Bedford County Documents

  CR/XI/82   *{See legend below}
          Note of the Council of Safety, 09 January, 1777

Mr. Nesbitt was directed to pay Wm. Justice £5 10, for a Gun, Pouch and Horn, to be charged to Col. Jno. Piper, of the 1 at Batt'n of Bedford County Militia.

          Note of the Council of Safety, 10, January, 1777

Mr. Nesbitt was directed to pay Robert Elliott £5 0 0, for a Gun, to be charged to Col. Piper, of Bedford County.

          Note of the Council of Safety, 23 January, 1777

Mr. Nesbitt was directed to pay Capt. Sam'I Davidson £4, for 3 Blankets, for the use of his Comp'y, to be charg'd to Col. Smith, of the Bedford County Militia.

          Note of the Council of Safety, 29 January, 1777

Mr. Nesbitt was directed to pay the Field Officers of the 2W Batt'n of Bedford County, £207 12 6, for arms and Blankets, purchas'd by s'd Field Officers for the use of their Batt'n, to be charged to Col. Smith.
     Mr. Nesbitt to pay the Committee of Bedford County £19, for Expences of said Committee, to be charg'd to Congress.
     Mr. Nesbitt to pay Col. Thomas Smith £42, for arms taken apprais'd in Bedford County, from Non-associators in the District of the first Batt'n of s'd County, to be charg'd to Colonel Wood.

          Note of the Council of Safety, 12 February, 1777

An order was drawn on Mr. Nesbitt in favour of Capt. Jacob Hendershat for £50, towards a month's pay advance for his Company, to be charged to David Espey, Esq'r, the Capt. to be accountable to Mr. Espey.
     Mr. Towers was order'd to deliver to Capt. Jacob Hendershat, of Col. Woods' Batt'n from Bedford county, 3 Guns, 7 Shot Bags & Powderhorns, and 2 Blankets for the use of his Company.

          Note of the Council of Safety, 13 February, 1777

Capt. Bickharn was directed to pay Major Coomb £75 10 6, for subsistance of himself, Major Cisna, a Capt. & 23 men of Col. Wood's Battalion, Bedford County.

  History of Bedford, Fulton & Somerset Counties, Pennsylvania/87 Also 1/V/230-231
          Letter from Gen. Putnam to Councils, 18 February, 1777

Last night Col. Neilson, with a party of about 150 men, attacked sixty belonging to Cortland Skinner's Brigade, at Lawrence's Island, under command of Majr Richd Stockton, formerly an Inhabitant of this place - the Enemy's renowed land Pilot - the Colonel took the whole, among which ware this Stockton, a Captain & three or four Subaltern officers; the enemy had four killed, and one wounded - we had one killed this you may depend upon to he a fact. Col. Neilson is just arrived here. I shall forward the prisoners on in a day or two to you - 50 of the Bedford County Riflemen of your State, what I detached from this place, were with Col. Neilson - the whole officers & men, both belonging to that County & the Militia of this State, behaved with great bravery, such as would do honour to veteran Soldiers; there are also thirty or sixty stand of arms, which I think the Middlesex Militia ought to have. The Bearer I send purposely to acquaint you with the Circumstance. I am Gentlemen, with Esteem Your Hum. Serv't, Israel Putnam.

          Note of the Council of Safety, 25 February, 1777

The Paymaster is directed to pay to Captain Rich'd Brown all arrearages due to the Prisoners of his Comp'y at the times of their Deaths or inlistment with the Enemy, on Capt. Brown's giving Bond foz his accounting faithfully to their Widows or Heirs, for such sums due to them as may be in his hands.
     Mr. Nesbitt was directed to pay Captain Rich'd Brown £8 5, for cash advanc'd the wives of the Prisoners who were taken on Long Island.

          Minutes of the Board of War, 18 March, 1777

Mr. Nesbitt was directed to pay Colo. John Piper £1.78 16 1 for Arms and Blankets purchased by him for the use of the 1st Batt'n of Bedford County Militia, to be charged to Congress.
     Mr. Nesbitt was directed to pay Lt. Col. George Ashman £35 2 0 for Arms delivered to Mr. Towers, to be charged to Congress.
    Mr. Moses Young was directed to pay Capt. Daniel Carpenter, of Colonel Jno. Piper's Battalion of Bedford County Militia, £12 10 0 for 10 pair of Shoes & Stocking for part of his Company, being fr Bounty granted by Congress.

          Note of the Council of Safety, 21 March, 1777

Ordered, ... That John Piper he appointed Lieutenant of the County of Bedford, and Commissioned accordingly;
     Ordered, That Robert Galbraith be appointed prothonotary of the County of Bedford, and that he be Commissioned accordingly.

          Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 01 April, 1777

Ordered, That A writ be issued for electing a Councellor to represent the County of Bedford in this Council, to be returned on the twelfth of May next, The writ to be directed to Thomas Coulter, Cornelius M'Cawley and George Ashman, Esq'rs, of that County.

