cloathes, to consist of the articles usually allowed the continental troops, and that it be stipulated with the said non-commissioned officers and privates so inlisting, that they shall not be removed from the frontiers of the said state, on any account whatsoever, except on expeditions against the Indians.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 06 November, 1778

Henry Rhoads, Esq'r, one of the Justices of the Peace for the County of Bedford, sent into Council a resignation in Writing, of his Office of a Justice of the Peace for the said County, & the same is accepted accordingly.

           Letter from the Supreme Executive Council to the Assembly, 09 November, 1778

Gentlemen, We take this early opportunity of congratulating you on the prospect of the approaching abandon of the City of New York, & perhaps, the Territory of the United States, by the Land Tories, of a cruel Enemy, desponding of success in their mighty attempt to enslave us. Highly favoured by the great disposer of human affairs, the Americans have, after a struggle comparatively short, established their Liberty & independence. The Swiss & Low Dutch long endured the evils of War, & had much severer conflicts with their oppressors. But no people in any case ever had clearer reason to ascribe all their salvation to God alone than we have; not to our own efforts, for we were feeble and unskilled; not to our riches or revenues, for we were poor and unprovided; not to early & great aid from abroad, for the Enemy was exhausted in their resources; one great army reduced to surrender, & the other ready to retire, before any ally appeared. It is solely to the interposition of the most high, who disposeth of the Kingdoms of this world as he pleaseth, that all our success must be ascribed. May all the victory and all the honor thereof, be thankfully given to him by the Beneficiaries of his goodness.
     Among the various Benefits arising from this decline of the Enemys strength, the states lately invaded, and this state in particular, will be immediately relieved, as to the march of their militia, so distressing to husbandry & manufactures; for the chastisement of the perfidious savages will now be the easy and proper employ of the federal Troops.
     With this Message you have three Acts of Congress. The first of the 2d of October last, recommends a continuation of the Embargo on provisions layed by the late Assembly, with the grant of powers of a summary and extraordinary nature for seizing for the supply of the French army & the French fleet, Grain & flour forestalled, & pointing out some additional cautions proper to prevent frauds in supplying the Eastern states, recommended by a former act of the 5th of Sept. last, among the papers of yr house.
     On this, Council would observe, that a prolongation of the Embargo, which expires on the 25th Instant, would probably attain the ends proposed by the authorities asked; authorities of so high a nature, that if constitutional, the present situation of affairs will not warrant. The supply of the Eastern states & of the sea & Land forces there ought, we suppose, to be gotten from the Bay of Chesapeak. Exhausted as we are, the main federal Army cannot depend on the Middle States for its sustenance. The late Assembly, therefore, made no relaxation in favor of New England. On the contrary, perhaps, it may be expedient to prohibit the distilling of all sorts of Corn for six months, to prevent inconvenience.
     On Enquiry it does not appear that the 2d Act of Congress, which is of the 5th of October last, concerning bills of Credit emitted under the Crown, of B. has any reference to this state. Yet, as it brings the old paper money into view, occasion is given to say that it deserves consideration, whether the Act of the late Assembly stopping the circulation of those bills, tho' highly necessary to prevent the depraving of the Congress bills, & to hinder the progress of fraud, was sufficiently published to justify the taking advantage of the omission of the possessors in not bringing them in to the Treasurer at or before the day prefixed; especially as only 22;000 of them have been brought in.
     The 3d Act of this honourable Body earnestly recommends to you the suppression of Theatrical Entertainments, horse-racing, gaming, & other diversions, which are commonly productive of Idleness, dissipation & a general depravity of principles & manners. In this view the late Assembly published a bill for consideration. Without doubt you will make suitable regulations on this important subject.
     After referring to our Message to the late Assembly, dated the 7th day of August last, for divers matters, which need not be repeated now, we take the Liberty of recollecting to your honourable House the necessity of providing a Tribunal of Appeals from the Courts of Law, mentioned last spring to the late Assembly. Perhaps nothing under the late Government was a more express badge of Slavery, than the necessity which the good people of this, & the other confederate States were under to cross the Atlantic Ocean, & seek for precarious justice at a vast expence in Europe. But the Court of the King, in Council, being now dissolved, a new Jurisdiction to decide in complaints of Error in judgment at Common Law, is indispensible. Without it, our system of jurisprudence is defective, & right cannot be obtained. The same Judges might also revise decrees not in prize causes in the Admiralty. Some persons have proposed to establish these authorities in our Board; but as it would mix the Judicial with the political executive, & contradict the Spirit of the Constitution, & the best authorities on government, we wish it may be avoided, observing to you that the members of Council, ought not to be supposed competent to discussions merely legal, & that the stream of Justice ought to be kept clear & steady, tho' it cost some public money. As the business of this nature will probably be small, the appointments may be proportionable. We have been lately informed, that the Auditors of Accounts, appointed by an Act of the last sitting of Assembly, decline acting, it is therefore proper that you name others.
