Descendants of


A Time Line Of Events Associated With The Anunnaki Along With Pivotal Events In The History Of Mankind To The Beginning Of The Common Era


  The following is a time line of the important events associated with the sojourn of the Nephilim or Anunnaki here on Earth, as devised by the Sumerian and Akkadian scholar, Zecharia Sitchin. The various events pertaining to the Anunnaki are discussed in Mr. Sitchin's book series, The Earth Chronicles. Additional pieces of information on the Nephilim or Anunnaki have been derived from Laurence Gardner's book, Genesis Of The Grail Kings. Where appropriate, the Anunnaki and their activities are correlated and compared to people and events related in the Hebrew Bible. Interspersed with the proposed Anunnaki events are 'accepted' milestones suggested by recent archaeological and paleoanthropological discoveries (denoted in red). The dates are based on most recent estimates and ranges represent comparisons between various authorities.

  The purpose of this Time Line Of Events Associated With The Anunnaki is to compare accepted archaeological and anthropological information with the legends of the Anunnaki, as Mr. Sitchin questioned in the Foreward to his book, Genesis Revisited, "But is it possible that Mankind has come out of the Dark Ages and the Middle Ages; reached the Age of Enlightenment; experienced the Industrial Revolution; and entered the era of high-tech, genetic engineering, and space flight - only to catch up with ancient knowledge?"


   ~ 4,600,000,000 years B.C. (Before Christ) or BCE (Before the Common Era)  ~   The Earth comes into existence. This is the most commonly accepted date for the creation of the Earth. The oldest rocks on Earth, zircon crystals, have been dated to 4,200 million years.

   Zecharia Sitchin has proposed a theory about the creation of the Earth, based on the Sumerian creation epics, including the Enuma Elish. In the epics, the planets were refered to as 'gods' and to them were assigned the names of the gods of the Anunnaki.

   In the beginning there existed the Sun (Apsu), encircled by the planet Tiamat, and the planet Mercury (Mummu). Then, between Tiamat and Mercury, came into being the planets, Mars (Lahmu) and Venus (Lahamu). Then there came into being, beyond the planet Tiamat, the planets, Jupiter (Kishar) and Saturn (Anshar) along with their 'emissary' Pluto (Gaga). Last to come into being were the planets, Uranus (Anu) and Neptune (Ea). These nine planets, or 'gods,' moved in a counterclockwise direction around Apsu, the sun.

   From outer space a new planet, Marduk, almost the size of Jupiter or Saturn, approached, attracted to this solar system by the gravitational pull of Neptune and Uranus. Moving in a clockwise direction past Neptune and Uranus, the path of Marduk took him toward the giants, Saturn and Jupiter. As he passed by Uranus, portions of Marduk were pulled off to become four satellites or 'winds.'

   Marduk neared Saturn and Jupiter, and their massive gravitational pulls bent his orbit drastically inward, forcing his path to be aimed directly at Tiamat. The gravitational pulls of the two giants caused seven chunks of Marduk to be pulled from his body; they became satellites to encircle Marduk. As he moved toward her, one of Tiamat's own ten satellites, Kingu, was attracted to Marduk. The movement upset the order of all the planets in the system. In effect, Tiamat's satellite, Kingu, had taken on the aspect of a new planet. Kingu was given a Tablet Of Destiny, or rather a planetary course, and began its own orbit.

   The force of Marduk's path toward Tiamat, ripped into her, splitting, but not quite breaking her in two, yet knocking her satellites, with the exception of Kingu, away from her. The paths they were thrown into were clockwise, like Marduk's, and their paths would become large, elliptical orbits around the Sun. They had been changed into the comets which regularly revisit this solar system.

   The encounter between Marduk and Tiamat caused his orbit to be bent even more, resulting in his becoming a planet or 'god' which was destined to encircle the Sun forever. And because he now was trapped in an orbit, Marduk's destiny was to return to the scene of the collision. He was, therefore to cross over the site of the collision. And for that reason, Marduk became known as Nibiru, the planet of crossing.

   A second time, after an orbit of one shar (variously sar), a single Nephilim year (i.e. 3,600 Earth-years), and following the new course that fate had presented to him, Marduk / Nibiru approached the solar system. Once more, he passed by the outer planets of Neptune, Uranus and Pluto. Once more his orbit was accelerated by the gravitational pulls of the giants, Saturn and Jupiter. And once more Nibiru's path was aimed directly at the ruptured and dying planet of Tiamat.

   Nibiru struck Tiamat, and this time the collision tore Tiamat in two. The one half was smashed to pieces, and became the asteroid belt that to this day remains in orbit around the Sun between Mars and Jupiter, where the mighty Tiamat once existed. The asteroid belt was called the Hammered Bracelet by the Nephilim. In the Hebrew tradition, this second collision formed the basis of the creation story, and the hammered bracelet (which was previously mistranslated as 'firmament') was named the heaven.

   As Nibiru continued on, trampling in its path the one half of Tiamat, one of his satellites, called the North Wind, struck the remaining intact half of Tiamat. The force of this secondary impact thrust the remaining intact half of Tiamat away from her original orbit, to become repositioned between Venus and Mars. It was at this point that the remaining half of Tiamat took on the name of Earth (Ki), as noted in the Hebrew tradition. The thrust gave the remaining half of Tiamat, or Earth, her axial spin and therefore her ability to experience the changing days and nights (which the other planets/gods did not possess). Only Kingu continued to orbit around Tiamat as a satellite; he would later be called the Moon.

   The destruction of Tiamat, and the corresponding creation of Earth out of the wreckage resulted in the remaining land masses of Tiamat being concentrated in one spot as a continent (i.e. Pangea). And the waters of the Earth surrounded the land formed an ocean.

   As a result of the collision of Nibiru into Tiamat, and the alteration of the order of the planets, the satellite of Neptune and Uranus, Pluto, was jolted out of its orbit to take on a new orbit around the Sun as a planet itself. The disruption that caused Pluto to acquire its own Tablet Of Destiny, set it on an orbital plane that differed from the other planets.

   The creation epic proceeding from the point of the collision of Marduk / Nibiru with Tiamat, as told by the ancient Sumerians, corresponds almost exactly with the Hebrew tradition as told in Genesis; they both corroborate the assumptions made by science. Beginning with the eruption and flowing of molten rock, which sent volcanic debris into the formless skies, all three disciplines detail the creation of an atmosphere as a result of the accumulation of clouds and mists, which blocked out a certain amount of the Sun's heat. That resulted in a cooling of the molten rock to form the continent(s) and the creation of water to surround the continent(s) as the ocean(s). From the lands, waters and atmosphere arose mountains, rivers and the forces of weather.

   The collision of Marduk / Nibiru with Tiamat / Earth not only resulted in the creation of new geophysical features on Tiamat / Earth. It might also have resulted in the creation of life there. It is possible that the collision resulted in a sharing of elements between the two planets - elements necessary for life to occur. And because of that, it is possible that life evolved similarly on the two planets, although not necessarily exactly nor concurrently. This would explain why, when the technologically advanced Nephilim arrived at Earth around the year 450,000 B.C.E., they found only primitive humanoids.

   ~ 3,500,000,000 to 600,000,000 ~   The Precambrian Era.

   ~ 3,420,000,000 to 3,135,000,000 ~   Simple, single celled organisms make their appearance in the oceans of the Earth.

   ~ 600,000,000 to 500,000,000 ~   The Paleozoic Era; Cambrian Period.

   ~ 500,000,000 to 425,000,000 ~   The Paleozoic Era; Ordovician Period.

   ~ 425,000,000 to 405,000,000 ~   The Paleozoic Era; Silurian Period.

   ~ 405,000,000 to 345,000,000 ~   The Paleozoic Era; Devonian Period.

   ~ 345,000,000 to 280,000,000 ~   The Paleozoic Era; Carboniferous Period.

   ~ 280,000,000 to 220,000,000 ~   The Paleozoic Era; Permian Period.

   ~ 220,000,000 to 181,000,000 ~   The Mesozoic Era; Triassic Period. This is the age of the dinosaurs.

   ~ 200,000,000 ~   The original continent, Pangea, begin to split into a northern continent, Laurasia, and a southern continent, Gondwana.

   ~ 181,000,000 to 135,000,000 ~   The Mesozoic Era; Jurassic Period. Mammals first make their appearance on the Earth during this time period, but do not flourish due to the dominance of the dinosaurs.

   ~ 135,000,000 to 65,000,000 ~   The Mesozoic Era; Cretaceous Period.

   ~ 65,000,000 ~   Laurasia, and Gondwana begin to separate into smaller segments, which eventually will become the present-day continents.

   ~ 65,000,000 ~   The dinosaurs become extinct throughout the world.

   ~ 65,000,000 to 54,000,000 ~   The Cenozoic Era; Tertiary Period; Paleocene Epoch.

   ~ 54,000,000 to 36,000,000 ~   The Cenozoic Era; Tertiary Period; Eocene Epoch.

   ~ 36,000,000 to 25,000,000 ~   The Cenozoic Era; Tertiary Period; Oligocene Epoch.

   ~ 30,000,000 to 25,000,000 ~   First creatures resembling apes appear on Earth during the Oligocene Era. Aegyptopithecus appears in the region that would become Egypt.

   ~ 25,000,000 to 5,000,000 ~   The Cenozoic Era; Tertiary Period; Miocene Epoch.

   ~ 14,000,000 ~   Hominids, or manlike apes, such as Proconsul, begin to appear on Earth, believed through the process of evolution.

   ~ 11,000,000 ~   First appearance of apes which can be classified as Homo on Earth. This includes Afropithecus, which appear in eastern Africa in addition to Europe and Asia.

   ~ 5,000,000 to 1,000,000 ~   The Cenozoic Era; Tertiary Period; Pliocene Epoch.

   ~ 4,400,000  ~   Ardipithecus ramidus inhabit the Earth. These might be the first hominid, capable of walking upright on two legs.

   ~ 4,200,000 to 3,900,000 ~   Australopithecus anamensis appears in east Africa.

   ~ 4,000,000 to 3,000,000 ~   Australopithecus afarensis inhabit the Earth. These creatures, while possessing very ape-like heads, had more human-like bodies. At Laetoli in Tanzania, fossilized footprints have been found of two adult humanoids and one child, which reveal that they walked on two legs; the rocks in which the footprints appear have been dated to 3,750,000 B.C. The skeleton discovered by Don Johanson and Tom Gray at Hadar in Ethiopia, Africa, which they named Lucy, was a member of this group, and dates to 3,000,000 B.C. (3,500,000 according to some experts). Certain anthropologists date the Australopithecines earlier than this, suggesting between four to five million years ago.

   ~ 3,500,000 to 3,000,000 ~   Australopithecus bahrelghazali inhabits Africa.

   ~ 3,000,000 to 2,000,000 ~   Australopithecus africanus inhabit the Earth.

   ~ 2,800,000 ~   Australopithecus afarensis disappears from the fossil record by this time.

   ~ 2,000,000 to 1,750,000 ~   Homo habilis, Homo rudolfensis, Australopithecus boisei and Australopithecus robustus inhabit the Earth.

   ~ 2,000,000 to 40,000 ~   Beings which can be classified as Homo erectus inhabit the Earth. (Some experts date the Homo erectus as far back as 3,000,000.) They are believed to have evolved from Homo habilis. Between 1,000,000 and 750,000 years ago, these beings spread from Africa to Europe and Asia. By 700,000 only Homo erectus inhabited the Earth according to the archaeological record.

   ~ 1,000,000 to 11,000 ~   The Cenozoic Era; Quaternary Period; Pleistocene Epoch.

   ~ 1,000,000 ~   Australopithecus boisei and Australopithecus rebustus disappear from the fossil record by this time. Homo habilis, the first example of the Homo genus, continues to survive.

   ~ 800,000 ~   The period known as the Old Stone Age begins.

   ~ 700,000  ~   Homo heidelbergensis evolve from Homo erectus in Europe.

   ~ 600,000 to 550,000 ~   First Ice Age.

   ~ 480,000 to 430,000 ~   Second Ice Age.

   ~ 450,000 ~   The planet, Nibiru, begins to experience a deterioration of its atmosphere. But not only the atmosphere was in disruption; the kingship was undergoing turmoil. It would eventually lead to the colonization of Earth.

   According to Anunnaki tradition, there was the Beginning. Then there came the Prior Times. The Prior Times was a period of much warfare and strife. Finally, a truce was called, and it was decided that in order to achieve peace, a male leader from the north should marry a chosen female from the south, and their firstborn son would become the leader of a united Nibiru.

   The first king to be thusly appointed after the peace was declared was AN. The appointment of AN to the kingship of Nibiru marked the end of the Prior Times and the beginning of the Olden Times. The rule of Nibiru, thereafter, fell to individuals who descended from AN, (i.e. the Celestial One). AN was followed in the kingship by AN.KI (i.e. By AN A Solid Foundation), son of AN and AN.TU (i.e. the Leader Who Is AN's Spouse). AN.KI died without an heir, and his reign was followed by that of his younger brother, AN.IB (i.e. The One In The Middle, Who Is AN's Son). By his spouse, NIN.IB (i.e. the Lady Of IB), AN.IB bore a son, AN.SHAR.GAL (i.e. AN's Prince Who Is Greatest Of Princes). AN.SHAR.GAL's spouse was KI.SHAR.GAL, to whom was born AN.SHAR. AN.SHAR married KI.SHAR. AN.SHAR's successor was his son, EN.SHAR (i.e. Lordly Master Of The Shar), whose spouse was called NIN.SHAR. They gave birth to DU.URU (i.e. In The Dwelling Place Fashioned) who chose as his spouse DA.URU (i.e. She Who Is By My Side). DA.URU was not of royal lineage, but rather simply a friend from DU.URU's childhood. The couple did not bear any children; instead DA.URU took as a foster son a child she found at the palace gate. DA.URU's breaking of the laws of succession threw the court into confusion. Called LAHMA (i.e. Dryness), the child eventually gained the throne. He took as his spouse LAHAMA.