          Letter from ----- to the Lieutenants of Lancaster, Berks, Northampton, Chester and Philadelphia Counties, 25 June, 1777

I wrote to you by Express the 19th Inst, requesting that you would immediately order the 1st & 2nd Class of the Militia of your County to camp - the information the Council then recd from his Excelly Gen. Washington, respecting the intention of the Enemy, made that step absolutely necessary. I have now the pleasure to acquaint you that the Enemy - disappointed in their expectations of crossing the Delaware, and thereby lay waste our country - has made a very precipitate retreat from Somerset & Brunswick to Amboy; the spirited manner in which the Militia of New Jersey & of this State turned out, I have no doubt contributed greatly to influence the retreat of Gen. Howe. However they did not effect it without being greatly harassed by Gen. Washington, notwithstanding the secret manner in which they conducted their march. It gives the Council great uneasiness to be obliged at any time to call upon the Militis, but when our country is threatened with invasion by a powerful army & fleet, it then becomes absolutely necessary for them to step forth and defend every thing that is valuable - their lives, liberty, & property - this induced the Council to call upon them. It is nevertheless as much the duty of the Council to prevent every unnecessary trouble & expence to the good people of this State, while they are engaged in this just & necessary war, as possible, especially at this time, when their private concerns call for their greatest attention; they are, therefore, of opinion that the 2nd Class of the Militia of your county need not march to camp, as I ordered in my last, until they receive the express orders of Council for that purpose, but they are to hold themselves in prefect readyness lest the farther movement of the enemy should make it necessary to call upon them of a sudden, which may very possibly soon happen. I am Sr, your very Hum... Westmoreland, Bedford. - No orders.

          Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 27 June, 1777

On motion, agreed that Thomas Urie be appointed Sheriff of the County of Bedford, & that he be immediately Commissioned accordingly.
     Agreed, That Will'm Parker, Colo. John Piper, Sam. Moore, John Cesna, Chas. Cesna, & John Moore, or any two of them, be accepted as security for Thomas Urie, Sheriff of the County of Bedford, for his faithful performance of the said Office.

          Letter from Brig. General Hand to President Wharton, 24 July, 1777

From the inclosed papers your Excy will be able to inform a tolerable idea of the disposition of the Indians, to what may be learned from these acc’ts I must add the murder of two men on the Allegany River about 20 miles from this place on the 21st ultimo, Pluggy’s Town gang with two Tribes of the Shawanese, & some of the Delawares, refuse to listen to the advice of our few Friends. In short, every days experience teaches me that nothing but penetrating their Country & destroying the settlements of these perfidious miscreants, can prevent the depopulation of the Frontiers. This I have determined on, as soon as I can procure a sufficiency of Provisions, and raise enough to ensure success. Sad experience has taught us that little dependence can be put on the promises or professions of the savages, & I am well assured that the Tribes making the greatest show of Friendship, will not sit still whilst we chastise the Banditti that infests our settlements, unless we have a force sufficient to intimidate them.
     As I shall be under the necessity of applying to the County of Westmoreland and probably to that of Bedford for aid, I beg that your Excy may be pleased to give orders to the orders of the Militia Officers of these Counties to furnish me with what men they can spare for that purpose. I also beg leave to hint to your Excy that if a stop was put to driving Beef Cattle from this side the mountains, untill the Troops to be employed here were supplied, it would be productive of many good consequences, & save a great public expense, the Indians are now going to a Treaty at Oswego, & one has lately been held at Niagara, I understand that some men & Stores have lately been sent to Oswego, & am apprehensive that something may be attempted by the way of the Susquehana, or towards Albany, If I can get any farther light into the matter will take the earliest opportunity of communicating it.
     I have the Honour to be with the Greatest respect your Excys most Obedtt & most Hble Servt. Edw’d Hand.

          Letter from John Piper to James Marten, Commisioner to the Pennsylvania General Assembly, 29 July, 1777

Pleas to wait upon the Executive Councill for this State and lay Before them the disadvantages we labour under in Executing the Business Committed to us, the art and influence of Some individuals in this County Has induc'd Maney of the inhabitants to deny the authority of our Present Legislators, So that whole townships are taught to deny all authority, nor will they Comply in one Single instance with the acts of our Present assembly, and the Great Cause why our business is not Carry'd on with dispatch is owing in a great Measure to the two Gentm, viz. Cable and Brown, who were appointed Sub Lieuts in the western district of this County, there Refusing to do their duty untill the Scence of the People are taken att Large, which throws Sutch Load of Buisness upon me that I find My Self unable to Perform, notwithstanding the number of Good People in this County that are active in their duty, yet from the art and influence of these People there are So mutch oposition and So maney difficultys thrown in our way that our Buisness is mutch Retarded, thefore Sir I hope youl Lay this Matter before the House and Executive Councill and Pray that they may Grant us Sutch Relief Either by apointing others to do the duty or Any other derections they in their wisdoms May think Proppair. Please to Enform that the County is Lay'd off in districks and Each districk Apointed their field officers, But the other Buisness is mutch Kep'd Back for the want of the Concurrance and assistance of the above named Gentlemen.

          Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 07 August, 1777

A Letter from Gen'l Hand, dated Fort Pitt, 24th July, 1777, requesting that orders may be given to the Militia Officers of Westmoreland & Bedford, to furnish him with what Men they can spare, for the purpose of penetrating the Indian Country & destroying their settlements, which he apprehends to be necessary to prevent the continuance of the Cruelties which they have lately practised, as appears inclosed in the General's letter,
     Ordered, That the Letter from Gen'l Hand, dated Fort Pitt, 24th July, 1777, with paper contained therein, be sent to Congress, for their consideration & direction thereon.

          Resolution of Congress, 16 August, 1777

Resol, That the president & supreme executive council of Pennsylvania be requested to give Brigadier Hand such assistance from the militia of the counties of Westmoreland, Northumberland & Bedford, as General Hand may think necessary.
     Extract from the minutes, CHAS. THOMSON Sec'y.

