Part 1


A Representation Of The Arms Of Willielmo de Muirhead ~ 14th Century


  Historians have noted that the family of Muirhead was one of the ancient families of the shire (i.e. county), of Lanark.1

      "The Family of Muirhead of Lachop, or Muirhead of That-Ilk, has been always repute one of the ancienteフ Families in all the Shire of Lanerk."..."The Sirname de Morehead, or Muirhead, is like other Sirnames of the greateフ Antiquity, local, taken from Lands, from whence either the Proprietor took a Denomination, when fixed hereditary Sirnames became cuフomary; or took an Appellation from the Lands, as バon as he obtained them; for it is a Maxim amongフ Antiquaries, that 奏is a ブfficient Document of an ancient Deツent, where the Inhabitant has the Sirname from the Place he inhabiteth.

  It was in the valley of the Clyde River, on the southern border of the highlands of Scotland, to the west of Edinburgh, and midway between it and Glasgow, in the Clydesdale county of Lanarkshire, in the Parish of Bothwell, that the lands of Lauchope and Lauchope House were located. And it was Lauchope that was first associated with the name of Muirhead.

  In order to deduce a history of this Family of the Muirheads of Lachop", we should begin by identifying a starting point when the family first became known in Scotland.

  According to R.R. Stodart in his book, Scottish Arms, published in 18812, one of the 16th Century heraldic rolls of arms, known as Forman痴 Roll of ca 1562, included the arms of a man by the name of Mureheide of Lauchope. But the family痴 origins may be found to have existed earlier than that. Alexander Nisbet in his book, A System Of Heraldry, published in 17423, wrote that:

      "So much is certain, for the Antiquity of the Sirname and Family of Muirhead, that they have been fixed in the Barony of Bothwel, before the Reign of King Alexander II."

{Alexander II痴 reign lasted between 1214 and 1249 AD.}

  But even Nisbet took the line farther back in time when he noted that4:

      "and バ we may rationally, and without フretching Things, conclude, That the Muirhead Family were fixed, and Proprietors of the Lands of Muirhead, as far back as the Reign of King William, or バoner, for what we know, even up to the Time that Sirnames began to be taken up, and Men began to call themテlves after their own Lands; which, is agreed, was not the Cuフom generally gone into, before the Reign of King David I, Anno 1122."


  Alexander Nisbet had no factual evidence to substantiate his assumption that the Muirhead family should be dated to the early part of the 12th Century. He simply stated that the custom of taking territorial surnames began about that time.

  The earliest public record of any person by the name of Muirhead was, according to Nisbet5, a deed of land granted by "Archibaldus Comes de Douglas, Dominus Galovidiæ & Bothwel, dicto ツutifero ブo Willielmo de Muirhead" dated 1393. That date corresponds to a tradition that dates from the reign of King Robert II {1371-1390}. Again, quoting Alexander Nisbet6:

      "The Tradition goes, and, as I had it from a learned and curious Antiquary, who was alバ a gentleman of great reputation and integrity, that the laird of Muirhead of That-ilk, de Muirhead, as I have often found them deナgned, in the time of king Robert II, got the lands of Lachop, and others, for aピaulting and killing a great robber that infeフed all that part of the country, by violent ravages and depredations, which he carried to a very inブfferable degree; バ that at length the government were obliged to take notice of him; and, by a public act, notified, "Thet whoバever ドould apprehend, kill him, or bring him to juフice, ドould be rewarded with ブch and ブch lands." His name, the tradition tells us, was Bartram de Shotts: he was a terror to every body that reナded near him, or who had occaナon to paピ eaフ or weフ through thoテ parts where he lurked, and had his haunts. The laird of Muirhead, at the time, was a bold, daring, intrepid man; he did not ブrprize him in his lurking places, but with a few in his company, to whoテ courage and valour he could well truフ, came up, and in the day-time attacked him in that valley on the eaフ-ナde of the kirk of Shotts, when, after a pretty ノart encounter, the Goliath Bartram was ネain on the place. The laird of Muirhead cut the head off this robber, which he carried フreight to the king, who immediately, in the terms of the proclamation, ordered him a charter and infeフment of theテ lands that were then, or バon after called Lachop; and gave him, as an additional honour to his arms, the three acorns in the テed, on the bend dexter; for creフ, two hands ブpporting a ヘord in pale, proper; and the motto, Auxilio Dei, which is born by the family to this day."