     The late Assembly was furnished with heads of a bill for manumiting infant negroes, born of Slaves, by which the gradual abolition of Servitude for life would be obtained, in an easy mode. It is not proposed that the present Slaves, most of whom are scarcely competent of freedom should be meddled with, but all importation must be forbid if the Idea be adopted. This or some better scheme would tend to abrogate Slavery, the opprobrium of America, from among us, and no period seems more happy for the attempt than the present, as the number of such unhappy characters, ever few in Pennsylvania, has been much reduced by the practices & plunder of our late invaders. In divesting the State of Slaves you will equally serve the cause of humanity & policy, & offer to God one of the most proper & best returns of Gratitude for his great deliverance of us & our posterity from Thraldom. You will also set yr character for Justice & Benevolence in a true point of view to all Europe, who are astonished to see a people eager for Liberty holding Negroes in Bondage.
     We feel ourselves under some constraint to say, that the present mode of Isuing marriage Licences is very liable to abuse, & as the Laws on that subject now Stand, especially as they were interpreted not long since in a Court of justice, all the cautions on them are become nugatory. The peace of families, & the public good are so nearly connected with the matrimonial contracts of minors, that we doubt not of your interposition. Novel or Severe restraints on wedlock in a State circumstanced as ours are not wished for, but prudential precautions seem necessary.
     It is greatly to be desired, that the differences between Connecticut & this State on the one hand, & between Virginia & us on the other side, could be brought to a settlement. New inconveniences & difficulties arise upon delay. No answer from Williamburgh is yet come to the proposal made in June, 1777, to refer the variance, with the latter, to Congress. In the mean time, a Letter herewith sent in from John Campbell, Esquire, an agent of Virginia, at Pittsburg, dated the 16th of October past, will shew you that the Settlers in Westmoreland are distracted, & the common cause injured by this jangling, tho' we are far from thinking that facts are fairly stated by the writer. Council have desired Col. Lochrie to furnish information on this head.
     Supposing that the Committee of Accounts appointed by the late House of Representatives, have layed their adjustments & Transactions before you, it is the less necessary for us to be particular on that subject. If you find the Issues of money for recruiting the Battalions of this State in the federal Army, large, we have the satisfaction to tell you that the Quota of this State of Soldiers enlisted for the War (and we have none other,) is kept up as well as by any of the States in union. But this service, the redemption of the old paper money, & various expenditures peculiar to a time of war, have drained the Treasury. This obliges us to drop further enlistments, to discontinue the manufactory of Arms, & other businesses which do not now press on us as heretofore. A renewal of the defences of the Delaware seemed indispensible, and therefore some heavy cannon have been mounted at Billings-port, & a Small Battery is finishing at Mud-Island. These, with 3 of the Gallies, were judged to be sufficient to guard the Chevaux de frize and to repell any insult which may be offered by a few frigates. To baffle attempts of the Enemy, on a larger scale, our means were unequal. Letters have just been sent to the Lieuts of the Counties, directing them to remit to the State Treasurer all Militia fines within their Reach without delay. It is Supposed that considerable Sums remain with some of these Gentlemen.
     The Tax of five Shillings in the pound ordered by Act of the late Assembly has been layed & partly collected in most of the Counties. Westmoreland, Bedford & Northumberland have been, perhaps, too much disturbed by the distress of the War to admit the levying of money. Philadelphia has just attained sufficient order to begin the assessment. Some of the Counties have assessed their Quotas of the Tax of 620,000 Dollars for the Continental Service. The Treasurer will be able to furnish the actual payments on these branches of revenue. After these Taxes shall be compleated, there will remain no provision for any further general Levies of money, altho' the common defence has obliged Congress to issue very great sums in bills of Credit, creating a debt on the United States which we are bound jointly with them to extinguish. Honour, interest & duty urge us to perform our Share. All Schemes to restrain or cure the depreciation of the paper-money, without strenuous efforts in this way, will be found vain. We therefore recommend to you to establish an equal & practicable Law for Taxing your Constituents for this use.
     Some money, you will find, has come into the Treasury for the forfeited goods & chattles of persons who have joined the Enemy. We have called on & shall again press the Agents to finish the sales & send in the produce of them. As no appropriation of these Estates has been made, it remains for the Legislature to direct concerning them.
     Other matters proper to be layed before you shall in due time be communicated. At present we conclude with observing, that the Law passed last January for the regulation of Waggons, Carriages, & pack-horses for the public service, is to expire with the present Sitting of Assembly.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 13 November, 1778

The Council took into consideration the returns of Elections of the Justices of the Peace for the Town of Bedford, & the Township of Bedford, & for the Township of Dublin; & thereupon, Ordered, That David Espy & Saml Davidson be appointed Justices of the Peace for the County of Bedford, & for the Township of the Town of Bedford; And that William Todd be appointed a Justice of the Peace for the said County of Bedford, & for the Township of Bedford, And that James Coyle & James Carmichael be appointed Justices of the Peace for the County of Bedford & for the Township of Dublin, & that they be commissioned accordingly.