          Letter from President Wharton to Gen. Edward Hand, 22 August, 1777

Sir, I communicated to Council your Letter, & the inclosed accounts of the late inroads & cruelties, of the savages. You may be assured that Council without loss of time, took the same into consideration, and I take this opportunity to inform you, that the most full and explicit Instructions had been already forwarded to Archibald Laughrie Esqr, Lieut of Westmoreland. He is commanded to fulfill your orders for detatchments & parties of Militia to the utmost of his power. These dispatches are dated the 5th of this month.
     The like injunctions are now forwarded to John Piper, Esquire, Lieutenant of Bedford County, & to Samuel Hunter, Esqr, Lieut of Northumberland. We hope you will be able to derive the necessary advantages from the Militia of these Counties.
     Your letter & the other papers, we layed before Congress. I am, Sir Your most obed. hum. serv’t.

          Letter from the Supreme Executive Council to the Lieutenants of Certain Counties, 22 August, 1777

Sir, Council would have been glad to have heard from you convcerning the state of the Militia of your County; & the rather, as the Indians have shewn a disposition to be troublesome. Congress have requested of us to direct you to assist General Hand, who is stationed on the Ohio, to take care of the frontier, in such manner as may be necessary. We hope you will be able to do this. The Lieutenants of Northumberland & Westmoreland have like instructions. It is not to be surprised that any persons, who profess any attachment to the comon cause of America, yet persist in hindering you to form the Classes. In these Eastern Counties, the Militia are in regular order, & some have embodied three Classes; others two. No Tory pretending to be a Whig, dares hint any opposition, & the monies advanced to substitutes are levying every where.
     It is recommended to you, & you are hereby ordered to embody such, & so many of the Militia of Bedford County as the service may require, & as General Hand may demand; taking care to distribute the burden so as to render it equal & easy as may be.
     This seems to be the stress if the Campain, General Howe has appeared in Virginia. The Eastern Militia of this state wait on his motions. Gen' Burgoine has pressed into the settlements of New York, but on the 16th Inst the Militia of Newhampshire gave a signal blow to his rear. While the Militia of New York have repulsed another Corps, which was penetrating by way of Oswego towards the Hudson & Albany, & had blockaded Fort Stanwix. In this circumstance Council expect that the people of your County, who have formerly exerted themselves in a remarkable manner, in the cause of Liberty, in distant places, will not fail of displaying equal activity & zeal in the defence of their neighbors, & their own families.
     I inclose to you a Copy of the request of Congress. Be exact & careful in having the Corps & detachments of Militia which you find out mustered, & their numbers properly certified. We have appointed paymasters of Militia, one for each County, one over all the State. There ought to be one named for Bedford, an exact trusty person.
     Letter to Westmoreland.
     I wrote to you on the 5th Inst in answer to your desire to be instructed how to act in regard to the demands of Genl Hand for parties & detachments of Militia. This incloses a copy thereof. I now confirm & renew the orders then given, & I trust you will he able to fullfil them. Congress have since added their request on this head. The Lieuts of Bedford & Northumberland have like instructions from us.
     This seems to be the stress, &c., as last part above.
     P.S. - In some of the Counties on this side of Susquehanna, 3 Classes of Militia have been drawn out, in others two classes. Directed, To Lieuts of Bedford, Northumberland & Westmoreland.

          Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 11 September, 1777

On consideration of the returns of Justices Elected for the County of Bedford, and a recommendation by upwards of twenty Freeholders of Robert Galbraith, for the said Office,
     Resolved, That James Mastin, 2d Wil1'm Parker, 3d Joshua Milott, 4th Martin Longstreath, 5th Tho's Paxton, 6th Robert Scott, 7th Robert Galbraith, be appointed Justices of the Peace for the said County of Bedford.
     Ordered, That a Dedimus Potestatum be made out Authorizing & empowering Robert Galbraith, Esq'r, James Martin, & Thomas Urie, Esq'rs, to Administer the Oaths required by the Constitution & laws of this Commonwealth, to Qualify the aforesaid Magistrates & the other Civil Officers appointed or to be appointed in the said County of Bedford.

          Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 13 September, 1777

Rob't Galbraith, Esq'r appeared before Council and took the Oaths required by Law to qualify him to act as one of the Justices of the Peace for the County of Bedford, & as one of the Justices of the Court of Common Pleas; and also the Oath required to qualify him to act according to the Powers mentioned & named in a Dedimus Potestatum dated this day.
     Ja's Martin, Esq'r, also appeared & took the Oath required to qualify him to act according to the powers mentioned in & granted to him & others, by a Dedimus Potestatum dated this day.

          Demand of Records, 29 September, 1777

Thomas Smith, Esqr. Sir, I hereby demand of you the Books, Records and other Papers and Seals of Office of the office of Prothonotary, Register of Wills, Recorder of Deeds, and Clerk of the Orphan's Court for the County of Bedford.
     I am Sir, yours &c., ROBERT GALBRAITH.

          Deposition of Robert Galbraith, &c., 29 September, 1777

On the twenty ninth Day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and seventy seven, Before me, the subscriber, one of the justices of the Peace for the County aforesaid,Personally appeared, Robert Galbrait h of the Town of Bedford, Esqr, and William Parker of Colerain Township, in the County aforesaid, Esqr, and being duly sworn according to law, deposeth and saith that on the Day of the date hereof, they, these Deponents, waited upon Thomas Smith, Esquire, late Prothonotary, &c., of the County of Bedford, and the said Robert Galbraith demanded (in writing by delivering into his, the said Thomas Smith's Hands, an original Paper, of which the annexed is a true Copy,) of the aforesaid Thomas Smith, the Books, Records, and other Papers and Seals of Office, of the offices of Prothonotary.Register of Wills, Recorder of Deeds, and Clerk of the Orphan's Court for the County of Bedford. To which the said Thomas Smith verbally.answered that the sentiments of the People were to be taken for a new Convention, and when that was known if there was a Majority he would then immediately give them up, or if the Deponent,Robert Galbraith, would call the TownshipCommittee & they should say he, the said Thomas Smith, should give them up, he, the said Thomas Smith, immediately would. And farther these Deponents say not. ROBERT GALBRAITH, WILLM PARKER
      Sworn the Day and Year afs'd, Before me, JAMES MARTIN.