  According to Margaret Stuart in her book, Scottish Family History, A Guide to Works of Reference on the History and Genealogy of Scottish Families, there are only a few published sources of Muirhead history. They include: A System Of Heraldry, by Nisbet (1742), Volume II: Appendix, pages 258-268; An Account Of The Muirheads Of Lachop, by Walter Grosett of Logie; and Burke's Landed Gentry, (1846). Of course, Mrs. Stuart compiled her list of books that had been published in Scotland. To that list should be added three volumes published by American Muirhead family members: The Morehead Family Of North Carolina And Virginia, by John Motley Morehead (1921); The Henry Muirheid/Muirhead Family Of Virginia & Mississippi, by Ray Jerome Muirhead (1989), and Tree Top Baby: A Family Tree Of Moorhead And Strong, by Susan Moorhead / Nunes, Volume I (1984).

  There are certain public documents, such as deeds, charters and the like, which provide some clues to the history of the Muirhead family, but they are few due to the tragic history of Scotland's public archives. Many of the earliest records were removed from Scotland by the English during the various conflicts between the two nations during the 11th through the 16th Centuries. As part of the Treaty of Edinburgh in 1328, and England痴 recognition of Scotland痴 independence, her public records were supposed to be returned from London, where they had been deposited. But they were not returned until much later; in 1948 some two hundred documents made their way back to Scotland. During the Second English Civil War, when Oliver Cromwell's Parliamentary Army invaded Scotland to counter the Scots support of Charles II, the nation痴 archives of public documents were stored in Edinburgh Castle. Following the defeat of Charles II and the Scottish army at Worcester on 03 September, 1650, the archives were removed to the greater safety of Stirling Castle. Stirling Castle was taken in August of 1651, and at that time the bulk of the public documents were removed to London, while some were pilfered by the castle痴 own garrison. Only some were rescued by state officials. Legal registers were intended to be returned in 1657 in order that the country痴 routine affairs could be continued as before. But as they were being returned, one of the two ships that were transporting them northward went down in a storm off the Northumbrian coast. As would be expected, all the documents on that ship were lost. As new public documents were generated over the years, they were maintained in Laigh Hall of the Parliament House. The storage conditions were by no means what we would consider adequate, and over the years many of the documents simply rotted or were eaten by rats. Following the Jacobite Rising of 1745, funds culled from the forfeited estates of the clans that had participated in the Rising were used to build a repository for the public archives, which was called the General Register House.

  A comprehensive history of the family of the Muirheads, thusly, must be deduced partly from fact and partly from legend.



  We might begin by taking a look at the surname itself. For purposes of this volume, the basic form of the surname is presented as Muirhead. But throughout history and among the various families who claim descent from the ancient root, the name has variously appeared as: Moirheid, Moorehead, Moorhead, Mored, Morehead, Morheid, Mourheid, Muirhed, Muirheid, Muirheyd, Murehed, Murehede, Mureheide, Murhed, Murhede, Murheed, Murheid, Muyrheid, Mwirheid, Mwreheid, Mwrhed, Mwrheid, Mwrheyd and Mwrhied.

  The etymology and history of the surname, regardless of its form is, at once, simple and difficult. Unlike a surname such as Smith, the origin of which can readily be discovered to have been derived from the occupation of the smith, the surname Muirhead is not so easy.

