The Solemn League and Covenant
~ Source unknown.

  The King痴 Royalist forces won a string of victories, and by the summer of 1643 the English Parliament was looking for relief. Overtures were made to their Scottish counterparts, and in the autumn of that year, the two assemblies signed an agreement known as the Solemn League and Covenant.(2.16)

Solemn League And Covenant

        We, noblemen, barons, knights, gentlemen, citizens, burgeピes, miniフers of the Goパel, and commons of all バrts, in the kingdoms of Scotland, England, and Ireland, by the providence of GOD living under one king, and being of one reformed religion, having before our eyes the glory of God, and the advancement of the kingdom of our Lord and Saviour JESUS CHRIST, the honour and happineピ of the king痴 majeフy and his poフerity, and the true public liberty, ヂfety, and peace of the kingdom, wherein every one痴 private condition is included: and calling to mind the treacherous and bloody plots, conパiracies, attempts, and practices of the enemies of GOD, againフ the true religion and profeピors thereof in all places, eパecially in theテ three kingdoms, ever ナnce the reformation of religion; and how much their rage, power, and preブmption, are of late, and at this time, increaテd and exerciテd, whereof the deplorable フate of the Church and kingdom of Ireland, the diフreピed フate of the Church and kingdom of England, and the dangerous フate of the Church and kingdom of Scotland, are preテnt and public teフimonies: we have now at laフ (after other means of ブpplication, remonフrance, proteフation, and ブfferings), for the preテrvation of ourテlves and our religion from utter ruin and deフruction, according to the commendable practice of theテ kingdoms in former times, and the example of GOD担 people in other nations, after mature deliberation, reバlved and determined to enter into a Mutual and Solemn League and Covenant, wherein we all ブbツribe, and each one of us for himテlf, with our hands lifted up to the Moフ High GOD, do ヘear,
        I. That we ドall ナncerely, really, and conフantly, through the grace of GOD, endeavor, in our テveral places and callings, the preテrvation of the reformed religion in the Church of Scotland, in doctrine, worドip, diツipline, and government, againフ our common enemies; the reformation of religion in the kingdoms of England and Ireland, in doctrine, worドip, diツipline, and government, according to the Word of GOD, and the example of the beフ reformed Churches; and ドall endeavour to bring the Churches of GOD in the three kingdoms to the neareフ conjunction and uniformity in religion, that we, and our poフerity after us, may, as brethren, live in faith and love, and the Lord may delight to dwell in the midフ of us.
        II. That we ドall, in like manner, without reパect of perバns, endeavour the extirpation of Popery, Prelacy (that is, Church government by archbiドops, biドops, their chancellors and commiピioners, deans, deans and chapters, archdeacons, and all other eccleナaフical officers depending on that hierarchy), ブperフition, hereペ, ツhiノ, profaneneピ, and whatバever ドall be found contrary to バund doctrine and the power of Godlineピ; leフ we partake in other men痴 ナns, and thereby be in danger to receive of their plagues; and that the Lord may be one, and his name one, in the three kingdoms.
        III. We ドall, with the ヂme ナncerity, reality, and conフancy, in our テveral vocations, endeavour, with our eフates and lives, mutually to preテrve the rights and privileges of the Parliaments, and the liberties of the kingdoms; and to preテrve and defend the king痴 majeフy痴 perバn and authority, in the preテrvation and defence of the true religion and liberties of the kingdoms; that the world may bear witneピ with our conツiences of our loyalty, and that we have no other thoughts or intentions to diminiド his majeフy痴 juフ power and greatneピ.
        IV. We ドall alバ, with all faithfulneピ, endeavour the diツovery of all ブch as have been or ドall be incendiaries, malignants, or evil inフruments, be hindering the reformation of religion, dividing the king from his people, or one of the kingdoms from another, or making any faction or parties among the people, contrary to this League and Covenant; that they may be brought to public trial, and receive condign puniドment, as the degree of their offences ドall require or deテrve, or the ブpreme judicatories of both kingdoms reパectively, or others having power from them for that effect, ドall judge convenient.
        V. And whereas the happineピ of a bleピed peace between theテ kingdoms, denied in former times to our progenitors, is, by the good providence of GOD, granted unto us, and hath been lately concluded and テttled by both Parliaments; we ドall, each one of us, according to our place and intereフ, endeavour that they may remain conjoined in a firm peace and union to all poフerity; and that juフice may be done upon the willful oppoテrs thereof, in manner expreピed in the precedent article.
        VI. We ドall alバ, according to our places and callings, in this common cauテ of religion, liberty, and peace of the kingdoms, aピiフ and defend all thoテ that enter into this League and Covenant, in the maintaining and purブing thereof; and ドall not ブffer ourテlves, directly or indirectly, by whatバever combination, perブaナon, or terror, to be divided or withdrawn from this bleピed union and conjunction, whether to make defection to the contrary part, or to give ourテlves to a deteフable indifferency or neutrality in this cauテ, which バ much concerneth the glory of God, the good of the kingdom, and honour of the king; but ドall, all the days of our lives, zealouネy and conフantly continue therein againフ all oppoナtion, and promote the ヂme, according to our power, againフ all lets and impediments whatバever; and what we are not able ourテlves to ブppreピ or overcome, we ドall reveal and make known, that it may be timely prevented or removed: All which we ドall do as in the ナght of God.
        And, becauテ theテ kingdoms are guilty of many ナns and provocations againフ GOD, and his Son JESUS CHRIST, as is too manifeフ by our preテnt diフreピes and dangers, the fruits thereof; we profeピ and declare, before GOD and the world, our unfeigned deナre to be humbled for our own ナns, and for the ナns of theテ kingdoms; eパecially that we have not, as we ought, valued the ineフimable benefit of the Goパel; that we have not laboured for the purity and power thereof; and the we have not endeavoured to receive Chriフ in our hearts, not to walk worthy of him in our lives; which are the cauテs of other ナns and tranトreピion バ much abounding amongフ us: and our true and unfeigned purpoテ, deナre, and endeavour, for ourテlves, and all others under our power and charge, both in public and private, in all duties we owe to GOD and man, to amend our lives, and each one to go before another in the example of a real reformation; that the Lord may turn away his wrath and heavy indignation, and eフabliド theテ Churches and kingdoms in truth and peace. And this Covenant we make in the preテnce of ALMIGHTY GOD, the Searcher of all hearts, with a true intention to perform the ヂme, as we ドall anヘer at that great day, when the テcrets of all hearts ドall be diツloテd; moフ humbly beテeching the LORD to フrengthen us by his HOLY SPIRIT for this end, and to bleピ our deナres and proceedings with ブch ブcceピ, as may be deliverance and ヂfety to his people, and encouragement to other Chriフian Churches, groaning under, or in danger of the yoke of antichriフian tyranny, to join in the ヂme or like aピociation and covenant, to the glory of GOD, the enlargement of the kingdom of JESUS CHRIST, and the peace and tranquillity of Chriフian kingdoms and commonwealths.