          Committee of Correspondence of Bedford to President Wharton, Supreme Executive Council, 02 October, 1777

Sir, In our letter of the 7th ulto. we complained of the fraudulent practices of the Lieutenant of this county with regard to the election for Field Officers, which was so glaring that he himself has of his own accord advertised a new one, with what regularity we will not undertake to say, but his having done it is sufficient to show that we did not complain without good reason. It is exceedingly disagreeable to us to be obliged to prefer complaints against officers, to a Body from whom they derive their authority, because both reason & experience shew that such complaints have generally but little weight, & but small regard is paid to them however just they may be. Those who delegate *** imagine it a reflection upon themselves to have it supposed that they have bestowed it upon Persons notoriously unworthy, & perhaps the more amicable their own Characters may be, they are for that very reason rendered less perspicous of fraud - more liable to be imposed upon - their *** less open to complaints. Redress from such Bodies often come too late. They will but too often endeavour to Palliat errors in judgment, excuse willful wrong, & such is often the unhappy concurrence of circumstances that the grossest partiality may be mistaken for Patriotism, & men who are altogether void of every principle of moral honesty may represent themselves as their Country's best friends, may talk much of public good, *** only mean their own. Such men may do much mischief before they discover the cloven foot, & those who appoint such men to publick stations may suffer very much in the public opinion before they find out that they have been imposed upon, we must again complain. To procure redress In the plain, peaceable method we would wish, is not in our power; it is only for us to make known the grievance to those whom the Constitution has invested with such Power, & if they let gross abuses pass unpunished, & suffer themselves to be imposed upon with impunity, they and they only are answerable to the community for all the effects that flow from it be they ever so fatal. Far be it from us to suppose that the Body to whom we write will so far abuse their Trust - at least we know, that the Gentleman to whom we address ourselves, knows no honour in his distinguished station but that which he acquires from a faithful discharge of his duty upon the Principles of Law, Justice & Equity, & a strict adherence to that Constitution from which he derives his authority, & who disdains to sloop to any pitiful evasion to humour a time-serving junto at the expense of the permanent freedom & happiness of his country. Convinced that we are now writing to a Gentleman whose character would justly entitle him to be placed first in rank in a Constitution far more becoming Freeman than that of Pennsylvania now is, We beg leave to represent that Robert Galbraith has presumed to exercise the office of a Justice of the Peace of this County, & has Committed a Person to Gaol for a debt within the Jurisdiction of a Justice of the Peace, under pretence of his having a Commission from the President in Council for so doing, whereas we are satisfied that he can have no such commission, or if he has, that it is illegally and fraudulently obtained. The Constitution from which however bad it may be, we know the President *** Council cannot deviate without a violation of their oath, prescribes that Justices of the Peace should he elected by the respective districts, and the Acts of Assembly have directed the mode in which they are to be elected, or in case of neglect in what manner they are to be appointed. Now supposing Mr. Galbraith a Freeholder in Bedford, which were it necessary we might deny, and he is neither a Freeholder nor resident in any other Township. We are authorized to assert that he was not elected by the Freeholders of Bedford, and so far from having an application from twenty of them to have him appointed, lie neither had, nor can, with the utmost exertion of all the interested low cunning he is master of, have the sufferage of five Freeholders in Bedford. He once lived here. We take it for granted that he has produced such an application, because we know the President in Council has no Power to appoint without it. If he has produced such an application from the Freeholders of Bedford, we assert either that it is Forged. or he has got one or two from the Town of Bedford, & some others from the Township of Bedford, or some other Townships, as we heard his friends had been applying for him in other Townships. Now, the Town of Bedford has been a distinct Township by it self ever since the county was erected. How far, therefore, an application front the Freeholders or any other Townships will justify his appointment, if he has one, we leave to the President in Council, and have no doubt but that in vindication of themselves they will make an example of any person who has presumed to make them violate the Trust reposed in them, & to make them appear Partial in the eyes of those who wish to support that Constitution of which they are the supreme Executive Power, even tho' they disapprove of it in many particulars. We have been solicited to discharge the Person committed, and to committ *** Magistrate, who has dared to impose so much upon Government. This we have declined for the present, (not only because the committment is illegal, & therefore when law takes place may have an action of false Imprisonment,) but in full confidence that we shall have justice done, & truly sensible that we ought to do everything in our power to allay the ferment produced by such arbitrary measures, which at present might be fatal to our common cause, & give our enemies advantages which their own strength cannot give them, & such Proceedings are suffered to put us every hour in mind that the supposed free spirit of the Constitution, & the boasted freedom we are to enjoy under it, are only empty formal sounds if justice is delayed and law denied. We may lament, but we cannot prevent the unhappy consequence that must in the nature of things flow from such gross deviations from Justice & the Constitution. This we declare, that altho' we exceedingly dislike the Present Constitution, *** wish for such an amendment as will put the Executive power upon a more respectable footing, yet till it is altered by the calm voice of the people when party rage shall have given Place to reason an infatuated affectation for novelty shall have given way to the exercise of common sence, we will support it with our lives fortunes where it is adhered to, & where partiality is not apparent to every eye. We hope & wish that the resolutions which shall be taken in consequence of this representation will enable us to convince the People that their fears and suspicions of unfair proceedings are ill founded, and that the justice and candour of the Executive power will confer that dignity upon it, what the Constitution has denied it. We are, sir, With the greatest Personal respect, Your Most Obedient & Very Humble Servants, GEORGE WOODS, THOMAS SMITH, SAML. DAVIDSON, WM. TODD, DAVID ESPY, Committee of Correspondence

          Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 15 October, 1777

Colo. Miles Attended & requested that Colo. Pipers' family may be furnished with his Pay, as they were in necessity, & no Paymaster now on duty, and also requested that some Money may be advanced to Colo. Atlee's Lady, agreeable to an order from him.
     Ordered, That the Sum of Two hundred Pounds be paid to Colo. Miles, to be by him paid to Colo. Piper's Lady, & charged to Colo. Piper, and accordingly.

          Note of the Council of Safety, 21 October, 1777

Whereas, divers of the inhabitants of this Commonwealth, not Regarding their duty to the State, but Renouncing their Allegiance thereto, and disclaiming the protection thereof, have wickedly joined themselves to our unnatural Enemies, giving to them aid and assistance by furnishing them with provisions and otherwise, thereby contributing as far as in them lies, to increase the distresses of their injured Country; and whereas, it is highly unjust and Repugnant to the practice of all Nations to protect and preserve the property of their avowed Enemies; Therefore,
     Be it Ordained, Resolved and declared, and by Virtue of the powers and Authorities to us committed by the Legislature of this State, it is, by the Council of Safety of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, hereby ordained, Resolved and declared, that all and every the personal Estate and effects whatsoever of such of the Inhabitants of this Commonwealth as have, or hereafter shall abandon their Families or habitations, & Joined the Army of the King of Great Britain, and of all such as shall Resort to any City, Town or place within this Commonwealth in possession of the Troops or Armies of the said King of Great Britain, carrying to them Provisions, or that shall otherwise afford to them such provisions or intelligence or other Aid, shall be seized upon and safely Kept by the Commissioners hereinafter Appointed, for the use and purpose herein after declared, and all sales and alienations thereof, and of all or any of the Real Estates of such Offenders in the mean time made by them, or any of them, their, or either Agents, Factors, or Attornies, are hereby declared to be null and void, to all intents and purposes whatsoever; And be it further Resolved, ordained and declared, by the authority aforesaid, that the Commissioners for the Respective Counties hereinafter appointed, or any or either of them, shall and may, with all convenient speed after the Publication of this Ordinance, seize upon and into his or their Custody, and make a true and perfect inventory of all the personal Estate and effects of every such Offender, and dispose of all the perishable part thereof, and at his or their discretion, convey away and Remove to places of safety, sell, or otherwise dispose of, where it may be necessary, all such goods and effects of the said Offenders as they shall apprehend to be in danger of falling into the hands of the Enemy, and the said Monies and Goods so by them taken or Received, the said Commissioners are Required to Retain and keep safely, subject to the future disposition of the Legislature of this Commonwealth, Keeping true Accounts of their proceedings, and Receiving for their trouble, over and above their Costs and charges, at the Rate of five % centum. And the said Commissioners are hereby also further directed and enjoined, with all convenient speed after the making such inventory and sale or sales as aforesaid, to deliver, on Oath, to the Treasurer, a true Copy of such Inventory or account of sales.
     And be it further Resolved, Ordained and declared by the authority aforesaid, that the several persons hereinafter named, (or in their or either of their stead and place, in case they or either of them shall refuse or be disabled to perform the duties upon them enjoined, in and by this Ordinance, such other person or persons as this Council shall from time to time appoint,) shall be and they are hereby appointed Commissioners for the purposes aforesaid, to Wit: ... For the County of Bedford, Robert Galbraith, Thomas Urie, John Piper...
     And be it lastly resolved, ordained and declared by the authority aforesaid, that the said Commissioners, or any or either of them, shall be fully authorized and empowered to search for and seize the said goods and effects of such offenders, and for this end to send for, call before them, and examine persons and papers, to use force and to break open doors in all Cases where the same goods may he secreted and concealed, to commit such as shall absolutely Resist their Authority, and to call to their Aid Officers and others, civil and Military, who are hereby Required and commanded to Aid and assist them accordingly.

          Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 30 October, 1777

A return of the General Election of the County of Bedford was laid before the Board & read, by which it appears that the following Gentlemen were duly elected, to Wit: Councellor - Thomas Urie. Representatives - Harmon Husband, Chas. Cisna, Will'm McComb, John Burd, John Stevenson, & John Stewert. Commissioner - James Martin. Assesors - Wm. Montgomery, Sam'I Moore, Tho's Ferguson, Jas. Little, Hugh Oriton, & Dan'l Mcconnell. Sheriffs - John Cessna & Francis Clugage. Coroners - Cornelius Allay & John Moore. On Consideration,
     Ordered, That John Cessna be appointed Sheriff of the County of Bedford, & Gideon Richey, Abram Miley, Rob't Bradshaw, & Reynard Woolfe, being offered to this Council as surety for the said John Cessna, his performing the Duties of his Office faithfully, according to Law.
     Ordered, That the said Gideon Richey, Abram Miley, Rob't Bradshaw, & Reynard Woolfe, or any two of them, be taken & admitted as surety for the said John Cessna as Sheriff, according to Law.
     Ordered, That Cornelius Auley be appointed Coroner of the County of Bedford.