  It is generally agreed that the family took its appellation from the land, there being a number of places named Muirhead7. There is the hamlet of Muirhead in the parish of Kettle, district of Cupar, in the county or shire of Fife. There is also a hamlet of Muirhead in the parish of Liff, Benvie and Invergowrie in the county or shire of Forfar. There is also a village of Muirhead in the parish of Cadder in the northern tip of the county or shire of Lanark. It is in the vicinity of the latter village that this family is believed to have originated.

  According to George F. Black, in his awesome work, The Surnames Of Scotland - Their Origin, Meaning, And History8: "the use of fixed surnames or descriptive names appears to have commenced in France about the year 1000, and such names were introduced into Scotland through the Normans a little over one hundred years later..." Black noted that "The first people in Scotland to acquire fixed surnames were the nobles and great landowners, who called themselves, or were called by others, after the lands they possessed." Such 奏erritorial surnames might be acquired by more than one root family not necessarily related by bloodline. Black also warned the researcher to be aware that the use of the preposition de, when used in conjunction with the territorial surname did not always imply that the individual possessed the lands from which he acquired the surname. It might imply the concept of 訴n rather than of 双f. Therefore, going simply by the name, the Willielmo de Muirhead named in the 1393 deed cited above, might either have been the possessor of the lands of Muirhead, or simply an inhabitant 訴n those lands. Black did concede, though, that in most cases the former situation was the one that should be considered. And we shall see that that indeed was the case here.

  But the question that must next be asked is, where did the place name come from? Most of the historians of the family of Muirhead cite the similarities of the word muir with the word that means a 蘇eath: moor. The word moor is derived from the root mer referring to 租ead; and therefore refers to dead or barren ground. They then appendage the word head, which refers to the 蘇ighest point, to the first, to arrive at muir-head or rather "head of the moor", or "the highest point on the heath."9 Apparently, this reference to the meaning of the name was first introduced by John M. Morehead in his book, The Morehead Family Of North Carolina And Virginia, published in 1921. In that book, Mr. Morehead noted10:

      "In Both Scotland and England uncultivated shooting tracts of country were well known and have borne from earliest times the name now known as 僧oor. Its earliest spelling, according to A New English Dictionary (Murray) was 僧or and it had various other forms: 僧ore, 僧oore, 僧oor, 僧uir and 僧ure. The 蘇ead of these tracts musookt have been not uncommon in the two countries, and as a location, it has become a fixed one, in at least two places in the general region of Stirling Castle near Glasgow, under the name of 閃uirhead."


  This seems, at first glance, to be a fairly good assumption of the origin of the name Muirhead, but one must take into consideration the influences of the gaelic language on the naming of places in early Scotland, and also the fact that the Normans brought with them their own language, which merged with the native tongues.

  In regard to the assumption that the gaelic language might have played a part in the creation of the place name of Muirhead, reference is made to the book Scotland In The Middle Ages, by Innes, in which it is stated that11:

      "By the middle of the twelfth century it is certain that with the exception of Galloway the inhabitants of the southern counties of Scotland were practically English in speech, whatever may have been their proportion of Celtic blood. The Gaelic place names in the Lowlands prove that a people speaking Gaelic formerly possessed the territory but is not evidence as to the continued existence of the Gaelic race there."


  What this tells us is that we should proceed cautiously when attempting to determine the cultural and ethnic origin of a place name, such as Muirhead. A purely Gaelic place name would very well have been retained by the later inhabitants, regardless of their own native language and/or naming conventions.

  The word muir exists in the gaelic language as a dual masculine/feminine noun. It refers to the 壮ea and not to a heath or moor, as has been suggested solely because of its similarity in sound. One needs only take a quick glance at a map of Scotland, and it will be seen that the sea and its many inroads into the valleys of Scotland might have influenced the use of the word muir in the place name. The Irish word for sea (no doubt derived from the gaelic) is muir; the Welsh word for sea is mor. The Breton and also the Gaulish words for sea are also spelled mor. The only problem with assuming that muir, the gaelic word for 壮ea provided the origin of the first half of the name is that the second half is not gaelic. There exists no correlating gaelic word for that which reads and sounds as the English word: head. If the intention had been to invent a place name from the gaelic words for 蘇ead of the sea, it would not have resulted in muirhead, but rather muirceann.