   It was during the reign of AN.SHAR that the volcanoes, which had for so long sustained the planet's atmosphere, were not as active as before. As a result, the protective shield which is the atmosphere began to tear. The breaching of the fragile canopy of the atmosphere continued through EN.SHAR's and DU.URU's reigns and on into that of LAHMA. Two suggestions were made: One was to fire Weapons of Terror into the volcanoes to make them active again; the other was to patch the breach with the dust of pulverized gold.

   LAHMA could not decide which method should be employed to cure the breaching of the atmosphere of Nibiru. The situation was growing desperate. And taking advantage of the situation, the people were roused to rebellion by ALALU, one of the princes descended from AN.SHAR.GAL through his son ALAM (whose mother was simply a concubine). ALALU felt the kingship was rightfully his, by the laws of succession. ALALU broke into the palace, and the result of a scuffle between the two, LAHMA was pushed out of the palace tower and fell to his death. ALALU then proclaimed himself king.

   ANU appeared before a council of the Seven Who Judge, and declared that he, not ALALU, should be the rightful ruler of Nibiru. He traced his lineage in a more direct line than ALULU, and therefore made claim to the kingship. ANU descended from AN through AN.IB, then through a son by AN.IB's marriage to the daughter of EN.URU, the youngest son of AN and AN.TU. EN.URU took as spouse, his half-sister, NIN.URU, and they gave birth to EN.AMA. A descendant of EN.AMA was this prince named ANU. The Seven Who Judge called for ALALU, and he made a proposal to ANU. He, ALALU, would retain the throne while he lived, but ANU would retain the succession, and his children would become kings in time.

   ANU accepted the proposal, and thereafter served as the cupbearer for ALALU. But he was not satisfied with his circumstances, having to serve ALALU when he felt he should be king. So after nine shars (i.e. Nibiru years, or complete circuits around the Sun), ANU rose up against ALALU. They wrestled and ANU was victorious. ANU was declared king, and as he was being escorted to the palace, ALALU made his escape. He stole a spaceship and headed away from Nibiru. His destination was set for Ki (i.e. Earth). Although he had not intended to do so, he discovered on Earth the precious metal, gold, which could be used to repair the breaches in Nibiru's atmosphere.

   ~ 445,000 ~   Some 5,000 Earth years (i.e. about one and one-third Nibiru years) after ALALU's escape and journey from Nibiru to Earth, ANU authorizes his son, E.A (i.e. He Whose Home Is Water) / EN.KI to travel with a group of fifty Nephilim to the 'seventh planet' in order to verify that ALALU's claims are accurate and true. Within six days of their landing, the settlement of Eridu (i.e. Home In The Faraway, or Earth Station 1), in the region they named the Edin, is established by E.A and his group. The Nephilim who have traveled from their home planet, Nibiru, to the seventh planet receive the name, AN.UNNA.KI (i.e. Those Who From Heaven To Earth Came Down).

   Earth was known as the 'seventh planet' to the Nephilim on Nibiru because it was counted from the outer reaches of this solar system (i.e. 1. Gaga/Pluto ~ 2. Ea/Neptune ~ 3. Anu/Uranus ~ 4. Anshar/Saturn ~ 5. Kishar/Jupiter ~ 6. Lahmu/Mars ~ 7. Ki/Earth ~ 8. Lahamu/Venus ~ 9. Mummu/Mercury).

   The Hebrew tradition of the six days of creation may have been derived from the earlier recorded Sumerian account of the landing of the Nephilim and their establishment of Eridu. That account noted that certain tasks were performed on particular days, such as the investigation and recording of herbs, trees and other plantlife on the third day, and the investigation and recording of all the creatures which crept or walked on the sixth day. E.A proclaimed that the seventh day would be a day of rest.

   The Sumerian word, E.DIN, translates as Home of the Righteous Ones. It was in the E.DIN that the city, E.RI.DU, was established. The name has been translated into all languages of the world, including Erde in German, Erthe in Middle English, Ertz in Kurdish, and Eretz in Hebrew. The word also came to be what English speaking people call Earth. The place where the E.DIN was established was in the lands drained by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, and what came to be known as Mesopotamia. The twin peaks of the mountain called Arrata / Ararat were used as landing guidepoints for the Nephilim's spacecrafts.

   ~ 445,000 to 360,000 ~   The arrival of more of the Nephilim requires that the settlement on Earth be expanded. Within this period EN.LIL, and later his father, ANU, travel from Nibiru to Earth to determine if gold retrieval can be increased because what has been delivered to Nibiru is insufficient to repair all the breaches in Nibiru's atmosphere.

   A Sumerian text related that: After kingship had been lowered from heaven, after the exalted crown, the throne of kingship had been lowered from heaven, he... perfected the procedures, the divine ordinances... Founded five cities in pure places, called their names, laid them out as centers. The first of these cities, E.RI.DU, he gave to Nufimmud, the leader. The second, BAD.TIBIRA, he gave to Nugig. The third to LA.RA.AK, he gave to Pabilsag. The fourth, SIP.PAR, he gave to the hero Utu. The fifth, SHU.RUP.PAK, he gave to Sud.

   The gold which had been retrieved thus far had come from the ocean. As such, it was already in a refined state and ready for use (albeit after pulverization). E.A. traveled across the lands of the Earth in a 'sky chamber' in search of gold ore bearing rock. He found a sizeable quantity in the Abzu (i.e. the southern/lower/nether region), which corresponds to the present-day region of southern Africa along the Zambezi River.

   On Nibiru, the Nephilim were becoming impatient for the much needed gold. EN.LIL was directed by his father, ANU to travel to the seventh planet to find out why E.A's discovery of gold in the veins of the Earth, and his proposal to mine it had not yet been undertaken. On Earth E.A explained to his brother the difficulties of mining the gold ore from the rocks. They also discussed the situation of who should direct the mining operations and who should command the Eridu settlement. They called upon their father to come to the Earth to decide the matters.

   ANU arrived on Earth and was informed by E.A. about his findings, and they traveled to the Abzu to inspect the gold bearing ore. The question of who should handle the operations was voiced, so ANU suggested that he, E.A. and EN.LIL should draw lots to decide who should be in charge of the Home In The Faraway, the gold mining operations in the Abzu, and even the kingship of Nibiru.

   The drawing of the lots resulted in ANU choosing to remain as king of Nibiru. EN.LIL was to become the Lord of the Command of Eridu and additional settlements in the Edin. E.A was to become the EN.KI (i.e. the Earth's Master) and to oversee the mining of gold in the Abzu.

   ALALU was left out of the drawing of the lots, and it angered him. He challenged ANU to another wrestling match to defend his honor. ANU agreed, and the two wrestled, with ANU subduing ALALU yet another time. But as ANU raised his foot from the fallen body of ALALU, the latter rose up and bit off ANU's manhood. ANU survived and returned to Nibiru to be healed. ALALU was exiled by a court of the Seven Who Judge to a life alone on the planet Lahma, where he eventually died.

   ~ 415,000 ~   NIN.HUR.SAG travels from Nibiru to the seventh planet, Earth. Holding the position of Chief Medical Officer, her mission is to respond to medical complaints being voiced by the Anunnaki on Earth.

   ~ 415,000 to 100,000 ~   A complex of eight cities is established and completed in the E.DIN. By the year 400,000, the city of Nippur / Nibru-ki (i.e. the Bond Heaven-Earth) has been established as a Mission Control Center; and by the year 360,000, Sippar is established for use as a spaceport. Additional cities in the complex include Shuruppak, established as a medical center for the use of Ninhursag; Bad-Tibira, established as an industrial center for the purpose of smelting and refining the gold mined in the Abzu; and Laarsa and Lagash, established as beacon cities for incoming spacecraft.

   ~ 400,000 to 200,000 ~   Homo sapiens sapiens emerge on the Earth. Some anthropologists believe that Homo sapiens sapiens evolved from Homo erectus, but such a link has not yet been proven. At Zhoukoudian, near Peking, China, a habitation of Homo sapiens sapiens included a hearth by which the inhabitants could warm themselves. A similar hearth was found at the Terra Amata site on the Mediterranean coast of France, which has been dated to 300,000 B.C. Evidence of communal or cooperative activities suggest that some form of speech existed from this period. By 200,000, it is believed that no Homo erectus remained in existence.

   ~ 300,000 ~   About the fortieth shar (i.e. 3600 years) after the landing of the Nephilim on Earth, the Anunnaki who had been delegated to mine the gold in the Abzu stage a rebellion. EN.KI and NIN.HUR.SAG contrive to create an alternative being to take over the tedious labor of the Anunnaki.

   After toiling for forty 'periods', the Anunnaki mutinied and demanded relief. They approached EN.LIL begging for relief, but he did not want to satisfy their requests, so they called on ANU to provide relief. EN.KI, invariably the Anunnaki's protagonist, suggested that a lullu (i.e. a primitive worker, aka the Lullu Amelu) be created to bear the work.

   The process whereby mankind - Homo sapiens sapiens (i.e. the Lullu, the 'one that is mixed') was created, was by genetically altering the Homo erectus beings that inhabited the Earth prior to the coming of the Anunnaki. But rather than being a 'creation' in the strictest sense of the word, the method by which EN.KI and NIN.HUR.SAG brought the ADAMA into existence was by infusing the Nephilim / Anunnaki life blood (i.e. the nephesh, or soul) into the beings which already inhabited the Earth - the prehistoric Homo erectus.

   The life which inhabited this planet, prior to the arrival of the Nephilim, may have actually originated on the home planet of the Nephilim, Nibiru, and been deposited on this planet when it collided with Nibiru. Therefore, the life forms, including the 'caveman', Homo erectus, would have been genetically compatible with the life forms of Nibiru. In the most basic terms, the semen/sperm of EN.KI was introduced into the egg of an Homo erectus female in the process known today as cross-fertilization, and the fertilized egg, the embryo, was then inserted into NIN.KI's womb where it was nourished by her blood and grew into the ADAMA, which EN.KI named Adapa. The ADAMA was the first man - or rather, the first of a kind - Home sapiens sapiens - 'Civilized Man'. This first human being would be referred to, in later times, and by the spiritual descendants of the Sumerians - the Judeo-Christians, as Adam. EN.KI and NIN.HUR.SAG then created KHAWA or TI.TI, who would later be known as Eve. The unique thing about ADAPA / ADAM and KHAWA / EVE was that they, despite being cross-bred of Nephilim and human genes, were capable of reproducing on their own.

   ~ 120,000 to 12,000 ~   Last Ice Age. (Certain authorities claim that the last ice age began as recent as 75,000 years ago and ended about 10,000 B.C.) During this period of glaciation, the first examples of sophisticated hunting equipment appear. These include spears, javelins, arrows and bows. It is also during this last ice age that cave art first appears, evidence of not only the artistic, but the imaginative, abilities of evolving mankind. By the end of the last ice age, between 12,000 and 10,000 B.C., humans had migrated throughout the entire world. They had crossed over the Bering land bridge into the western hemisphere as early as 20,000 B.C.; examples of colonies are found in Chile and on the southernmost tip of present-day South America, Tierra del Fuego.

   ~ 110,200 to 56,200 ~   ADAPA, the Adama, or 'First Of A Kind' (i.e. Civilized Man), has been calculated to have lived between the 93rd and 108th shar since the arrival of the Nephilim on Earth in 445,000 B.C.E. That would have been approximately from the year 110,200 to the year 56,200 B.C.E.

   ADAPA was taken to Nibiru by his Nephilim kinfolk, DU.MU.ZI and NINGISHZIDDA, to be presented to ANU. Before leaving Earth, EN.KI gave to NINGISHZIDDA a tablet containing the account of ADAPA's creation from his own life-force, and the suggestion that ADAPA should be prevented from eating and drinking of Nibiru food, which would grant to him, and his descendants, life based on the Nibiru shar cycles of one year equal to 3600 Earth years.

   ANU gave to ADAPA, for his return to Earth, seeds from which cultivated grains might be grown, and the life-essence of sheep from which domesticated cattle might be raised.

   ADAPA / ADAM and KHAWA / EVE mated and bore twin sons, whom they named QAYIN / KAIN and HEVEL / ABAEL. KA.IN (i.e. He Who In The Field Food Grows), by the guidance of NIN.UR.TA, was instructed in the sowing and reaping of the grains the Nephilim gave to Adapa. His brother, ABAEL (i.e. He Of The Watered Meadows), by the guidance of MAR.DUK, was instructed in the birthing and raising of animals.

   After a time, and following the growing of crops by KA.IN and the raising of sheep by ABAEL, they and the products of their labor were presented to EN.LIL and EN.KI. Both earthling sons were praised by EN.LIL, but only ABAEL received praise from EN.KI.

   ABAEL boasted of EN.KI's praise to KA.IN, and it angered KA.IN. Eventually the anger grew so deeply in KA.IN, and he raised a stone and brought it crashing down on the head of his brother, ABAEL. The life-essence of ABAEL flowed from his body. When EN.KI was told of what had happened, and of the death of his son, MAR.DUK's apprentice, EN.KI became very enraged, and cursed KA.IN.