           Letter from the Supreme Executive Council to Robert Galbraith, 27 November, 1778

The Council have recd and considered your letter of the 21st Instant, purporting to resign the offices of Prothonotary, clerk of the Peace and Clerk of the Orphans court, in the county of Bedford, in favour of David Espie, Esqr.
     I am directed to acquaint you, that the resignation of the offices which you hold cannot be received as being in favor of any person whatever. If you think proper to make the resignation of these offices, it must be done clearly, fully & simply, without condition or reservation. This is not intended as an opposition to Mr. Espie, but to prevent the effects of an improper example. I am, respectfully, Your very hm'ble Servant, T.M., Sec'y.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 27 November, 1778

A Resolve of the Hon'ble House of General Assembly of the 26th instant, appointing David Espie, Esq'r, to be Register and Recorder of the county of Bedford, was read; And thereupon,
     Ordered, That commissions be issued to David Espie, Esq'r, appointing him to be Register and Recorder of the county of Bedford, according to the Resolves of General Assembly aforesaid.
     On consideration, Ordered, That Barnard Dougherty, John Piper, and ---- David, Esquires, be commissioned by Dedimus Potestatum to administer to all & every person in the county of Bedford named in Commission or Commissions issued, or to be issued by this Council, the Oaths or Affirmations required to qualify them respectively for their Offices, & the trust reposed in them by Virtue of such Commissions.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 28 November, 1778

Bernard Dougherty & Thomas Smith, both of the county of Bedford, Esq'rs, offered themselves as Sureties to the State that David Espie shall duly & faithfully execute the several Offices which he holds in & for the county of Bedford; & On consideration, The said Sureties were approved of.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 02 December, 1778

An order was drawn on the Treasurer in favor of the Hon'ble Tho's Urie, Esq'r, for the Sum of One hundred & One Pounds Eight Shilings & four Pence, balance due to him for his attendance in council & mileage, Vizt:
     Attendance in council from 17th Aug. 1778, to Septem 3d, both included, 18 days @ 35s.            31   10   0
      From 3d Septem. to this day, included, 90 days, at 45s            202   10   0
      Mileage on 209-209 miles, is 418 miles @ 10d,            17   8   4
     251   8   4
     Draft for 150   0   0
     Balance 101   8   4

           Note of the Continental Congress, 14 December, 1778

In consequence of an adjustment by the commissioners off claims, the auditor general reports,
     That there is due to three companies of volunteers, raised in Bedford County, Pensylvania, for the defence of the frontiers, commanded by Captains Thomas cluggage, Henry Black and John McDonald, their bounty and pay from their first enlistment to the 31 July, 1778, inclusive, two thousand five hundred and twenty six dollars and 68/90.

           Note of the Continental Congress, 15 December, 1778

Ordered, that the report of the auditor general for the payment of 2526 68/90 dollars for the bounty and pay of three volunteer companies, raised in Bedford county, be re considered and referred back to the Board of Treasury, in order that they may report to whom the same is to be paid.

           Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 18 December, 1778

A letter from Robert Galbraith, Esq'r, resigning his Offices of Prothonotary, Clerk of the Peace, Clerk of the Orphans' court, Recorder of Deeds, & Register for the Probate of Wills, and also the Commission of the Peace for the County of Bedford.
     Ordered, That David Espy be appointed & Commissioned to be Prothonotary, Recorder of Deeds & Register for the probate of Wills, for the county of Bedford, & one of the Justices of the court of common Pleas for the said county,
     Ordered, That David Espy be appointed & Commissioned to be clerk of the Orphan court of the County of Bedford.

           Letter from Colonel Timothy Matlack to Colonel David Espy, of Bedford, 23 December, 1778

Sir: Herewith you have commissions for the following officers in the County of Bedford, to wit: Prothonotary, Recorder of Deeds, Register of Wills, clerk of the Orphans' court, and Justice of the Court of common Pleas.
     The Justices of the court of Quarter Sessions have a right to recommend to council two persons, of which one is to be commissioned, to be Clerk of the peace: this has not been clone and therefore the commission cannot now be sent to you. As the Court have power to appoint a clerk pro temp., there will be no inconveniency attend this delay, but it will be proper to send the recommendation as soon as opportunity will admit.


* A-: American Archives, Series -; JC: Journals of the Continental Congress; CR: Colonial Records; 1: PA Archives, First Series; 2: PA Archives, Second Series; etc; / Volume / Page(s)