  It is interesting to note that there was, in the 18th Century (and possibly prior to that time), a conjoined word, moors-head, which was a term borrowed from chemistry, that referred to a cap, or head, set atop a still, and having a pipe or nose attached to allow the raised spirits to run down into a receiver.12 In view of the history of whisky production in Scotland, perhaps the place name from which the family took its name may have had some relation to this definition.This example is included primarily for the humor in it, rather than as a serious attempt to explain the origin of the name; but it points out the fact that the name could have been derived from any number of things.

  There is a gaelic name that might be a candidate for the root of the placename of Muirhead. Mhuir Mheadhain is the gaelic name for the Mediterranean Sea. There is the possibility that the Normans brought their name for the Mediterranean Sea with them. Perhaps it became merged with the gaelic to form the gaelic name M(h)uir (M)head(hain), the pronounciation of which became shortenned over time to Muir-head.

  There is a gaelic word that is spelled very similar to the spelling of muirhead; it is the name for a fishing spear: muirgheadh. Given that the people of the Isles are, and have always been, very cognizant of their dependence on the sea that surrounds them and the many rivers that crisscross the land, it would not be too unusual to use words culled from the sea or seafaring for placenames. Bishop Andrew Muirhead affixed a representation of his heraldic arms to the northside of the Nave of the Cathedral of Glasgow (which he adorned during his tenure as Bishop) which consisted primarily of the accepted heraldic devices of the Murihead family: three acorns on a bend; but it also included the image of salmon fishing. If it is accepted that the placename of Muirhead was derived from the gaelic name for a fishing spear, then it seems only natural that the image of salmon fishing (which was performed with a spear, as compared to a line and hook) would be perfect symbolism to represent the surname of Muirhead. Alexander Nisbet noted that at the time his book, A System Of Heraldry, was published in 1742, the arms of Bishop Muirhead were still extant in the Nave of the Cathedral, and that the imagery was13:

      "his coat of arms, the accorns on the bend, ブrmounted of the ヂlmon fiドing, the cogniヂnce of the epiツopal See..."


  What this means is that the image of salmon fishing was the allegorical symbol of the Glasgow Episcopal See. For the very reason that an early Christian symbol was that of fish and fishing, this might be the most promising of the various conjectures about the name. It is possible that the image was chosen by Bishop Muirhead for the pun that it represented: a symbol of both his own surname and of the See that he represented as bishop.

  In the Medieval Ages, and on into the Renaissance, artists, primarily engaged by the Church, utilized symbolism (i.e. allegory) extensively so that the viewer would not need to read much into the imagery. The masses of people were illiterate, and the allegorical images provided an easy method for the communication of ideas and concepts. Today, artists are taught the symbolism of the art elements. If an artist wants to show movement, he/she simply uses a diagonal line. By using a diagonal line in an artwork, the viewer will not need to actually 喪ead the artwork, but will instinctively 遡now what the artist痴 intention is - to imply movement. The allegorical images of the Medieval and Renaissance periods functioned much in the same way. It is very possible that Bishop Andrew 遡new that anyone who looked at his arms, seeing them above the symbol of salmon fishing, the fishing spear (or muirgheadh) would immediately know that the arms represented the surname Muirhead. The viewer would instinctively know that the Gaelic word for 'fishing spear' sounded like his acquired surname, and make the connection.

  It should be noted also, that the word muirgheadh is the one word that would have changed the least from its original form to become muirhead. The question of why gaelic, Norman or English words were joined together becomes an insignificant point. The ideas of mixing words derived from Gaelic and English and Gaelic and Norman French and so forth are plausible, but in this case there is no mixing of languages. The meaning is evident, and the use of the word as a visual pun to refer to both Bishop Andrew's profession and his family name is something that does not require any thought.