   Brought before a council of the Seven Who Judge, it was urged by MAR.DUK that KA.IN be put to death. But EN.KI argued, successfully that he should simply be exiled from the E.DIN. To put him to death would eliminate one avenue for additional earthling procreation and increase. EN.KI's suggestion of exile was agreed upon by the Seven Who Judge, and therefore, KA.IN was allowed to remain alive, but to be forever banished from the E.DIN. As a sign for all who later would encounter KA.IN or his descendants, his life-essence was altered so that he would never be capable of growing a beard upon his face.

   ADAPA and KHAWA bore nearly sixty additional children, thirty sons and thirty daughters. The third son born to ADAPA and KHAWA was named SAT.NAAL / SATI / SETH (i.e. He Who Life Binds Again). This birth came during the 95th shar since the arrival of the Nephilim on Earth, or around the year 103,000 B.C.E.

   In the 97th shar since the arrival of the Nephilim on Earth (i.e. 95,800 B.C.E.), SATI and his spouse, AZURA, gave birth to a son, ENSHI (i.e. Master Of Humanity). An understanding of the rites of worship of the Anunnaki began with ENSHI, who was known in the Hebrew tradition as Enosh.

   In the 98th shar since the arrival of the Nephilim on Earth (i.e. 92,200 B.C.E.), ENSHI and his spouse, his sister, NOAM, gave birth to a son, KUNIN (i.e. He Of The Kilns). KUNIN was taught the arts of smelting and refining the gold ore.

   In the 99th shar since the arrival of the Nephilim on Earth (i.e. 88,600 B.C.E.), a son was born to KUNIN and his spouse, his half sister, MUALIT. The child was named MALALU (i.e. He Who Plays). MALALU was known in the Hebrew tradition as Mahalalel.

   In the 100th shar since the arrival of the Nephilim on Earth (i.e. 85,000 B.C.E.), MALALU and his spouse, DUNNA, gave birth to a son, IRID (i.e. He Of The Sweet Waters). IRID was known in the Hebrew tradition as Jared.

   IRID took as his spouse, BARAKA, the daughter of his mother's brother, and in the 102nd shar since the arrival of the Nephilim on Earth (i.e. 77,800 B.C.E.) a son was born to them. His name was ENKI.ME (i.e. By ENKI ME Understanding). The ME were miniature objects encoded with information about all aspects of Nephilim science and knowledge. EN.KI took a special liking to ENKI.ME, and taught him things about Nibiru and the heavens which he had previously only taught to ADAPA. EN.KI's son, MAR.DUK took ENKI.ME on journeys into space, landing on the Moon and to Lahmu / Mars. In the Hebrew tradition, ENKI.ME is referred to by the name of Enoch.

   In the 104th shar since the arrival of the Nephilim on Earth (i.e. 70,600 B.C.E.), ENKI.ME and his spouse, his half-sister, EDINNI, gave birth to three sons, MATUSHAL (i.e. Who By The Bright Waters Raised), RAGIM, and GAIDAD. MATUSHAL was known in the Hebrew tradition as Methuselah.

   To MATUSHAL and his spouse, EDNAT, was born a son, LU.MACH (i.e. Mighty Man), sometimes referred to as Ubartutu. In the Hebrew tradition, LU.MACH was known by the name of Lamech.

   ~ 100,000 to 30,000 ~   Beings which are classified as Homo sapiens neanderthalensis (i.e. Neandertals) inhabit the Earth. The development of Neandertal man might have resulted from an adaptation to the cold environment. Evidence of offerings of animal bones and stone tools in the graves of Neandertals give rise to suggestions that they believed in an after-life in which they would have need of such articles. Certain skeletons exhibit marks of previous, and healed, injuries, suggesting that a wounded Neandertal had been cared for by others in his/her family or community. The Neandertals abruptly disappeared around 30,000 B.C.

   ~ 100,000 to 30,000 ~   Anunnaki males begin to mate with female earthlings. According to the Hebrew Bible (Genesis: chapter six, verse four), "the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men."

   The children born of the matings of Anunnaki males and female earthlings are sometimes referred to as the Naphidem, or Watchers, and it was these beings from whom the idea of 'angels' emerged. The Greek word, angelos, from which the English word 'angel' is derived, actually refers only to a 'messenger,' rather than to an ethereal, supernatural being. The Naphidem, being partially descended from the Nephilim, began to assume superiority over the wholly earthling descended males, whom in the early texts are referred to as the Eljo. The friction that came to exist between the Nephidem and the Eljo eventually erupted into a war, in which the Eljo race was virtually exterminated.

   ~ 77,000 ~   The city of Shuruppak is governed by Ubartutu, a descendant of the union of an Anunnaki male and a human female. He is known otherwise as Lamech, the father of Utnapishtim / Ziusudra (aka Noah). The fact of the matter is that Ubartutu / Lamech was not the biological father of Utnapishtim / Ziusudra / Noah, as will be seen below.

   ~ 75,000 to 25,000 ~   Homo sapiens sapiens inhabit the Earth. Variously named Cro Magnon, by this time, they have practically displaced the Neandertals as the dominant race of beings about 40,000 years ago.

   ~ 50,000  ~   Humans migrate to Australia.

   ~ 49,000 ~   ZIUSUDRA / UTNAPISHTIM / NOAH is born. He is the son of EN.KI and an earthling, Batanash, the niece and wife of Lu-Mach / Lamech. But the knowledge of his birth father is kept a secret, and he is raised as if he is Lu-Mach's own son. The child is given the name Ziusudra (i.e. He Of Long Bright Lifedays), and Utnapishtim (i.e. Respite) because it was believed that his destiny would be to bring to the Earth a respite from suffering. He was known as Noah in the Hebrew tradition. ZIUSUDRA married EMZARA, and to them were born three sons.

   ~ 40,000 ~   Homo erectus is still found in only certain locations, including Java.

   ~ 38,000 ~   EN.LIL becomes annoyed with the increase of the human beings, and their voracious appetites. The climate was even changing, becoming harsh and dry. EN.LIL comes to believe that the hardships that the earthlings and Anunnaki alike are experiencing are directly the result of the unchecked promiscuity of the earthlings, and schemes to bring about their decimation. His plan is for the Anunnaki to leave the Earth, en masse, and return to Nibiru, leaving the earthlings to their own fate. This decision is partly devised because EN.LIL, EN.KI, NIN.HUR.SAG and the other true Anunnaki / Nephilim beings find that they are aging more quickly on Earth than on Nibiru.

   The long circuit, or orbit, of Nibiru around the sun, making up a single year for the inhabitants of Nibiru (i.e. one shar), equated to 3,600 Earth years. As long as the Nephilim stayed on Earth, traveling on its short circuit around the sun, their own life cycles were sped up. Also, although on Nibiru the Nephilim could partake of a liquid that enabled long life, the coveted elixir was not readily available to them on the Earth, and therefore their lives were quickly coming to their ends.

   EN.LIL, EN.KI and NIN.HUR.SAG discussed returning to Nibiru so that they would escape their impending deaths on Earth, but GALZU, stating that he was an emissary of ANU, arrived with a sealed tablet from the king of Nibiru. The message which GALZU carried to ANU's children was that they were never to return to Nibiru. The scientists and priests of Nibiru had determined that for them to return to their home planet would almost surely mean their deaths due to the harmful effects brought on by living upon the planet Earth so long.

   ~ 30,000 to 20,000 ~   The race of mankind diverges into four recognisable racial groups: 1.) Caucasoids - present-day Europeans and Indians along with Hamites and Semites; 2.) Mongoloids - present-day Asians and American Indians; 3.) Australoids - present-day Australian Aborigines; 4.) Negroids.

   ~ 30,000 to 20,000 ~   Humans begin making their way into the Americas. The most widely accepted theory is that they cross over the Bering Strait landbridge from Asia, moving southward to eventually inhabit portions of South America.

   ~ 29,500 ~   The Nephilim establish kingdoms in the land called Shumer (variously, Sumer).

   ~ 25,000  ~   Carved Venus figures appear in Europe.

   ~ 20,000  ~   Art flourishes throughout Europe and Africa in the form of rock carvings and cave wall painting.

   ~ 17,000 to 9,500 ~   Certain animals - dogs and sheep - are domesticated, probably as a source of food. These were followed by goats, pigs, horned and hornless cattle.

   ~ 13,000 ~   The Anunnaki become aware that the next time Nibiru passes near the Earth, an immense tidal wave may be triggered.

   ANU gave another warning to his sons and daughter - that the changes in the climate along with other similar changes they were experiencing on the Earth were the result of the tension being generated by Nibiru's approach toward the Earth. The Nephilim on Nibiru had correctly calculated that the passing of the two planets would result in a deluge on the Earth as the ice sheets which covered so much of its poles would be warmed and increase the level of the oceans. ANU encouraged his children to enter their space chariots as the passing of the two planets occurred so that they might safely ride out the events that were destined to happen.

   EN.LIL coerced the rest of the Anunnaki to promise to keep the information of the impending natural disaster from the earthlings in order to allow them to be destroyed. But EN.KI could not bear to see his creations destroyed, and so he conspired to save a few of them. He did not speak directly of the coming deluge to Ziusudra / Noah, but rather to the walls of the reed hut in which Ziusudra resided. And, by chance, Ziusudra heard the words EN.KI spoke. EN.KI secretively told Ziusudra that he would find a tablet on which was drawn a plan for a boat which Ziusudra should build, into which he was to take animals and life essences in order to ride out the coming flood. The life essences which Ziusudra was to take with him had been collected by EN.KI and NIN.HUR.SAG.

   EN.LIL was enraged when he found out about what EN.KI had done, but EN.KI, technically, had not divulged the information to the earthlings. EN.LIL eventually accepted the fact that the earthlings had not been entirely destroyed, and in fact was happy that they had not been when it became evident that Nibiru's passing the Earth caused the fabric of its atmosphere to once more become weakened. The Primitive Workers would once again be needed to obtain gold to send to Nibiru's rescue.

   ~ 12,000 ~   The Deluge sweeps over the Earth.

   As Nibiru approached Earth, the Earth began to shake and lightning lit up the skies. The forces aroused by the gravity fields of each of the planets caused great havoc to the atmospheres of both planets, but it was more intense on Earth because of the greater size of Nibiru. The Anunnaki boarded their airships and lifted off into the heavens above the Earth, from which point they could watch the Deluge. As they watched, the ice sheets on the southern pole began to break up. Giant slabs of ice slid into the ocean, initially raising the level of the ocean slightly. Then all of a sudden the great mass of the southern glacier shattered into bits and splashed into the waters, causing an immense tidal wave. The wave rose over the Apsu in the southern reaches of the continent we now call Africa. The wave continued northward across the land, surging into the valley between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers where the Anunnaki's great cities had been established. The Anunnaki in their sky chariots watched as everything was inundated by the raging waters. The flooding of the oceans was joined by a terrific downpour of rains from the skies. Then, after forty days, the rains and storms stopped, and the waters began to recede.

   All the while that the Deluge was occurring, the boat carrying Ziusudra / Noah and his family floated safely through the waters. The vessel came to rest on the mountain known to the Sumerians and Akkadians as Arrata. The first thing that the earthlings did when they emerged from the boat was build an alter and offer a sacrifice of a ewe-lamb in thanks and gratitude to EN.KI for having spared their lives. The Anunnaki, hovering above the earth in their sky chariots saw the smoke rising from the alter and traveled toward it in order to determine its origin.

   EN.LIL was furious when he realized that some of the earthlings had been spared from destruction. He raged at EN.KI for having told the earthlings about the coming flood, but EN.KI responded that he had not broken his oath to avoid speaking of the impending disaster with the earthlings; he had only told the wall of the grass hut, and Ziusudra must have overheard him. EN.LIL continued to rage, and only then did EN.KI reveal that Ziusudra was his own son. EN.LIL finally relented and his fury subsided like the waters of the Deluge. He even suggested that the earthlings who had survived the flood should be given seeds and the knowledge and tools to plant them so that the earth would once again become fruitful and capable of sustaining life.

   The Deluge marked the end of the period known to the Anunnaki as the Olden Times (which, as noted above, had begun with the kingship of AN on Nibiru).

   ~ 12,000 to 11,000 ~   Antediluvian cultures emerge throughout the world. The Tiahuanacan culture is believed to emerge after the deluge (i.e. antediluvian) in the mountainous plateau between Bolivia and Peru in South America, establishing the cities of Tiahuanaco and Puma Punku. Other cultures establish civilizations and cities at Baalbek in Lebanon, Nan Madol in Micronesia, Axum and Lilabela in Ethiopia, Sacsayhuaman in Peru, Dwarka in India and Yonaguni in Japan.

   ~ 11,000 ~   The New Stone Age begins at the end of the Pleistocene Ice Age according to some experts. (See 7,000 to 5,000)

   ~ 11,000 to present ~   The Cenozoic Era; Quaternary Period; Recent Epoch.

   ~ 11,000 to 300 ~   The Jomon culture develops on the island of Japan.

   ~ 10,500 ~   The Deluge ends and the Anunnaki, on EN.LIL's urging, divide the earth into regions. The valley drained by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, which is today occupied primarily by the country of Iraq will be allotted to EN.LIL and his children. Ziusudra's sons, Shem and Japheth will dwell there. The peninsula that will be occupied millenia later primarily by the country of Saudi Arabia is given the name Tilmun (i.e. Land Of The Missiles) and is assigned to NIN.HUR.SAG. To the west, in the valley of the Nile river, and stretching southward across the continent which will later acquire the name of Africa, EN.KI and his son, MAR.DUK and their descendants take control. Ziusudra's son, Ham, makes his residence there.