  The institution of the Solemn League and Covenant called for the Scottish Covenanter Army to attack the Royalist forces from the north in return for 」30,000 per month and the promise for a reformation of the religious practices in both England and Ireland in conformity with the Scottish National Covenant. To show that they were committed to the agreement, the English Parliament immediately called for an Assembly of Divines to meet at Westminster for the purpose of drawing up a Directory of Public Worship, a Confession of Faith and a new catechism.

  A detachment of the Scottish Covenanter Army, in early 1644, under the command of David Leslie (a nephew of Alexander) crossed the Tweed, and joined forces with the Eastern Association Army under Manchester, (to which Oliver Cromwell痴 independent army had been previously been attached). The Scottish army comprised a force numbering about twenty-six thousand men. They set out to lay seige to the city of York, where a Royalist army was known to be stationed. The Royalist Army under Prince Rupert headed to York痴 relief, and the two armies met at Marston Moor on 2 July, 1644. The Royalist Army was defeated, and Cromwell was lauded as the decisive element in effecting the victory for the joint Parliament and Scottish force.

The Battle of Marston Moor
~ Source unknown.

  The Scottish Parliament, while it should have been joyful with the victory over the Royalists at Marston Moor, was displeased that it had been accomplished by Cromwell, a Puritan. The Presbyterian Covenanters considered the Puritans to be a threat to the Covenant, and Cromwell was a very vocal advocate of his faith. But there was no denying the fact that the success of the Parliamentary army was primarily due to the tactical skills of Oliver Cromwell. Manchester appears to have been simply a figurehead for the leadership of the army.