  One additional thing in regard to the word muirgheadh needs to be noted: If we assume that this was the case - that the village of Muirhead in Lanarkshire derived its name from the Gaelic word for 素ishing spear, it is not in conflict with any of the other places named similarly. Salmon is the one type of fish that is easily caught by spearing them - rather than hooking them with a line, and there are many rivers in Scotland that would support salmon. Perhaps the various places named Muirhead or any variation of spelling, might have been named that way so that travellers knew that salmon fishing was the prevalent form of game at that place. If the name for fishing or 奏hings of the sea was more suitable, than the word Muir was simply used.

  The fact of the matter is that there exists no definitive answer to the question of how the name Muirhead came to be used to identify a number of villages and later a family. In the end, it simply must be accepted that the surname is a territorial name derived from the lands called Muirhead. The name itself does not necessarily hold any special distinction or meaning to the family other than that its pre-16th Century progenitor(s) was/were known as "of Muirhead".



  So now we might return to the general history of the family. At some time between the reign of King David I, at the beginning of the 12th Century, and the reign of King Alexander II, at the beginning of the 13th Century, a family came to reside in the valley of the Clyde River, in the vicinity of a village known by the name of Muirhead. The village of Muirhead was located in the Barony of Bothwell, which was under the rule of the Norman, David de Oliphard (variously Oliphant) during the mid-12th Century.

  Whether the family of the 12th to 13th Centuries was descended from Norman ancestors is not known. It is quite possible that that was the case in view of the fact that historical references to any of its members do not appear until after the Norman Conquest of the Isles, and also because of the fact that they adopted the Norman convention of taking territorial-based surnames. They were perhaps fairly well-to-do, as evidenced by the fact that the family came to own a substantial amount of land in that region, prompting Alexander Nisbet to state that14:

"The truth is, the family of the Muirheads muフ have been a テt of people, that ナnce they never aピumed the arms, or any part thereof, from their reパective ブperiors or over-lords, as was very uブal, the preブmp-tion muフ be, that they were テated a family, and fixed there before the Oliphards had the barony of Bothwell; and that they were the liberi tenentes regis et coronae, before the crown gave the ブperiority of the Baronia de Bothwel to the Oliphards: and バ we may rationally, and without フretching Things, conclude, That the Muirhead Family were fixed, and Proprietors of the Lands of Muirhead, as far back as the Reign of King William, or バoner, for what we know, even up to the Time that Sirnames began to be taken up, and Men began to call themテlves after their own Lands; which, is agreed, was not the Cuフom generally gone into, before the Reign of King David I, Anno 1122."


  By the term, set, one might think of Nisbet's reference to the family as 'a group of persons of the same kind or having a common characteristic', which is how the word is defined by Merriam-Webster. The context in which Nisbet used the above statement was in commenting on the fact that the Muirhead armigers (i.e. those to whom grants of arms had been made) had not utilized elements from the various armigerous families who, in the span of recorded history, had held sway over the ancestral lands of the Muirheads. The custom of a family, if they were not landowners, was to take the arms of their superiors. To do so would exhibit a certain type of fealty or allegiance in the part of the armiger toward the "overlord", and is one form of the structure of the clan system of Scotland. Not all members of a clan must be blood relations. The members, whether related or not, of a community might constitute a clan, and that is why, as Nisbet noted, it was common practice for an armiger to assume, in whole or in part, the arms of the community痴, or the clan痴, leading family. In this case, the Muirheads did not take the arms of the Oliphards (who bore crescents on their arms). Neither did they take the three stars of the arms of the Murrays. Sir Walter Murray succeeded to the lordship of the barony of Bothwell by his marriage to the heir-female of the Oliphant clan. By the time of the reign of King Robert II (1371 to 1390), the Earls of Douglass succeeded to the barony of Bothwell. The Muirheads did not take any of the armorial bearings from the arms of the Douglas clan either. Instead, they claimed their own arms, distinct from all others.