   ~ 10,000 to 5,000 ~   The village communities of the Halfan culture residing in the Nile Valley develop into the Egyptian Civilization.

   ~ 10,500 to 7,000 ~   During the first shar after the Deluge, the Anunnaki create a new 'Place of the Chariots'; the original site having been destroyed by the floodwaters. The new site will exist on the lands drained by the Nile river, and which, many centuries later, will be known as Egypt. Because the lands are flat and no natural features exist to be used as landing guidepoints, the Anunnaki create two 'peaks' by constructing four sided, pyramid-shaped structures. They are designed by NINGISHZIDDA. The largest of the two structures is given the name of Ekur (i.e. House Which Like A Mountain Is). Inside the Ekur are chambers and galleries in which crystals from Nibiru are stored. The crystals will be used to shine as a beacon to incoming spacecraft. Between the two pyramids a monument to the architect, NINGISHZIDDA, is constructed. Since the structures are created during the Age of the Lion according to the Nefilim tradition, the monument is fashioned in the image of that beast, but with the head of NINGISHZIDDA himself.

   ~ 10,000 ~   The Domestic Age begins in the region of Mesopotamia. One of the first animals to be domesticated (circa 9,500 B.C.) is the dog - probably to provide food. The global population is estimated to have reached 5 million people by this time.

   ~ 9,780 ~   MAR.DUK, Enki's firstborn son, takes the name of RA, and divides dominion over Egypt between his sons ASAR (known in the Egyptian tradition as Osiris) and SATU (known in the Egyptian tradition as Seth).

   ASAR took as his wife, ASTA and SATU espoused NEBAT, both daughters of SHAMGAZ, the leader of the Igigi (i.e. those Nephilim who had made their home at the way station on Lahmu/Mars for the purpose of transporting the gold from Earth to Nibiru). ASAR and ASTA made their home alongside his father, MAR.DUK in the valley of the Nile river, while SATU and NEBAT made their home alongside her father, SHAMGAZ in the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

   NEBAT, being jealous of her sister's residence in the fertile valley of the Nile, and goaded on by her father, questioned her husband daily as to why they were not favored to inherit those fertile lands. The continual badgering by NEBAT incited SATU to scheme to murder his brother in order to gain ASAR's lands.

   ~ 9,330 ~   SATU / Seth invites ASAR / Osiris to a banquet, and there gives his brother a poisoned drink, and when ASAR has passed out, he is laid in a coffin. The coffin is sealed tightly and cast into the sea.

   ASAR died before MAR.DUK and ASTA could find the coffin. MAR.DUK, despite his grief, was consigned to accept the fact that his youngest son, SATU, should gain the inheritance that had been intended for the eldest son, ASAR. MAR.DUK let it be known to ASTA that she should conceive a son by SATU to continue the lineage properly, but ASTA was not in agreement. She obtained some semen from the dead body of her husband, and impregnated herself with it. A son, HORON (known in the Egyptian tradition as Horus) was born to ASTA.

   ~ 9,000 to 8,500 ~   The city of Jericho is established, its ruins having been radio-carbon dated to circa 9,000 B.C. Jericho has been identified as a 'city' due to its surrounding defensive wall, indicating that the inhabitants worked together to take precautions to protect their homes and community. It encompasses ten acres of land within its massive stone walls.

   ~ 9,000 to 7,500 ~   Mankind enters into a period of civilization known as the Pre-Pottery Neolithic, a period in which the use of crude stone tools are giving way to polished stone implements with specific purposes. Man is continuing to domesticate a variety of animals and plants through this period. The form of wheat known as einkorn is sown outside its natural habitat in the region that is occupied by the present-day country of Syria. The plant, normally found to grow naturally in the Taurus and Zagros mountains was found at Tell Abu Hureyra and Mureybat on the banks of the Euphrates river, providing evidence that the inhabitants of this region intentionally cultivated the plant.

   ~ 9,000 ~   Evidence reveals the existence of peoples in the continents of the western hemisphere. Whether they have traveled from Asia across the Bering Strait landbridge is conjectured by many scholars.

   ~ 8,970 ~   The 'First Pyramid War' takes place. HORON / Horus, having grown into manhood, heads to Tilmun, the Land Of The Missiles, with an army of loyal earthlings. They carry weapons made of iron, a new metal, the secrets of the making of which HORON learns from his great-uncle, GIBIL, a son of EN.KI. HORON challenges SATU / Seth to a battle in order to avenge the death of his father, ASAR / Osiris. SATU responds that the fight is between just the two of them, and in turn challenges HORON to a personal duel. The two engage each other in the skies, and in the fight that ensues, SATU strikes HORON with a poisoned dart, causing him to fall to earth as in death. ASTA, seeing her son being struck dead, cries out to NINGISHZIDDA for his help. NINGISHZIDDA arrives and converts the poison in HORON's body to benevolent blood, and ASTA's son revives. HORON then attacks SATU, and the two once more become embroiled in a fight in their aircraft. HORON is victorious by shooting SATU down. Blind, and in bonds, he is taken by HORON before a council of the Anunnaki, who pronounce sentence on him that he should be allowed to live, albeit blind and heirless.

   ~ 8,670 ~   The 'Second Pyramid War' takes place. DU.MUZI, the youngest son of EN.KI falls in love with INANNA, the daughter of NAN.NAR, and granddaughter of EN.LIL. But their love is doomed, the events of which lead the descendants of EN.LIL into war with the descendants of EN.KI.

   EN.KI gave to DU.MUZI and INANNA a large region north of the Abzu in which to reside and rule over following their betrothal. MAR.DUK, DU.MUZI's older brother was jealous of DU.MUZI. After INANNA told GESHTINANNA, DU.MUZI and MAR.DUK's sister of their dreams of building a great kingdom, GESHTINANNA went to MAR.DUK and told him all. MAR.DUK laid out a scheme to cheat DU.MUZI and INANNA of a lawful heir. MAR.DUK convinced GESHTINANNA to go to DU.MUZI in order to be impregnated by him; in Anunnaki tradition, the child born between a brother and sister had greater legitimacy in terms of inheritance than one born between non-siblings. After having impregnated his si, GESHTINANNA, DU.MUZI dreamt that he was punished and his kingdom taken from him. He awoke and told GESHTINANNA of the dream. While he was disturbed by the dream, GESHTINANNA placed the suggestion in his head that perhaps the dream's meaning was that when MAR.DUK would find out that they had lain together, he would assume that DU.MUZI had raped his sister. DU.MUZI was convinced that GESHTINANNA's suggestion was correct, and in anguish he fled from her side. In his flight, DU.MUZI came upon a river, and slipping on the rocks, he was drowned in the torrent.

   INANNA, the lover of DU.MUZI, was beside herself with grief. It was made known to INANNA that DU.MUZI's lifeless body had floated in the waters of the river to the Abzu, wherein her sister, ERESH.KIGAL, reigned. So to the Abzu she traveled in order to retrieve the body of her lover. ERESH.KIGAL suspected INANNA of a scheme which was untrue; she suspected the grieving lover of attempting to gain an heir by their husband, NER.GAL, and promptly chained her to a stake.

   Finding out about what had transpired between ERESH.KIGAL and INANNA, EN.KI fashioned two 'emissaries out of clay, and sent them to the Abzu to obtain the release and return of INANNA. They found INANNA, but her life essence had already departed from her body, so the emissaries sprinkled the Water Of Life upon her and revived her. They returned the the 'upper world' with INANNA and the body of DU.MUZI.

   INANNA demanded that EN.KI should punish MAR.DUK for his role in the death of DU.MUZI. EN.KI replied that although MAR.DUK might have initiated the events which drove DU.MUZI to his eventual accidental death, he could not be held responsible for murder. INANNA then went to her own parents and pleaded for them to enact revenge on MAR.DUK.

   EN.LIL sent a message to EN.KI demanding MAR.DUK's surrender to the family of INANNA, to which EN.KI refused. And so, the two Second Pyramid War erupted between the families of EN.LIL and EN.KI.

   Utilizing spacecraft armed with what must have been nuclear type weapons, the two families fought each other. Throughout the lands inhabited by the Annunnaki there was much destruction, and many innocent Anunnaki and earthlings were killed. Pursued by INANNA, MAR.DUK hid himself within the Ekur, the one great pyramid designed by his brother, NINGISHZIDDA. EN.LIL's son, NIN.URTA found the secret entrance to the Ekur, and he, along with INANNA and ISH.KUR, pursued MAR.DUK through its corridors. Within the upper chamber of the Ekur, MAR.DUK lowered the sliding stone locks in order that his pursuers might not be able to follow him any farther. But with him inside the chamber, EN.LIL's children cut loose the ropes which held blocking stones in place. They slid into place sealing MAR.DUK inside the chamber.

   SARPANIT, the spouse of MAR.DUK, went to EN.KI and begged him to set her husband free. EN.KI directed her to go NAN.NAR and his children, UTU and INANNA to beg for MAR.DUK's life. But INANNA would not relent.

   EN.KI and EN.LIL called for NIN.HUR.SAG to mediate. It was her decision that although MAR.DUK should be punished, he did not deserve to die. And so it was decided that MAR.DUK would be released from his prison-grave, but that he would have to go to live in a land in which no earthling resided. NINGISHZIDDA, who had built the great Ekur, was summoned to find a way to extricate MAR.DUK from its bowels.

   When told of the terms of his release, MAR.DUK became enraged. But ultimately, he accepted his fate, and he, SARPANIT and their son, NABU made their way from the lands inhabited by the Anunnaki and the earthlings.

   The Enlilship (i.e. kingship) over the lands of the Nile valley was transferred to NIN.URTA. It was during this period that the city of Heliopolis was established as a 'beacon city.'

   ~ 7,500 ~   A cemetery is first established in the northern continent in the western hemisphere.

   ~ 7,000 to 5,000 ~   The period known as the Neolithic supercedes the Paleolithic. The Neolithic, also known as the 'New Stone Age' (sometimes noted as encompassing the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period from 9,000 to 7,500 B.C.), is a period in which crude stone tools are replaced by polished stone tools with specific functions. The proliferation of pottery appearing widespread circa 7,000 B.C., emphasizes the domestication of grains, such as wheat and barley, for use as a major source of food. Certain metals, such as copper and gold, begin to be discovered and refined in parts of present-day Europe and the Near East.

   ~ 7,000 to 6,000 ~   Sheep has been domesticated as early as 9,500 in the Zagros mountain region of Mesopotamia, but to the southwest, in the Levantine, encompassed by the present-day countries of Syria, Jordan and Lebanon, the animal to be domesticated initially is the gazelle, which is followed by the goat by 7,000 B.C. Pigs are domesticated at this time in the region encompassed at the present time by Turkey. Cattle are domesticated in the Aegean region by 6,000 B.C.

   ~ 6,500 ~   The Bronze Age begins in the region of Mesopotamia. The Hassuna Culture begins circa 6,500 and will last until circa 6,000.

   ~ 6,500 to 5,500 ~   Agriculture is introduced to the region encompassed by the present-day countries of Greece and Bulgaria. Communities appear along the Danube River by 5,500 B.C.

   ~ 6,250 to 5,400 ~   Catal Huyuk is the largest city in the region commonly known as Anatolia, which will eventually become known by the names of Asia Minor and Turkey. It encompasses some thirty-two acres. The site is considered, by some, to exhibit evidence of the earliest religious activity due to the discovery there of stone and terra-cotta 'goddess' statues.

   ~ 6,000 ~   The Samarran Culture supercedes the Hassuna in Mesopotamia.

   ~ 6,000 ~   Rice is cultivated in Asia, in the region of present-day Thailand.

   ~ 5,500 ~   Cotton is cultivated in the Indus Valley. In another thousand years, a related species of the plant will be cultivated in the western hemisphere.

   ~ 5,400 ~   The Halafan Culture supercedes the Samarran in Mesopotamia.

   ~ 5,300 to 4,750 ~   Farming communities appear in the region of present-day France.

   ~ 5,300 to 5,000 ~   Cities appear throughout the Mesopotamian alluvial plain drained by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. At roughly the same time, civilization in the Nile Valley becomes fully developed.

   ~ 5,000 to 2,500 ~   Farming communities appear through the region now encompassed by China. By 2,500 B.C. walled cities-states appear. The working of precious gems, such as jade begins.

   ~ 4,500 ~   Agriculture spreads into the region now encompassed by Germany and northwestern Europe.

   ~ 4,004 ~   Traditional Hebrew date for the Creation, lasting for a period of seven literal days.

   ~ 4,000 ~   The plough is developed about this time in Sumer.

   ~ 4,000  ~   Pottery is made in the Amazon valley.

   ~ 4,000 ~   The cultivation of rice spreads to the Yangtze delta region of present-day China.

   ~ 4,000 ~   Agriculture spreads to the islands which are now encompassed by the British Isles and Ireland.

   ~ 4,000 to 3,000 ~   Dessication begins to set in on the northern third of the African continent, forming the desert that would later be called the Sahara. During this period of time, the peoples living in that region are forced to migrate eastward to the valley drained by the Nile River, or southward to the region drained by the Congo River.

   ~ 3,800 ~   The earliest evidence of civilization in Sumer, dating to 3,800 B.C., is uncovered at the site of Eridu in the early 1920s.

   ~ 3,800 ~   The Anunnaki re-establish the 'Olden Cities' of Eridu and Nibru-Ki (aka Nippur). At about this time, ANU comes to Earth once more. He finds that the closer orbit of the Earth around the sun, and this planet's shorter day and night periods have caused his children to age much more quickly than other Nibiruans.