          Letter from Robert Galbraith to President Thomas Wharton Jr, 31 October, 1777

Sir, I have been at Bedford and opened the Courts without any opposition. The Sheriff held the Election, and though but a small one, yet I hope it will answer a good purpose. Mr. Smith still refuses to deliver up the Records, as appears by the affidavits sent you by Mr. John Morris, Clerk of the Assembly. I've sent by Mr. Morris the Nomination of Bedford Justices of Persons for Clerk of the Peace, which I expect the Council will take notice of, and send up the Commission per first opportunity. I should be glad of some instructions relative to the Tavernkeepers; some have applied at the Court, and recommended, but I have no License nor orders to proceed in the matter. Mr. Woods has taken the Oath of Allegiance, and wonders why himself and the other two Gentlemen recommended with him, are not Commissioned; he says he is now determined to support the Constitution, and most undoubtedly he can do a great deal of good or ill in this County at the present Time. If the Council thought proper to send for Mr. Smith, and dispose of him in some other way than confineing him at Bedford, it might answer a better purpose, for I am apprehensive he might be rescued here, and I am of opinion if he was brought before the Council he would agree to deliver them up; but this I leave to the wisdom and prudence of the Council.
     The generality of the People in Bedford County are well disposed to the Constitution, and a little Time, I am persuaded, will put matters upon a good footing. I attended at Carlisle Court, and matters there went on midling well. Mr. morris, who attended, also can inform you. I write this in York Town, where I have attended on behalf of the State; the Courts were opened here, but in manner, and under what circumstances, Mr. McLean, who intends waiting of you in a few Days, will inform. I intend returning to Bedford in a few Days, as soon as I can get Seals of Office engraved here.
     With Compliments to Mr. Bryan and the other Gentlemen of the Council. I am with respect, your Excellencys most obedt, humble servt, Robert Galbraith.

          Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 14 November, 1777

Tho's Urie, Councellor of the County of Bedford, appeared & took the Oaths required by the Constitution to Qualify him to act as Councellor, he swearing with an uplifted hand, and took his seat accordingly.

          Council of Safety to Delegates in Congress, 14 November, 1777

Sir, This Council is applied to by the people of the County of Westmoreland in this Commonwealth with the most alarming Complaints of Indian Depredations. The Letter of which the inclosed is a copy will give you some Idea of their present situation.
     We are further informed by verbal accounts, that an Extent of 60 Miles has been evacuated to the Savages, full of Stock, Corn, Hoggs & Poultry, that they have attacked Palmer's Fort about 7 miles distant from Fort Ligonier without success; and from the information of White Eyes & other circumstances, it is feared Fort Ligonier has, by this time been attacked. There is likewise reason to fear the ravages will extend to Bedford, & along the frontier. We shall order out the militia of Bedford County, & take such other steps as may be immediately necessary for the relief of those Settlements but we find they are greatly deficient in the articles of arms, & especially ammunition & Flints. In Fort Ligonier, when our Informants left it, there was not more than 40 lb of powder & 15 lb of Lead - Flints are sold at a Dollar a piece.
     We must beg the assistance of Congress in these articles - arms we dare hardly ask, but ammunition & Flints we hope may be supplied by Congress both to Westmoreland & Bedford; and we must also intreat the attention of Congress to the general Defence of the Frontier. We know not the situation of Gen. Hand, his forces or his views; but we have reserved the militias of Bedford & Westmoreland, for the purpose of co-operating with him in those parts of the states, & the neighbourhood.
     Mr. Thomas Galbraith will call on you in a few Days on his way to Ligonier, the supplies should be furnished to him from Carlisle to be carried from thence on Pack horses. He will explain more at large their situation & it might not be amiss to communicate to him what may be expected from Gen. Hand, as well as what Congress shall order.

  1/VI/12 & CR/XI/372-373
          Warrant for the arrest of Thomas Smith, the Prothonotary of Bedford County, 17 November, 1777

Whereas it is made appear before the Supreme Executive Council of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, upon the oath of Robert Galbraith and William Parker Esquires, that Thomas Smith, Esqr being a person who has acted as Prothonotary in the County of Bedford, hath been, duly required and, summoned by a demand in writing, to deliver up all and singular the books, records, papers and seals belonging to or in use in the office of Prothonotary, in and for the said county of Bedford, unto the said Robert Galbraith (he the said: Robert Galbraith being the person who hath been appointed by the President, and this Council to succeed him the said Thomas Smith in the said office,) and that he the sd Thomas Smith bath neglected to comply with, the sd demand, you are therefore hereby commanded to take the said Thomas Smith, and him safely keep in close custody in the common Gaol of the said county of Bedford without hail or mainprize, untill the said Robert Galbraith shall become possessed of the said books, records, papers and seals
     Given under my hand and sealed this seventeenth day of November, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and seventy seven.
     It appearing to this Council, on the oath of Rob't Galbraith, Esq'r, & Will'm Parker, Esq'r, that Thomas Smith, Esq'r, late Prothonotary of the County of Bedford, hath been duly required & summoned by a demand in writing to deliver up the Seals, Papers, Books & Records belonging to, or in use in the said Office, to the said Rob't Galbraith, who hath been appointed by this Council to the said Office, which demand the said Thomas Smith hath refused to comply with; therefore,
     Ordered, That the said Thomas Smith, Esq'r, be Arrested & Confined in the Goal of the said County of Bedford, according to Law.