  The reign of King Robert II ended with his death in 1390. He was succeeded by his son, John, who changed his name to Robert III. The reign of King Robert III lasted until 1406. During that reign, in 1393, the surname of Muirhead appeared in a public record for the first time15. Archibaldus Comes de Douglas, earl of Galloway and Bothwell deeded to Willielmo de Muirhead "his Lands of Muirhead, in Baronia de Bothwel".

  In 1401 the name of William de Murehede was written by the man who witnessed a charter involving lands of the Cranshaws.16 The charter between the Earl of Douglas and Sir John de Syntoun was recorded on 20 October, 1401 at Dunbar. Another charter witnessed by a Sir William Muirhead was recorded in 1407.17

  In Rymer痴 F彭era Angliæ of 1402 there is an entry naming Dom. Willielmus de Muirhead, miles.18 The latin term for Lord or Master was Dominus. The latin term for soldier, or knight, was miles. It should also be mentioned that the latin term, dominus ejusdem might be compared to the common Scot phrase "of that ilk". In turn, the phrase, "of that ilk", when placed in conjunction with a man痴 name meant that his surname was the same as the estate he owned. Therefore, this entry in the Foedera Angliae would have referred to William Muirhead as Lord William of Muirhead, knight and owner of the estate of Muirhead.

   In the year 1404 Willielmo de Muirhead was commissioned, along with Sir David Fleming, whom King Richard III called his 礎lood relation, to act as emissaries to King Henry IV of England (or his commissioners). Their commission was to obtain the freedom of the Earls of Fife and of Douglas, who had been taken prisoner during the Battle of Homilden, in Northumberland, in 1402. Willielmo de Muirhead and David Fleming were also empowered to conclude a treaty of peace.19 The two groups of commissioners met on 06 July, 1404 at Pontfract. They agreed to a truce, which was commenced on 20 July and which would continue until Easter of the next year. It was also agreed that during the period of the truce, a congress should be held at Handerstank for the purpose of completing a more complete treaty.

  Despite the commissioners efforts, the congress never took place. During this time, the Scottish King was ailing and the queen had died. King Robert痴 brother, the Duke of Albany attempted to seize the throne. By 1406 only the ailing king and his son stood in Albany痴 way. Prince James was seized as he was being smuggled toward safety in France and was taken and imprisoned by the English King Henry IV. The news filled the king with grief and he refused to eat, dying a few days after receiving the news.20


  One basic rule in genealogical research is that no family is exempt from contradictory and/or confusing genealogical information. The family of the surname Muirhead is certainly no exception to this rule. There exist records of persons by the name of Muirhead who simply do not fit into any known lineages. Since most early lineages were based on family tradition, they might have excluded individuals or whole lines because those individuals or lines did not 僧easure up to the values of the family. The so-called 礎lack sheep of the family were often simply not included in the formal lineages because they were seen as an embarrassment to the family.

  In this group would be placed the Muirheads of Windyhills. On 15 October, 1490 a charter was recorded at Edinburgh which transferred lands in the sheriffdom of Roxburgh from Robert Murehed of Le Wyndehillis to his son, George 壮ervant of the King. Witnesses to this charter included Bishop Robert Murehede of Glasgow and Dean Richard Murehede of Glasgow, Clerk of the Rollo and Register of the Council. A George de Murhede had also been recorded as a witness to another charter four years prior, on 14 February, 1486.

  In previous books on the history of the Muirheads, it has been generally assumed that the Muirheads of Windyhills were not directly related to the Muirheads of Lauchope, Bredisholm and so forth. But a situation exists which makes the argument that the two families were not related difficult to accept. From time to time the two families interacted and became linked on public records. Windyhills is a village located in the district of Closeburn in Dumfriesshire (which contains the two county jurisdictions of Galloway and Dumfries). Likewise, Wigtown, shown on early documents as Wigtoun, is a village located in Galloway. Various individuals who are known to have been members of the family of the Muirheads of Lauchope, over the years, purchased and owned lands not only in Lanarkshire, but also in Dumfriesshire. John Muirhead of Lauchope and Bullis is known to have acquired lands throughout Galloway, including lands at Wigtown. On 29 March, 1502 John Murehede of Bulleis received a charter for lands at Wigtoun. For researchers to separate the two regions and the families that resided in those regions simply because the Muirheads who resided in Dumfriesshire do not fit neatly into the traditional lineages is foolish.