   The city of Unug-Ki (i.e. Uruk in Akkadian, aka Erech in the Hebrew Bible) was built in ANU's honor.

   EN.KI, EN.LIL and NIN.HUR.SAG related to their father, ANU, the visit GALZU had made many shars before, to convey to the Anunnaki, the Nephilim 'who from Heaven came down,' ANU's message that they should not return to Nibiru, lest they die from the changes the Earth's small orbit had wrought on their bodies. This was news to ANU; he had not sent an emissary, nor had he ever heard of GALZU. In fact, he assured his children, there were elixirs which would cure the ravages on their bodies that the changes in planetary cycles had caused.

   ANU confided to his children that it had become apparent to him that it was the will of the Creator of All that the Earthlings, not the Anunnaki, were destined to inherit the Earth. Therefore, ANU declared, it was the Anunnaki's duty to establish kingship on Earth to be granted to a chosen Earthling, and to teach the Earthlings certain knowledge of science and religion.

   To begin with, the Earth would be divided into four regions in which the Earthlings' own unique form of civilization could, through the nurturing guidance of the Anunnaki, grow and blossom.

   The First Region was to encompass the lands where the Edin had existed before the Deluge (i.e. the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers - later known by the names of Shumer and Mesopotamia). EN.LIL and his sons were appointed to shepherd the Earthlings there. The First Region was also known by the name of Ki-Engi (i.e. the Land of the Lofty Watchers).

   The Second Region was to encompass the Land of the Two Narrows (i.e. the Nile Valley - later known by the names of Egypt and Nubia). EN.KI and his sons were to shepherd the Earthlings there.

   The Third Region was to encompass the lands to the east of the First Region (i.e. the Indus Valley). INANNA was to shepherd the Earthlings there.

   The Fourth Region was to encompass the lands on the peninsula known as the Place of the Chariots (i.e. the region which would later receive the name of the Sinai Peninsula). This Fourth Region would be reserved for the Anunnaki.

   ANU and his spouse, ANTU, as part of their visit to Earth, traveled to the lands to which MAR.DUK had been banished. There they found the son of EN.KI living alone with his son, NABU; his spouse, SARPANIT, had already died. ANU took pity on MAR.DUK, and so declared that he should be free of his banishment. Despite his reprise by ANU, MAR.DUK was angered by the fact that INANNA should receive the charge of a region.

   Following ANU's visit to Earth, the Anunnaki decreed that henceforth, the passage of time should be measured not in shars, as on Nibiru, but in Earth orbit years. The concept of the calendar was established, and appeared first at Nippur.

   ~ 3,760 ~   Traditional Hebrew date for the appearance of Adam and Eve.

   ~ 3,760 ~   Kingship is transferred to the Earthlings at Kishi. The accounting of time in Earth years is begun.

   The Anunnaki began to teach the Earthlings the arts of science, mathematics and religion as ANU had decreed. The Earthlings bestowed the name of Lofty Lords on the Anunnaki, and the habitations of those Lofty Lords were given the name temples.

   The city of Kishi was the first to be established specifically for the Earthlings. The name Kishi meant Scepter City. It was there that NIN.URTA, with the ME of kingship which he had received from EN.KI, bestowed kingship on the Earthlings and appointed the first human king.

   Jealous of NIN.URTA's right to shepherd the Earthlings of the First Region in their path to kingship, INANNA schemed to steal the Me's of civilization and kingship from EN.KI, so that she might bestow kingship on the Earthlings of the Third Region, whom she had been given the duty of shepherding. She traveled to EN.KI's abode, and getting him drunk, she by stealth obtained the ninety-four ME's needed to establish civilization and kingship. When he discovered what had happened, EN.KI called on EN.LIL to demand the return of the ME's by his granddaughter. INANNA declared that EN.KI had willingly gave her the ME's, and it was EN.LIL's decision that her claim was valid. He directed that when the term of kingship at Kishi should expire, the right of kingship should pass to Unug-Ki. While this placated INANNA, it enraged MAR.DUK, because the kingship should have rightly passed from the First Region to the Second Region, where EN.KI and his sons were given the charge of shepherding the Earthlings.

   MAR.DUK and his son, NABU, summoned the Igigi and their Earthling offspring from all regions of the planet to come to the Edin for the purpose of establishing a sacred city from which MAR.DUK would rule. He named the city Bab-Ili (i.e. Babylon, the Gateway of the Gods). He engaged his followers in the construction of a tower high enough that he might 'reach the heavens', or rather be able to communicate directly with Nibiru.

   EN.LIL endeavored to halt MAR.DUK, and so he caused the Earthlings' language to be confounded that they would not be able to understand one another. This occurred in the 310th year since the accounting in Earth years had begun (i.e. 3,450).

   ~ 3,500 to 2,500 ~   The Sumerian city-states flourish. There are roughly twelve cities in the Mesopotamian Plain which comprise Sumer. Culture also flourishes in Sumer (i.e. Shinar, Shumer). The widespread use of the plough here is evidence of an agrarian society. The development of the wheel here is evidence of the intelligence of and skill in use of mathematics of the Sumerians. The cities are nourished by a system of canals and dams which exhibit a high degree of planning and mutual coordination from the various cities.

   The city of Sippar was re-established by UTU; from there he would dispence knowledge of justice to the Earthlings.

   The city of Adab was established for the use of NIN.HUR.SAG as a center for healing and the promulgation of medical knowledge. The temple in which NIN.HUR.SAG resided became the repository of the ME's relating to the genetic creation/alteration of the Earthlings.

   The city of Urim was established by NAN.NAR.

   INANNA resided in the city of Unug-Ki.

   ~ 3,500  ~   Standing stones are erected in regions of Europe that will eventually become centers of the Celtic culture.

   ~ 3,372 ~   The Mayan calendar's first date begins.

   ~ 3,350 ~   Kingship is transferred from Kishi in Sumer to Unug-Ki in the Third Region, the Indus Valley.

   ~ 3,200 ~   The first written inscriptions appear. They are merchants' account records found at Tell Brak in northern Mesopotamia.

   ~ 3,200 to 2,000 ~   The Cycladic civilization flourishes in the Aegean region.

   ~ 3,110 ~   MAR.DUK and his brother, NINGISHZIDDA quarrel over which of the two sons of EN.KI should rightly serve as the Lord over the Second Region. In order to make peace between the two, EN.KI requests that NINGISHZIDDA submit to his older brother and find another place in which to reside. NINGISHZIDDA obliging the will of his father, leaves the Nile Valley, and with a group of loyal followers, travels across the Earth to take up residence in the lands on the continent on the far side of the oceans. In his new domain, NINGISHZIDDA is known as the Winged Serpent. He establishes a new accounting of time.

   ~ 3,100 to 3,000 ~   Writing in the form of pictographs is developed in Sumer. The use of pictographs to convey communication spreads from Mesopotamia eastward to the region known in the ancient world as Elam (i.e. the region encompassed in the border between the present-day countries of Iraq and Iran), and southwestward to Egypt. Before 2,000 B.C., the Sumerian pictographs will evolve into cuneiform; the Elamite pictographs will evolve into a form of cuneiform known as Linear Elamite; and in Egypt the pictographs will evolve into that country's distinctive hieroglyphs. From Elam, the use of pictographs will spread further eastward into the Indus River valley civilization, and later on to the Asian cultures developing in present-day China. The Egyptian hieroglyphs will be spread to the Peloponnesian island of Crete, where it will evolve, by 1,500 B.C., into a form of hieroglyphic script, the precursor of the two forms of writing known as Linear A and Linear B script. The Egyptian hieroglyphs will also spread eastward into Palestine, where it will evolve as the Canaanite alphabet. Meanwhile, the Sumerian cuneiform writing will spread into Asia Minor (i.e. Anatolia, or present-day Turkey), where it will evolve into the Hittite and Hurrian forms of cuneiform. The Sumerian cuneiform will also be spread into Palestine and the Levantine region (i.e. the region encompassed by present-day Syria, Lebanon and Jordan), where it will merge with the Canaanite alphabet to become the Ugaritic alphabet at sometime between 1,500 and 1,000 B.C.

   ~ 3,100 ~   King Menes unites the upper and lower kingdoms of Egypt and establishes the concept of the 'pharaoh' as a god-king. His reign marks the end of nearly 350 years of chaos in the Nile valley. His reign is the first of thiry-one dynasties to rule Egypt for two and a half millenia.

   According to a correlation between the Egyptian traditions and those of ancient Sumer, when MAR.DUK laid claim to the shepherdship of the Second Region, the 'Land of the Two Narrows' as the Nile Valley was known, he changed his name to RA (i.e. the Bright One). His father, EN.KI, was revered as PTAH (i.e. the Developer). The Anunnaki came to be known in the Second Region by the name of the Neteru, or Guardian Watchers.

   RA / MAR.DUK combined the two 'kingdoms', which existed along the Nile at that time, into a single kingdom and appointed MENA, an offspring of the Neteru and an Earthling, as its first king. This king Mena, or Menes, being partly descended from the Anunnaki / Neteru, and having their blood flowing in his veins, therefore took the name of pharaoh, which means 'god-king.'

   RA built for Menes a 'scepter city, to surpass Kishi in beauty. It was named Mena-Nefer (i.e. Mena's Beauty).

   To benefit his son's fledgling domain, EN.KI / PTAH gave to MAR.DUK / RA the ME's by which he might teach civilization to the Earthlings of the Second Region. All of the ME's, except that which informed of eternal life, were given to RA; for this reason, the civilization which grew up along the Nile Valley became very rich in knowledge of the arts of science and religion.

   ~ 3,100 to 2,685 ~   During the Early Dynastic Period in Egypt, great advances are made in stone-masonry, copper smelting and crafts of all kinds.

   ~ 3,000 ~   The Indus Valley civilization flourishes with two large cities (Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro) and nearly seventy smaller towns.

   A part of the Third Region would become known as Zamash, the Land of Sixty Precious Stones. Another part became known by the name of Aratta, the Wooded Realm.

   To INANNA, EN.KI would not give any additional ME's other than the ones she had, by deceit, stolen from him.

   ~ 3,000 to 2,750 ~   The Bronze Age flourishes in the region of Palestine.

   ~ 2,800 ~   Fu Hsi, the Chinese Emperor, is believed to have brought culture to the people in the form of writing and the I Ching.

   ~ 2,760 ~   Unfortunately, the civilization in the Third Region does not blossom as much as it should. Its shepherd, INANNA, covets the Second Region, that of the Nile Valley, and she neglects her own. One thousand Earth years after the count of time began, the kingship is taken away from Unug-Ki. Prior to this time, the hero, Gilgamesh, embarks on his epic journey to gain long life.

   INANNA became obsessed with the idea that her beloved DU.MUZI would someday come back from the dead to be with her eternally. She created the Gigunu, a House of Nighttime Pleasure, to which she would lure young men on the night of their weddings. There she would lay with them, and in the morning their lifeless bodies would be found.

   One young man did not die after a night at Gigunu. He was BANDA, through whose body the blood of UTU flowed. He succeeded ENMERKAR as king of Unug-Ki, and took as a spouse, NINSUN, a descendant of EN.LIL. To BANDA and NINSUN was born a son, GILGAMESH. This son questioned his mother about the mortality of Earthlings and the immortality of the gods, the Nephilim, of whom he was descended. NINSUN told GILGAMESH that as long as anyone, Earthling or Anunnaki, inhabited the Earth, they would die a mortal death, but those who inhabited Nibiru were assured long life. And so, GILGAMESH desired to travel to Nibiru.

   NINSUN appealed to UTU to assist her son in traveling to Nibiru. UTU eventually agreed, but GILGAMESH would have to make the journey to the Landing Place of the Chariots in the Fourth Region on his own. UTU knew that EN.LIL had created a fire-belching monster to guard the Landing Place, and that if GILGAMESH were stalwart and brave enough to overcome this obstacle, he would be able to travel to Nibiru.

   GILGAMESH overcame the monster that guarded the Landing Place, and made his way through the Fourth Region's maze of subterranean tunnels. In his travels, GILGAMESH came upon ZIUSUDRA and his spouse, EMZARA, who related the events of the Deluge, and told the young hero about a plant which grew in a well that the partaking of gave them long life. His journey to Nibiru being unnecessary, if he should gain the plant that granted long life here on Earth, GILGAMESH by stealth snatched the plant from the well, and hurried back to Unug-Ki.

   On his journey back to Unug-Ki, GILGAMESH became tired and sleepy. As he lay asleep, a snake was attracted to the fragrance of the plant which GILGAMESH had secreted in his satchel. The snake wormed its way into GILGAMESH's satchel and ate the plant, and then slithered off. GILGAMESH awoke and discovered what had happened, but he could do nothing but return, empty-handed and distraught, to Unug-Ki.

   After GILGAMESH, there were seven more kings who reigned in the Third Region, but then, one thousand years after it had gained kingship, the kingship was taken away.

   ~ 2,760 ~   Kingship is transferred from Unug-Ki to Urim, under the shepherdship of NAN.NAR and NIN.GAL. The cities of the First Region, of Sumer, flourish under their guidance, and civilization spreads to the surrounding regions. The kingship is not held in any one city; it rotates throughout the region.

   ~ 2,686 to 2,160 ~   The empire known as the 'Old Kingdom' (i.e. the age of Pyramid building) begins in Egypt. Imhotep builds the first pyramid, a stepped structure, for his king, Zoser, at Saqqara.