          Letter from Colonel John Piper to President Thomas Wharton Jr, 24 November, 1777

I would beg leave to Enform that in Consequence of a Commission from the Supream Executive Council of this State apointing me Lieut of Bedford County, for the Purpose of Mustering and Classing the Militia of sd County, notwithstanding the opposition and difficulty that atended the Business we Have been able to goe so farr into it that we have form'd the sd Militia into Battallions and likewise into Companys and Classed, agreeable to an Act of Assembly, Pass'd for that Purpose. But from our distance and other Disadvantages Have not been able to obtain Comissiones, therefore Prays that Comissions be granted, and as our Militia Have Been and are still a Calling upon not only to Guard our own frontiers, but likewise to Escort Provisions and other Carriages to Fort Pitt, and a number of our Militia Have Been call'd upon to joyne Gennrall Hand, and as no Provision has ever Been made for the Paymt or Equipmt of these men, who notwithstanding these difficultys, Have Steped forth in Defence of their Country and are still Ready to apear in its Deffence. I would therefore Pray in Behalf of sd County that Provision for the Pay and Equipmt of these Men, who are calld into actual service, may be Procured. These Considerations I would beg Leave to submit, in hopes your Excellancy will Grant such suplys as our necessitys require.
     I have Sir, The Honour to he yr Excellency's most obed't And very Hble Servt, John Piper.

          Letter from Colonel John Piper to President Thomas Wharton Jr, 25 November, 1777

In Performing the duty required of Me as Lt of the County of Bedford has Been atended with Considerable Truble and Expence, which I have not been Enahl'd to Discharge By the sum of money sent to me by Council I therefore request and Hope the Council will Pleas grant Me Sutch a Suply of Cash as to them may apear sufficient to Enable me to Pay the Sub Lieuts. for their Services with the other unavoidable Expences which have Ensu'd, and as the Militia of our County are in great Measure Destitute of Arms and Amunition I pray the Council to give sutch orders as they may think Proper so that we may be furnished with these very necessary articles. I will therefore submit to Council in Hopes they will please to Comply with the Request.

          Letter from Thomas Smith and George Woods to President Wharton, Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, 27 November, 1777

The present situation of this County is so truly deplorable that we should be inexcusable if we delayed a moment in acquainting you with it, an Indian War is now raging around us in its utmost fury. Before you went down they had killed one man at Stony Creek, since that time they have killed five on the Mountain, over against the heads of Dunning's Creek, killed or taken three at the three springs, wounded one and killed some Children by Frankstown, and had they not providentially been discovered in the Night, & a party went out and fired on them, they would, in all probability, have destroyed a great part of that settlement in a few hours. A small party went out into Morrison's Cove scouting, and unfortunately divided, the Indians discovered one division and out of eight killed seven & wounded the other. In short, a day hardly passes without our hearing of some new murder, and if the People continue only a week longer to fly as they have done for a week Past, Cumberland County will be a frontier. From Morrison's, Croyl's & Friend's Coves, Dunning's Creek & one half of the Glades they are fled or forted, and for all the defence that can be made here the Indians may do almost what they please. We keep out ranging parties, in which we go out by turns; but all that we can do that way is but weak and ineffectual for our defence, because one half of the People are fled, those that remain are too busily employed in putting their families and the little of their effects that they can save and take into some place of safety, so that the whole burden falls upon a few of the Frontier Inhabitants. For those who are at a distance from danger have not as yet offered us any assistance, we are far from blaming the officers of the Militia because they have not ordered them out, for if they had, they really can be of little or no service, not only for the forgoing reasons, but also for these, not one Man in ten of them is armed, if they were armed your are sensible and take the country through there is not one fourth Man that is fit to go against Indians, and it might often happen that in a whole Class there might not be a single Person who is acquainted with the Indians ways or the woods, and if there should be a few good Men, and the rest unfit for that service, those who are fit to take the Indians in their own way could not act with the same resolution and spirit as if they were sure of being properly supported by men like themselves. The Consequence would be that the Indians, after gaining an advantage over them, would become much more daring and fearless, and drive all before them. A small number of select Men would be of more real service to guard the frontiers than six times that number of People unused to arms or the woods. It is not for us to dictate what steps ought to be taken, but some steps ought to be taken without the loss of an hour. The safety of your country, of your families, of your Property, will, we are convinced, urge you to do every thing in your Power to put the Frontiers in some state of defence. Suppose there were orders given to raise about 100 Rangers, under the Command of spirited officers, who were well acquainted with the woods and the Indians and could take them in their own way. They could be raised instantly, and we are informed there are a great number of Rifles lying in Carlisle, useless, altho' all the hack Country is suffering for the want of arms. It was a fatal step that was taken last winter in leaving so many guns when the Militia came from Camp, about this place especially, and all the country near it, they are remarkably distressed for the want of Guns, for when the Men were raised for the army you know we procured every Gun that we could for their use, the country reflect hard on us now for our assiduity on those occasions, as it now deprives them of the means of defence. But this is not the only instance in which we hear reflections which are not deserved. The safety of our country then loudly called on us to send all the arms to the Camp that could be procured, and it now as loudly calls on us to entreat that we may be allowed some as soon as possible. As also some ammunition, as that which was intrusted to our care is now almost delivered out to the officers who are fortifying, and what remains of it is not fit for rifles. We need not repeat our entreaties that whatever is done may be done as soon as possible, as a day's delay may be the destruction of hundreds.
     We are-in haste, Gentlemen, your most obedient, humble servants, GEORGE WOODS, THOMAS SMITH. Bedford, Nov, 27th, 1777.
     N.B. The Bearer will forward any despatches that may be made in consequence of this.

          Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 27 November, 1777

An order was drawn on the Treasurer in favor of Colo. John Piper, Lieutenant of the County of Bedford, for the Sum of three hundred Pounds, for which he is to account.

          Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 01 December, 1777

An order was drawn on Dav'd Rittenhouse, Esq'r, Treasurer of the State, in favor of John Burd, for furnishing Two hundred & Sixty Two Rations, at One Shilling per Ration, to Colo. Piper's Battalion, of the second of January last, to be charged to Congress.

          Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 03 December, 1777

Council received from the Assembly an order, setting forth the appointment of Tho's Uric, junr, & Will'm Halliday, jun'r, Esq'rs, of the County of Bedford, & Will'm Cochran, Esq'r, of the County of Westmoreland, to be Sub-Lieutenants of the said Counties respectively.

          Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 09 December, 1777

Several letters from the County of Bedford, relating to the incursions made by the Indians, being now read and considered,
     Ordered, That the Lieutenants of the County of Bedford, & of the County of Westmoreland, be authorized and directed to call out from time to time, such parts of the Militia of the said Counties as may be necessary for the immediate defence of the Inhabitants against the Indians, & to take such measures as may most effectually cover the inhabitants while they are securing their grain, and it is recommended to the said Lieut's to confer & correspond with each other on this Subject as occasion may require, so as to act in conjunction, as far as may be, for the Public safety.

          Board of War to Col. B. Flowers, 09 December, 1777

Sir, If there are any Rifle Guns in the Stores deliver them to the order of Honble. The President &. Council of this State to be repaired & sent to the Frontiers for the use of the Inhabitants for their Defence against the Indians. You are not to exceed the number of one hundred --- but this is imagined to be more than you have in your Possession as a number were ordered from Council to the Lieut's of Bedford & Westmoreland Counties.
     Your hble Servt RICHARD PETERS. By Order of the Board.

          Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 11 December, 1777

Ordered, That application be made to the Board of War for a number of Arms, to be repaired and put into the hands of the Militia of the County of Bedford, for their immediate defence against the incursions of the Indians.

          Council to Board of War, 12 December, 1777

Gentlemen, I am directed by the Council of this State, to apply to your honorable board for a number of arms which remain in the hands of Mr. Robert Towers, and a number which are at Allentown, both parcels at the present altogether unfit for Service, which Council will have repaired as soon as possible, and put into the hands of the people of Westmoreland and Bedford counties, to enable them to repel the Indians, who are killing and Scalping the inhabitants of those counties, if your board Shall order them to be delivered for that purpose. About five hundred Arms will be wanted for each of these counties.
     I have the honour to be, with great respect, Your very humble Servant.

          Letter from John Piper to President Wharton, Supreme Executive Council, 19 December, 1777

Sir, Permit me Sir to Recommend to you for Council and Direction the Bearer, Mr. Holliday, an inhabitant of Frankstown, one of the fronteer Settlem'ts of our county, who has at his own risk been extreamly active in assembling the people of that settlemt together and in purchasing Provisions to serve the Militia who came to their assistance; as there was no person appointed either to purchase Provisions or to serve it out, necessity obliged the Bearer, with the assistance of some neighbours, to purchase a considerable quantity of Provisions for that Purpose. By which the inhabitants have been enabled to make a stand. His request is that he may be supply'd with cash not only to discharge the debts already contracted, but likewise to enable him to lay up a store for future demand. I beg leave Sir to refer to the Bearer for further information, in hopes youl Provide for their further support, their situation requires immediate assistance.

          Letter from the Supreme Executive Council to Colonel John Piper, 27 December, 1777

I this Day received your Letter of the 19th Inst by Mr. Holliday, who, you inform Council, has taken the trouble to provide the Militia that have been called to the assistance of the Inhabitants against the Ravages of the savages, with Provisions: and requesting Council to furnish that Gentleman With Money, as well to discharge the Debts he has already contracted for that purpose, as to enable him to procure a further supply upon the like occasion.
     It is not understood that the Expence of supplying the Militia with provisions upon this occasion is to fall upon the State in particular; but Council being very desirous to give every possible assistance to relieve the inhabitants from their present distresses, have so far comply'd with your request as to advance to Mr. Holliday the sum of £ -----, which they have charged to your account. You will please, therefore, to attend to this matter, & see that no waste happens, nor no fraud be suffered to creep into the accounts, otherwise difficulties may arrise in Liquidating them.
     N.B. Congress expect that provisions purchased for the Militia, will be at the ------, and at the Cheapest rate.

          Note of the Supreme Executive Council, 29 December, 1777

And an order was drawn on David Rittenhouse, Esq'r, Treasurer of the State, in favor of Wm. Holliday, for the Sum of Four hundred Pounds, to Pay for Provisions purchased to supply the Militia of Bedford County, & to continue the Supply, which Sum is to be charged to Colo. Piper, Lieu't of said County. 1000 Ordered, That the Board of War be requested to furnish Herman Husband, Esq'r, with Two hundred Pounds of Powder & Six hundred Pounds of Lead, for the use of the Militia of Westmoreland County, in defending themselves against the Indians, and the like quantity for the use of the Militia of Bedford, for the said purpose.


* A-: American Archives, Series -; JC: Journals of the Continental Congress; CR: Colonial Records; 1: PA Archives, First Series; 2: PA Archives, Second Series; etc; / Volume / Page(s)