   MAR.DUK / RA, envious of the growth of culture and civilization in Sumer, but wary of allowing any other Anunnaki or Earthling to share his rule, declared that he and he alone should serve as the lord of the Second Region.

   MAR.DUK / RA also undertook the rewriting of history. MAR.DUK / RA asserted that the priests who interceded between him and the Earthlings of the Nile Valley should proclaim that he, as RA, was the 'eldest of Heaven, firstborn who is on Earth.' He decreed that the priests should sing hymns to him as the 'foremost from the earliest times' and as the 'Lord of eternity, he who everlastingness has made, over all the gods presiding' and as the 'one who is without equal, the great solitary and sole one!' MAR.DUK / RA then proceeded to take on the attritbutes and powers of various of the other gods (i.e. the Anunnaki, whom the Earthlings referred to as 'gods').

   MAR.DUK / RA expressed his desire to rule the entire Earth to his father, EN.KI.

   ~ 2,680 ~   According to archeological scholars, the first pyramid (a step pyramid) to be constructed in the Nile valley is built by King/Pharoah Zoser at Saqqara. The Great Pyramid of Khufu/Cheops is believed by scholars to have been built one hundred years later, around 2,500.

   ~ 2,500 ~   The Sphinx is constructed at Giza to guard the pyramid of Khufu/Cheops.

   ~ 2,500 ~   In an attempt to take control of the gold mining and trading of the Kush in the Nubian Desert, the Egyptians invade their southern neighbor and capture the region as far south as the Second Cataract of the Nile.

   ~ 2,500 ~   The horse is domesticated in Asia.

   ~ 2,494 to 2,345 ~   During Egypt's Old Kingdom, a collection of religious texts known as the Pyramid Texts are composed. They include a view of the afterlife.

   ~ 2,400 ~   The legend of Osiris originates about this time in Egypt.

   ~ 2,380 ~   The Amorites from Arabia begin to invade and conquer the regions of Syria, Palestine and Mesopotamia.

   ~ 2,371 to 2,316 ~   The Sumerian city-states are united as Akkadia under the Semitic Amorite ruler, Sharru-Kin (i.e. Sargon the Great). A capital city is established near Kishi, and is named Agade (i.e. Akkad). The Akkadian Empire, which is the first empire in world history, stretches from the Zagros Mountains in the east to the Mediterranean Sea in the west.

   In order to counter MAR.DUK's aims for worldwide domination, EN.LIL and his children were determined to groom an Earthling king to safeguard their interests. They chose Sharru-Kin (i.e. the Righteous Regent), the son of Arbakad.

   ~ 2,350 ~   The first mention of merchants appears in temple accounts from Lagash. Thereafter, trading sectors appear in most of the cities throughout Mesopotamia.

   ~ 2,316 ~   Sharru-Kin removed some of the sacred soil of Babylon where MAR.DUK had attempted to build a tower to reach the heavens. The soil was taken and deposited at Agade, and in it was planted the 'Heavenly Bright Object.'

   MAR.DUK, learning of Sharru-Kin's removal of the sacred soil, became enraged with jealousy; he believed that he alone should have the right to possess the sacred soil on which a 'gateway of the gods' could be constructed. So, to the First Region MAR.DUK traveled, and with the help of his son, NABU, and other followers, he began the construction of a new Babili, or Gateway of the Gods, on the site of the tower that he had attempted a thousand Earth-years before.

   MAR.DUK's actions once more caused turmoil. INANNA attacked MAR.DUK's newly constructed settlement and killed many of his followers in the process. The devastation and loss of lives was said to have been the worst in the history of the Earthlings. NER.GAL pleaded with his brother, MAR.DUK, to leave the First Region, of which he was not rightful heir, in order that the bloodshed would stop. MAR.DUK eventually relented and left the region of Mesopotamia.

   ~ 2,305 ~   Terah, the son of Nahor, is born in Ur of the Chaldees. Terah will eventually be the father of Abram (i.e. Abraham, Abu-Ramu), Nahor and Haran, from whom will descend the peoples of the Israelites, Ishmaelites, Midianites, Moabites and the Ammonites. Terah would die circa 2,100 B.C., at the age of 205 years.

   Known as Tirhu according to the Sumerian texts, Terah was chosen by EN.LIL to provide the seed for a great nation of Earthlings. EN.LIL had been visited in a dream by the prophet, GALZU, and had been warned that there would soon come a period of great evildoing and bloodshed, brought about by MAR.DUK. EN.LIL was told that in three celestial portions the Ram of MAR.DUK would replace EN.LIL's own. GALZU warned EN.LIL to be aware that MAR.DUK, having once declared that he was the supreme Anunnaki / god, he would spread war and devastation to make that claim true. EN.LIL was instructed to choose an Earthling, as Ziusudra / Noah had previously been chosen, for the purpose of preserving the seed of the Earthlings.

   Tirhu / Terah was an oracle priest, and a descendant of Arbakad and the sixth generation of the Nibru-Ki priests.

   EN.LIL instructed his son NAN.NAR to build a city in the land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, to be named Haran, in which Tirhu / Terah should be established as the Priest-Prince.

   ~ 2,300 ~   The Shu Ching, or rather, the Book Of History, one of the Five Confucian Classics is composed, detailing Chinese history.

   ~ 2,291 ~   Naram-Sin, the grandson of Sharru-Kin, ascends to the throne of Akkad.

   During the reign of Naram-Sin, INANNA found the opportunity to act upon her own ambition. Finding that EN.LIL and NIN.URTA had left the First Region to travel to the lands which lay on the other side of the oceans, and also finding that MAR.DUK had momentarily journeyed from the Second Region, INANNA felt that the time was ripe for her to lay claim to those regions.

   INANNA made her power known to Naram-Sin, and commanded him to take an army in her name to invade the kingdoms of Magan and Meluhha in the Nile Valley. Of course, in order to do so, Naram-Sin had to cross the Sinai Peninsula, the sacred Fourth Region.

   ~ 2,260 ~   Naram-Sin was successful in his campaign, but the news of his activities reached EN.LIL, and enraged, he returned to the lands of the four regions. EN.LIL cursed Naram-Sin and the Akkadian empire that he ruled. By that curse, Naram-Sin soon after met his death by the sting of a scorpion, and the empire of Akkad was thrust into turmoil.

   The kingship was moved from city to city, both those of the Earthlings and those of the Anunnaki. Finally EN.LIL consulted with his father ANU, and it was decided that NAN.NAR should be given the shepherdship of the First Region, of Mesopotamia.

   ~ 2,200 ~   The Bronze Age in Ireland begins.

   ~ 2,180 ~   At the end of the VIth Dynasty, the Old Kingdom of Egypt collapses.

   ~ 2,180 to 2,040 ~   The First Intermediate Period of Egypt begins with the collapse of the Old Kingdom. Although there are kings, located at Memphis and later at Heracleopolis, the actual rule comes from provincial governors and the 'nomarchs' who recruit their own armies and levy taxes for use in their separate 'nomes.'

   ~ 2,180 ~   MAR.DUK / RA retains dominion in the Upper Kingdom (i.e. southern Egypt), while Pharoahs opposed to him claim power in the Lower Kingdom (i.e. northern Egypt).

   ~ 2,170 ~   The Dragon Court of Ankhfn-khonsu is established in Egypt.

   ~ 2,161 ~   Abram (i.e. Abraham, Ibru-Um, Abu-Ramu) is born in Ur 'of the Chaldees.' According to Hebrew tradition, Abram descends from Shem, a son of Noah, being the ninth generation from Shem. (Note: Some authorities place Abram's birth much later, circa 1,850.)

   ~ 2,113 to 2,006 ~   The Akkadian empire disintegrates as the Sumerians retake control. Around 2006, the Elamites from Persia and the Amorites from Arabia invade and conquer Sumer.

   ~ 2,113 ~   The kingship of the First Region was granted to the city of Urim (i.e. Ur), and Ur-Nammu was appointed as king.

   ~ 2,100 ~   The Amorites found the city of Babylon.

   ~ 2,096 ~   Ur-Nammu is killed in battle. The Earthlings view his untimely death as a betrayal by EN.LIL and the Anunnaki, who are increasingly absent from human affairs.

   ~ 2,095 ~   Shulgi ascends the throne of Ur after the death of Ur-Nammu, and under his rule, the Sumerian kingdom flourishes. Shulgi is known as one who is eager for battle; to that end he enlists warriors from the mountainlands (i.e. Elamites) who are not under the domination of NAN.NAR. During his reign, Shulgi becomes the lover of INANNA.

   ~ 2,090 ~   According to Hebrew tradition, at about the age of seventy years, Abram is called by God, whom he calls Jehovah, to leave Ur and travel to "a land that I will show thee." He travels first to Haran, north of Ur, with his brother, Nahor's family.

   According to Hebrew tradition, upon the death of his father, Terah, Abram was again approached by God, who told him to cross the Euphrates River and travel southward into Canaan (i.e. the region south of Syria, bordering on the Mediterranean Sea). At this time, Abram was commanded by God to leave behind his father's family, so with only his wife, Sarah, and his nephew, Lot, he began the journey southward. Establishing an encampment at the valley of Moreh, God again approached Abram and gave him a promise that his seed (i.e. his descendants) would one day possess those lands.

   The Hebrew tradition does not clearly explain why God had made the promise to Abram; what Abram was to do, or had already done, to become the recipient of such a gift is not stated in the Hebrew Bible. The Sumerian texts, on the other hand, state that EN.LIL called upon Ibru-Um, the eldest son of Tirhu, and instructed him to travel to Canaan in order to protect the sacred sites at the Place of the Celestial Chariots on the Sinai Peninsula, in order that the Anunnaki chariots might continue to make safe take-offs and landings.

   Abram, Sarah and Lot traveled further southward into Egypt, where, fearing that the Pharoah would want to possess her for his own wife, Abram instructed Sarah to pass as his sister, and they would receive no hardship from the Pharoah.

   According to Unger's Bible Dictionary (by Merrill F. Unger, 1957) sister was another name for niece, the relationship of which Sarah, in fact, was to Abram. But according to Zecharia Sitchin in his book, Genesis Revisited, Sarah was indeed the 'sister' of Abram; although they had the same father, their mothers were different. The ancient Sumerian and Akkadian texts have revealed that the standard practice of the Nefilim / Anunnaki was for a man to mate with his half-sister by the same father. Apparently, the knowledge of this practice was imparted to the Sumerians, who likewise practiced it.

   As he had feared, Sarah was claimed by the Pharoah and taken to his household to be retained as a concubine; in exchange, the Pharoah gave to Abram many valuable treasures. When the Pharoah discovered the subterfuge, he returned Sarah to Abram, and commanded them to leave; but he did not demand that the wealth of gifts be forfeited, though. And so, Abram, Sarah and Lot returned to the land of Canaan.

   The newly acquired wealth of Abram became a point of contention between himself and his nephew, Lot. The land did not appear to be sufficient to sustain the flocks of both Abram and Lot, so Abram gave Lot the choice of the land. Lot chose the plain of Jordan, leaving the lands near Hebron for Abram. For his selflessness, God appeared to Abram and rewarded him with another promise of a great number of descendants.

   ~ 2,076 ~   Some years after they had been again in Canaan, Abram and Sarah (now at the age of seventy-five years) had no children. Sarah persuaded Abram to lie with her Egyptian handmaiden, Hagar, who bore Abram a son, who was named Ishmael.

   ~ 2,062 ~   When Abram reached his ninety-ninth year of age, God again appeared to him, and changed his name to Abraham. God renewed the covenant He had previously made with Abram, assuring him that his descendants would be very numerous.

   ~ 2,061 ~   A son, who was named Isaac, was born to Abraham, then one hundred years of age, and his wife, Sarah, then ninety years of age.

   ~ 2,036 ~   God submits Abraham to a trial by commanding him to make a sacrifice of his natural born son, Isaac, who was then twenty-five years of age. Abraham dutifully commenced the task of preparing for the sacrifice on Mount Moriah. He was about to plunge a dagger into the heart of his son, whom he had placed on the sacrificial alter, but his arm was held by an angel of the Lord. And because he had been ready to willingly accept the command of God, even to the point of sacrificing his own son, the Lord reaffirmed the covenant He had previously made.

   The Abrahamic Covenant, which God promised to Abram / Abraham consisted of six elements:

   "I will make of thee a great nation"

   "I will bless thee"

   "And make thy name great"

   "And thou shalt be a blessing"

   "I will bless them that bless thee and curse him that curseth thee"

   "In thee shall all the families of the earth be blessed"

   ~ 2,060 to 1,785 ~   The Middle Kingdom of Egypt is brought about by the nomarchs of Thebes by the subjugation of the nomes south of Thebes, and then by a sweeping northward to Heracleopolis. This victory is made by Mentuhotep II, who also achieves the expulsion of foreign (i.e. Asiatic and Libyan) settlers in the Delta region of the Nile. The Middle Kingdom will be noted for the advancement of the arts and culture. (Note: some scholars date the Middle Kingdom between the years 2,040 and 1,750 B.C.)

   ~ 2,055 ~   Shulgi, apparently upon the orders of NAN.NAR, is sent to suppress a state of unrest in Canaan with the help of his Elamite warriors. But he does not stop at the border between Canaan and Sinai. With no respect for the sacredredness of the Fourth Region on the Sinai Peninsula, Shulgi overruns it and declares himself the King of the Four Regions.

   ~ 2,048 ~   According to the Sumerian texts, it is at this time that EN.LIL called upon Ibru-Um, then residing with his family at Haran, to proceed southward to secure the sacred Place of the Celestial Chariots.

   ~ 2,047 ~   After Shulgi's death, Amar-Sin (i.e. Amraphel) becomes the king of Ur.

   ~ 2,041 ~   Amar-Sin, with the help of other kings from the First Region, under the guidance of INANNA, begins a campaign to conquer the Fourth Region. He is unsuccessful, though, and the campaign merely results in increased support for MAR.DUK, who began to raise an army in the region of Haran after Ibru-Um / Abram had left it.

   MAR.DUK announced to the other Anunnaki that it was his intention, having suffered enough at their hands for sins he had truly committed, but for which he had likewise duly paid, that he was going to re-enter the First Region and establish a temple there, from which to rule. The time of the Ram was at hand.

   With his followers, MAR.DUK moved southward into Sumer and established his temple at Babylon. His army of followers wreaked havoc throughout Mesopotamia and defiled the Holy of Holies at Nippur. It became known that it was his ultimate intention to capture and maintain control of the spaceport known as the Place of the Celestial Chariots in the Fourth Region on the Sinai Peninsula.

   The other Anunnaki met in council and all, including MAR.DUK's own brothers, agreed that MAR.DUK's ambitions to become the supreme 'god' among them had to be stopped once and for all. Only EN.KI voiced a dissenting opinion. It was EN.KI's opinion that the rest of the Anunnaki should accept the course of destiny which foretold MAR.DUK's supremacy. The others would not be persuaded to change their plan to stop MAR.DUK.

   The Anunnaki agreed that the only thing to be done would be to destroy the Place of the Celestial Chariots by nuclear weapons that they called the Weapons of Terror. With the Place of the Celestial Chariots obliterated, any travel to and from Nibiru would be closed off to all, but it would be worth it to ensure that MAR.DUK would be unable to control passage to and from Nibiru; his notion of 'supremacy' would be pointless.

   It was agreed by the Anunnaki who held council against MAR.DUK, that NIN.URTA and NER.GAL, sons of EN.LIL and EN.KI, should carry out the destruction of the Place of the Celestial Chariots.

   ~ 2,024 ~   Weapons of Terror are used for the first time on the planet Earth. The Place of the Celestial Chariots is destroyed by the nuclear weapons, and the Evil Wind destroys the Sumerian civilization.

   With the help of ABGAL, EN.KI had hidden the Weapons of Terror many shars before, prior to EN.LIL's arrival on the Earth, to prevent ALALU from finding and using them. EN.KI believed that no one but he knew where they were. But unbeknownst to EN.KI, EN.LIL had discovered the secret hiding place of the Weapons of Terror.

   EN.LIL informed NIN.URTA and NER.GAL of the mountain in which the Weapons of Terror had been hidden, and he instructed them on how to arm them for firing.

   EN.LIL urged NIN.URTA and NER.GAL to take care not to harm any of the Anunnaki who might be at the Place of the Celestial Chariots, to give them a warning to leave that place before it should be destroyed. NER.GAL took off in his space chariot, but NIN.URTA was held back momentarily by his father, EN.LIL. The special instruction that he should also warn the Earthling, Ibru-Um / Abram of the impending attack was given by EN.LIL to his son.

   When he arrived at the place wherein the Weapons of Terror were hidden, NIN.URTA for NER.GAL already starting the ME's that would awaken the sleeping weapons. As they were awakened, NER.GAL gave them tasknames: One Without Rival, Blazing Flame, One Who With Terror Crumbles, Mountain Melter, Wind That The Rim Of The World Seeks, One Who Above And Below No One Spares and Vaporizer Of Living Things.

   When the time was right, EN.LIL gave the signal for NIN.URTA and NER.GAL to begin. The two headed for Mount Masha in the heart of the Fourth Region. The first weapon was set on its course by NIN.URTA. It struck the top of Mount Masha and slicing it off, the mountain's insides melted instantly. NIN.URTA then exploded the next weapon above the Place of the Celestial Chariots, and the impact of its explosion shook the Earth. The Place of the Celestial Chariots was leveled in a flash. The forests surrounding the plain were flattened by the blast.

   NER.GAL, not wanting to be outdone, as ERRA the Annihilator, flew over the valley of the five cities, destroying each one as he went along with a weapon of terror. The people there, whom NABU was in the act of enlisting for his father's army, were vaporized instantly. The mountains surrounding the valley were pulversized into dust and the ocean's waters poured in to mix with the ashes of the cities.

   NIN.URTA and NER.GAL, having spent their energy, and the Weapons of Terror, came to rest and surveyed the damage they had wrought on the land and cities of the Fourth Region. But they were perplexed at something that was rising from the destroyed plain. A dark cloud was rising and within it swirled an Evil Wind. It continued to grow in size through the day so that it blocked out the sun, and then when night came, the cloud's edges glowed with a brilliance that forebode doom.

   The two cousins desperately called out to their fathers to warn them that the Evil Wind was heading toward the First Region, and that it was unstoppable. EN.LIL and EN.KI, in turn spread the warning to the other Anunnaki.

   The Evil Wind (i.e. radioactive cloud) blew north and eastward into the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, moving from Eridu to Sippar, killing all the living things in its path and laying waste to the land. The water became poisonous and the soil became barren. People and animals alike died. The great Sumerian Civilization, the first in the world was destroyed.

   Of all the cities in the First Region, only Babili / Babylon, where MAR.DUK had established his residence was spared - an occurrance that EN.KI and EN.LIL interpreted as being an omen that perhaps MAR.DUK was indeed destined to the supremacy among all the gods / Anunnaki that he had claimed.

   Of the Earthlings who had been granted kingship in Sumer, only Ibru-Um / Abram and his descendants survived to continue the bloodlines begun with the Adama.

   ~ 2,000 ~   The Akkadian city of Ur falls to the Amorites, who in turn establish the cities of Assur, Mari and Babylon.

   ~ 2,000 ~   The Hittites (i.e. Indo-Europeans) invade Anatolia (i.e. the region encompassed by present-day Turkey) and begin to establish their own empire there. By 1,600 B.C., the Hittites will have control over the region encompassed by the northern part of present-day Syria.

   ~ 2,000 ~   The empire of the Phoenicians begins to thrive, and will do so until it is subdued circa 332 by Alexander the Great.

   ~ 2,000 ~   The Bronze Age in Scotland begins. It will last until about 400 B.C.

   ~ 2,000 ~   The Sumerian King List is compiled. It comprises fifteen different tables and begins with the phrase: "When the kingship was lowered from heaven." Another ancient Sumerian text also includes the phrase: "Kingship had been lowered from heaven... The exalted tiara and the throne of kingship had been lowered from Heaven."

   Each of the scholars who have translated the Sumerian King List has translated the text according to their own belief systems and abilities. Despite the overwhelming amount of evidence that points to it's plausibility, many scholars do not accept the idea that the Earth might have been created out of a collision between the planets Nibiru and Tiamat, and that life on Earth might have been a result of that event. As a result, they cannot accept the shar concept of one Nibiru year equaling 3,600 Earth years. And therefore they cannot accept the number of years in which the individual kings were noted as reigning. In the end, they dismiss the text as being partly fictional. The translation which follows comes Laurence Gardner's book, Genesis Of The Grail Kings and also from the Electronic Text Corpus Of Sumerian Literature project.

   Taken primarily from the Sumerian text, which has been given the number of W-B/144, the antediluvian and postdiluvian rulers to the reign of the adappa included the following:

   When the kingship was lowered from heaven, kingship was in Eridu(g). In Eridu(g) AL.LU.LIM became king; he reigned for 28,800 years. A.LAL.GAR reigned for 36,000 years. Two kings; they ruled for 64,800 years.

   Then Eridu(g) fell and the kingship to Bad-tibira was carried. In Bad-tibira EN.MEN.LU.ANNA reigned for 43,200 years. Then EN.MEN.GAL.ANNA reigned for 28,800 years. Then DUMU.ZI, the shepherd, reigned for 36,000 years. Three kings; they ruled for 180,000 years.

   Then Bad-tibira fell and the kingship to Larak (variously, Larag) was carried. In Larak EN.SIPA.ZI.ANNA / EN.SIPAD.ZID.ANA reigned for 28,800 years. One king; he ruled for 28,800 years.

   Then Larak fell and the kingship to Sippar (variously, Zimbir) was carried. In Sippar EN.MEN.DUR.ANNA reigned for 21,000 years. One king; he ruled for 21,000 years.

   Then Sippar fell and the kingship to Shuruppak (variously, Curuppag) was carried. In Shuruppak UBAR.TUTU / UBARA.TUTU reigned for 18,600 years. One king; he ruled for 18,600 years.

   In five cities eight kings; they ruled for 241,200 years. Then the Flood swept thereover.

   Note: Despite the fact that the Sumerian King List states that it was during the reign of UBAR.TUTU that the Flood occurred, and that his reign was followed by that of GA.UR, other Sumerian texts (and Hebrew tradition) state that it was during the reign of UBAR.TUTU's son, ZIUSUDRA / UTNAPISHTIM / NOAH, that the Flood occurred.

   After the Flood had swept thereover, when the kingship was lowered from heaven, the kingship was in Kish (variously Kic). In Kish, GA.UR / JUCUR became king and reigned for 1,200 years. For a time (960 years) the Nephilim queen, NIDABA, (variously GULLA.NIDABA.ANNAPAD), reigned in Kish.) Then KULLASSINA-BEL (variously PALAKINATIM) reigned for 900 years. Then NANGISH.LISHMA / NANJICLICMA / NANGISHKUSHMA reigned for 670 years, 3 months and 3-1/2 days. Then EN.TARAH.ANA reigned for 420 years. Then BAHINA / BABUM reigned for 300 years. Then BU.AN.UM / PUANNUM reigned for 840 years. Then KALIBUM reigned for 960 years. Then QALUMU / KALUMUM / GALUMUM reigned for 840 years. Then ZUQAQIP / ZUKAPIP reigned for 900 years. Then ATABBA / ATAB / ABA reigned for 600 years.

   ~ 2,000 ~   The Hurrians appear throughout Syria and Mesopotamia.

   ~ 2,000 ~   Proto-Greeks invade the Peloponnesus (i.e. the islands of present-day south Greece) and establish the Minoan civilization. A major island city of the Minoan civilization, Thera, will be destroyed by the eruption of the Santorini volcano in 1,450 B.C. The Minoan civilization will thrive only another fifty years, until 1,400 B.C., when its primary homeland, the island of Crete, is overrun by (Mycenaean) conquerors from the mainland.

   ~ 1,900 ~   As the Bronze Age flourishes, the megalithic site of Stonehenge is constructed, according to most estimates. Some archaeologists believe that an earlier 'phase' of this site was begun about 3100 in the form of simple circular ditches and mounds.

   ~ 1,894 ~   The Amorite Dynasty begins at Babylon.

   ~ 1,800 ~   The Assyrian empire is established by Shamshi-adad.

   ~ 1,800 ~   Ceremonial centers are established throughout Peru in the Western Hemisphere.

   ~ 1,792 to 1,595 ~   Under King Hammurabi, the kingdom of Babylon flourishes in the Old Babylonian Period with the city of Babylon as its center. It encompasses the region that was previously encompassed by Sumer and Akkad.

   ~ 1,785 to 1,570 ~   The Hyksos, an influx of Asiatic peoples into the Delta region of the Nile brings an end to the Middle Kingdom of Egypt and the end of the XIIth Dynasty, and heralds the period known as the Second Intermediate Period. The Asiatic invaders will eventually subject the Egyptians to their rule as far south as the city of Cusae. The Theban kings will serve as vassals to the Kyksos kings until circa 1,567 B.C., when Kamose re-conquers the lands of the Nile Valley and his brother, Amosis I, recaptures the Hyksos capital of Avaris.

   ~ 1,760 to 1,750 ~   King Hammurabi issues his set of laws, the Code of Hammurabi. The Code consists of two hundred and eighty-two laws. The Akkadian language was made the 'official' language of the empire.

   Tribes known as Chaldeans began to move into the Babylonian Empire, and by intermarrying with the Babylonians, the Chaldean culture became synonymous with that of the Babylonian culture.

   ~ 1,760 ~   Jacob / Israel leads his family and descendants into Egypt.

   ~ 1,700 to 1,600 ~   The city-states of Asia are brought under the rule of the Shang dynasty. The Indus Valley civilization disappears.

   ~ 1,624 ~   Mount Santorini erupts.

   ~ 1,600 to 1,200 ~   The Mycenaean civilization flourishes in the region that is encompassed by present-day Greece.

   ~ 1,595 ~   The Hittites move southward along the Euphrates River from Anatolia and sack the city of Babylon. The Hittites do not retain control over the city, though, because their intention is to continue moving southward to capture Mesopotamia. Their advance is checked, though, by the Hurrians.

   ~ 1,595 to 1,155 ~   After the sack of Babylon, the Cassites, a people residing in the Zagros mountains, seize Babylon. They will hold the city for nearly four centuries, a period that will be known as the Middle Babylonian Period.

   ~ 1,580 ~   The earliest form of the Book Of Going Forth By Day, commonly called the Egyptian Book Of The Dead, is composed.

   ~ 1,567 ~   Hyksos invaders are repelled by Kamose and Amosis I, and the 'New Kingdom' is inaugurated in Egypt. It will exist until 1,090 B.C. It is a period of 'warrior-kings' which will include Amenophis IV (variously, Amenhotep IV) / Akhenaten and Tutankhaten / Tutankhamun, the first of whom was an avowed worshipper of the god Aten, and the latter of Amun.

   ~ 1,550 to 1,500 ~   The Aryans, a people who originated in the Swat Valley in the region encompassed by present-day Pakistan, move eastward to destroy the Indus Valley civilization. They will later move on eastward to the Ganges and from there southward to dominate the entire center of present-day India. The Aryans bring with them one of the earliest religions which still exist to the present day: Hinduism. The Hindu religion is based on the idea of many gods who are responsible for the gifts of nature; one is responsible for providing the warmth of the sun, another for the air, and so on. Overall reigns Brahma, the Existant One, who is assisted by Vishnu, the preserver, and Shiva, the destroyer.

   ~ 1,550 ~   The walled city of Jericho is destroyed. The Hebrew tradition states that the walls of Jericho were destroyed by the army led by the Israelite, Joshua (the successor to Moses), but the earliest possible date for Joshua to have been involved would have been 1,400 B.C. The city would later (circa the 9th Century B.C.) be rebuilt and occupied even after the Exile of the Israelites (circa 538 B.C.).

   ~ 1,500 ~   The Enuma Elish, the epic Babylonian story of Creation is compiled. (Some authorities give the date of its composition as early as 1,800.) The story will be adapted, by later Hebrew scribes into the first chapters of the Book of Genesis for the Hebrew Bible. The title, Enuma elish are derived from the opening words of the tale: When in the heights heaven had not been named And below earth had not been called...

   ~ 1,500 ~   The Egyptians push farther south into the Nubian Desert and take control of the region inhabited by the Kush as far south as the Fourth Cataract of the Nile.

   ~ 1,500 ~   The Eleusian Mysteries, the most important of the Greek mystery cults, are initiated near Athens.

   ~ 1,500 to 1,200 ~   The kingdom of the Sumerian City-States gives rise to the Middle Assyrian Empire.

   ~ 1,500 to 1,250 ~   The Hebrews live in bondage in Egypt.

   ~ 1,450 ~   The composition of the Vedas in the ancient language of Sanskrit begins in the Indus Valley. The Vedas are hymns that reveal wisdom of the Hindu religion. There are three series of Vedas: Rig, Sama and Yajur.

   ~ 1,400 to 1,150 ~   The New Hittite Empire flourishes in the Mesopotamian region.

   ~ 1,400 ~   The first alphabet type of script is developed by the Phoenicians.

   ~ 1,400 ~   The Minoan civilization is destroyed by invaders from the mainland of the Peloponnese, apparently the Mycenaeans

   ~ 1,400 to 1,100 ~   The Mycenaean civilization flourishes in the region that would become southern Greece.

   ~ 1,370 to 1,362 ~   Amenophis IV (variously, Amenhotep IV) / Akhenaten forces the monotheistic sun worship (of Aten) upon his subjects in Egypt. This 18th Dynasty pharoah, with his wife, Nefertiti, elevate the diety, Aten, above all the other gods then worshipped in Egypt. He orders the name of Amen to be scratched off the walls of the temples and monuments.

   ~ 1,361 to 1,352 ~   Tutankhaten / Tutankhamun returns Egypt to the worship of multiple gods, the chief of which was Amun.

   ~ 1,334 to 1,240 ~   The Jewish religion, and the worship of the monotheistic god, Jahweh (i.e. Jehovah), begins with the Covenant of Moses with Yahweh during the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt.

   ~ 1,200 ~   The Hittite empire collapses.

   ~ 1,200 ~   The Greeks destroy the city of Troy in Anatolia.

   ~ 1,200 to 400 ~   Civilization, in regard to establishment of social hierarchy, commerce and religion, becomes established in the western hemisphere in the Olmec of the Mexican Gulf Coast, the Zapotec of Monte Alban and the Chavin of Peru. They construct pyramids similar to those constructed in the Nile Valley.

   ~ 1,166 ~   Ramesses III, the last great Egyptian pharaoh dies. With his death, Egypt comes under the control of Libyan kings who had been peacefully penetrating Egypt for some years prior.

   ~ 1,100 ~   The Celtic peoples have developed, by this time, out of Iron Age tribes which had arrived in Europe from Asia Minor.

   ~ 1,100 to 900 ~   The first Chinese language dictionary is compiled.

   ~ 1,050 to 1,010 ~   Saul reigns in Israel.

   ~ 1,027 ~   The Shang dynasty of China is overthrown by the Chou dynasty.

   ~ 1,010 to 970 ~   David reigns in Israel.

   ~ 1,010 to 970 ~   The Hebrew alphabet is developed from the Semitic script.

   ~ 1,000 ~   The tribes comprising the twelve descendant lines of Jacob / Israel are united under King David of Judah.

   ~ 1,000 ~   The Early Iron Age in Italy begins.

   ~ 1,000 ~   The Mayan civilization emerges in the region of the Yucatan peninsula of Central America. It will thrive as a culture until circa 900 A.D.

   ~ 1,000 to 700 ~   The presence of a people known as the Arameans in the region of Assyria gives rise to the empire of the Aramean City-States. Their particular dialect, Aramaic, will be the language in which the early Hebrew gospels will be initially written.

   ~ 1,000 to 300 ~   The Phoenicians, a seafaring people who have had a presence along the easternmost coast of the Meditteranean Sea, become more settled, and those settlements unite in the empire of the Phoenician City-States.

   ~ 994 ~   Teutonic tribes in Central Europe move westward to the Rhine River.

   ~ 990 to 930 ~   Solomon succeeds his father, David, and reigns in Israel.

   ~ 957 ~   Solomon completes construction of the First Temple on Mount Moriah on the spot believed to have been that on which Abraham built an alter on which to sacrifice his son, Isaac.

   ~ 950 ~   The Pentateuch, variously the Tanakh, being the five Books of Moses: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy, are composed. Although purported to be the work of Moses, hence the name, the books are now believed to be the work of four different authors, and ultimately derive from Sumerian sources, including the Enuma elish.

   ~ 930 ~   Following the death of King Solomon, the nation of Israel splits into Judah in the south, with Jerusalem as its capital city, and Israel in the north, with Samaria as its capital city.

   Upon King Solomon's death, his son, Rehoboam succeeded to the throne of Israel. The northern tribes had felt an allegiance to David who had joined them together into a single nation, but that feeling of allegiance began to dissipate during Solomon's reign. Then, when Solomon died, they lost interest altogether, and chose to discontinue as part of the unified nation. According to the Hebrew Bible in the book of I Kings, chapter 12, verse 16: When all Israel saw that the king would not listen to them, the people answered the king 'What share do we have in David? We have no inheritance in the son of Jesse. To your tents, O Israel! Look now to your house, O David'.

   ~ 900 ~   The region of Kush breaks off of Egypt to become an independent kingdom. The Kushites are black-skinned Nubians who have coexisted peacefully with the Egyptians, their northern neighbors, and conquerors, for centuries, but who finally desire independence.

   ~ 810 ~   Phoenician seafaring traders establish the city of Carthage on the northern coast of Africa, in the region that will become Tunisia.

   ~ 800 ~   The writer, Homer, composes his two epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey.

   ~ 800 ~   The Hindu Upanishads, Brahmanas and Aranyakas are composed as commentaries on the Vedas.

   ~ 776 ~   The first Olympic Games are held in Greece.

   ~ 753 ~   Rome is founded on the Tiber River in Italy.

   ~ 750 ~   The Kush invade and conquer Egypt.

   ~ 750 to 600 ~   Numerous 'books' are composed which will be collected together to become the Hebrew Bible.

   ~ 747 to 539 ~   The Kingdom of Babylon proceeds as the Neo-Babylonian Period.

   ~ 721 ~   The kingdom of Israel is conquered by the Assyrians under King Sargon II. The Jews are dispersed throughout the Mediterranean world and the Ten Northern Tribes are lost to history.

   ~ 700 ~   Greek religion, the belief in many gods and goddesses who possess human-like qualities, flourishes. The gods, Zeus, Athena, Apollo and others reside on mount Olympus, coming down to the human inhabited regions and interbreeding with humans to create demigods and heroes.

   ~ 661 to 332 ~   The Late Dynastic Period arises in Egypt

   ~ 650 ~   The Iron Age in China begins.

   ~ 650 ~   The writings of Muhammed are gathered by his followers into the Qur'an.

   ~ 628 to 551 ~   Zoroaster, (variously, Zarathustra) lives as an Iranian prophet and composes the Gathas, or hymns of the Avesta. He has a vision of the god, Ahura Mazda, who imparts to him the wisdom that would become the foundation of a religion known as Zoroastrianism.

   ~ 609 ~   The Assyrian Empire collapses.

   ~ 605 to 520 ~   The founder of Taoism, Lao-Tse, lives during this period.

   ~ 604 ~   King Nebuchadnezzar II claims the throne of Babylon.

   ~ 601 ~   The kingdom of Judah becomes a vassal state to Babylon.

   ~ 587 ~   The kingdom of Judah falls to the Babylonians.

   ~ 581 ~   King Nebuchadnezzar II invades Palestine and burns Jerusalem. The Israelites are deported in exile to Babylon. The First Temple is destroyed and the Ark of the Covenant is lost.

   ~ 563 to 483 ~   The religious teacher, Siddhartha Gautama, founder of Buddhism, lives during this period.

   ~ 559 to 331 ~   Cyrus the Great (559 - 530) reigns over the Persian Empire following his overthrow of King Nabonidus. He will be followed by the strong leadership of Darius I (522 - 486), Xerxes (485 - 465) and Artaxerxes (465 - 424). It is by the Decree of King Cyrus the Great in 538 B.C., that the Temple of the Jews in Jerusalem is rebuilt.

   ~ 551 ~   The sage, Confucius is born.

   ~ 550 ~   Arabs begin to cross the Red Sea to settle throughout Ethiopia.

   ~ 539 ~   The Greeks defeat Carthage.

   ~ 539 ~   The Persian Empire conquers Babylon.

   ~ 537 to 445 ~   The Israelites are freed from their captivity in Babylon and return to Judah to once again join as a single nation. The Second Temple is built on the ruins of the First Temple.

   ~ 509 ~   The Roman Republic is founded. The Etruscan peoples who had originally settled along the Tiber River, on the peninsula that would later become known as Italy, were subdued and driven out by the new, Roman, culture.

   ~ 500 ~   The Adena culture flourishes in the North American Continent in the region that would later be known as the Ohio River Valley.

   ~ 490 ~   The Battle of Marathon results in a defeat for the Persians, at the hands of the Athenians, and the end of the First Persian War.

   ~ 470 to 399 ~   The Athenian philosopher, Socrates, lives and teaches moral philosophy to other Greek men, including Plato.

   ~ 431 to 404 ~   The Great Peloponnesian War takes place between the Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta.

   ~ 400 ~   The Germanic peoples emerge out of Persian/Aryan forebears.

   ~ 334 to 323 ~   Alexander of Macedonia conquers Greece, Persia, Syria and Egypt

   ~ 305 to 51 ~   The Ptolemaic Dynasty begins with the reign of Ptolemy I between 305 and 282.

   ~ 300 ~   The Library at Alexandria (Egypt) is established.

   ~ 300 to 300 A.D. ~   The Yayoi culture develops on the island of Japan, superceding that of the Jomon culture.

   ~ 280 ~   The Roman Empire, which had started as a loose confederation of city-states, succeeds in either conquering or absorbing the surrounding tribes, until the whole of the Italian peninsula is united.

   ~ 241 ~   The Carthaginians on the island of Sicily are ousted by the Romans.

   ~ 215 ~   The Chinese under emperor Shi Huangdi build the Great Wall.

   ~ 202 ~   Carthage is sacked by the Romans.

   ~ 168 to 164 ~   The Maccabeean Rebellion is waged against the Selucid Empire ruled by Antiochus IV Epiphanes. In response to the seizing of the Jewish temple at Jerusalem and dedication of it to Zeus, a Jewish army under the leadership of Judas, son of the priest Mattathias, recaptures Jerusalem. Judas, renamed Maccabee (the Hammer) for his accomplishment, rededicates the temple. To commemorate this event, Jews will ever after celebrate the festival of Hanukkah.

   ~ 160 ~   Macedonian Greece is conquered by the Roman Empire, which now completely encircles the Mediterranean Sea.

   ~ 100 ~   The writing of the books of the Old Testament of the Hebrew Bible are completed.

   ~ 61 to 49 ~   The Roman Army under the Emperor, Julius Caesar, conquers Spain and Gaul.

   ~ 47 ~   The Library at Alexandria is completely destroyed by fire as a result of the Roman Empire's desire to obliterate knowledge other than its own.

   ~ 4 ~   Jesus, the Christ, is born in Judaea. (It should be noted that different scholars have ascribed Jesus' birth anywhere between 8 B.C. and 6 A.D.)

   ~ 14 to 37 A.D. (Anno Domini) or C.E. (Common Era) ~   The Roman emperor, Tiberius reigns, during which the Celtic Druids are suppressed. The Celts did not maintain their history in written form; the Druids kept and passed on an oral tradition of Celtic history and culture. With the suppression of the Druids, Tiberius effectively suppressed Celtic culture.

   ~ 50 ~   The Christian religion comes into existence primarily through the missionary activities of the Apostle Paul.

   ~ 400 ~   Saint Patrick introduces Christianity to Ireland.

   ~ 610 ~   The angel Gabriel appears to Muhammad and reveals to him the first lines of the Koran.

   ~ 1100 ~   The Aztec civilization emerges out of the Aztlan, or white land in northwestern Mexico. It will thrive until conquered by the Spaniards in 1521.


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