  There is the additional point that should be taken into consideration, that there is no village named Muirhead in Galloway. The Muirheads of Windyhills, if they had taken their name from a place name in that region, would surely have used the place name of Windyhills rather than Muirhead of Windyhills.

  There exists no evidence that anyone from any of the other villages named Muirhead located throughout Scotland took their surname from the place name. In other words, the family of Willielmo de Muirhead, which resided in Lanarkshire, was the only one known to have taken the place name and made it into a surname by the addition of 租e. And there is no reason to assume that everyone in every village took the name of the place as their own surname. It generally was only a socially influential, wealthy or politically important family who had to be noted as 壮o-and-so of 層herever.

  There are a number of individuals who simply do not fit into the traditional lineage of the Muirhead of Lauchope family. Although the name George does not appear in the lineage of the family of the Muirheads of Lauchope until the late 1500s and early 1600s, it does appear earlier in references as witnesses to certain public documents, as noted above. In addition to the two documents mentioned above, a George Murehede served as a witness to a charter dated 14 May, 1491 for Alexander Cunninghame of Polmais, into whose family James Muirhead of Lauchope is known to have married.

 The Stephen de Murehede, who served as a witness, along with William de Murehede, to a charter for Gawin de Hamiltoun on 23 August, 1468, is not found on genealogical records of the Willielmo de Muirhead family. In view of the fact that the record for the Muirheads of Lauchope begins with Willielmo, perhaps Stephen was his brother, or an uncle, or cousin.

  A canon of Glasgow, Thomas Muyrheid, witnessed a charter for Archbishop Robert Murehede on 20 January, 1507. A Thomas Murehede, rector of Stobo, named as one of the prebendaries and canons of Glasgow, was an executor for a Jonet Murehed. As will be noted in the section on Dominus Andreas de Durisder, or rather, Bishop Andrew Muirhead, it is has been suggested by at least one researcher that he descended from a family other than the Muirheads of Lauchope. No men by the names of Robert or Thomas appear in the late 1400s and early 1500s in the family of Willielmo de Muirhead.

  On 08 July, 1520 Sir Robert Murehede, a chaplain at Glasgow, was listed as a witness to a transaction. Alexander Murehede, in 1531, was named Burgess of Kirendbright. John Mureheid was recorded in 1535 as a rector of Steneker. And in 1543 a man by the name of John Mureheid of Culreoch had a charter of land confirmed. In September, 1570/1 a man by the name of Alexander Muirhead younger of Lachop was charged to enter ward within the castle of Blackness within 15 days under pain of 1,000 merks.

  In the same way that the statement can be made that there is no way to prove that the various families by the name of Muirhead were related, there is likewise no way to prove that they were not. I would venture to suggest that they were indeed related, that the family might have originated at only one location with the placename of Muirhead, and that the line which came to reside at Windyhills, or elsewhere, might simply have not been regarded as worthy relatives, and therefore excluded from the 双fficial genealogical records.


  Before closing this chapter on the origins of the family and name of Muirhead, the entry for the name Muirhead in Black痴 The Surnames Of Scotland, should be noted:21 Black痴 reference work is a highly respected source of public documents, being purely a compendium of references found in public sources rather than family traditions.

     MUIRHEAD, MOREHEAD. From one or other of the many localities of the name in the southern counties, perhaps from Muirhead in the barony of Bothwell. The lands and town of Mureheid in the diocese of Ross are mentioned in 1576 (RPC.), but the surname is not likely to have originated there. The first of the name in record is said to have been Sir William Muirhead of Lachope, end of fourteenth century. Probably the same person as William de Murehede who witnessed a charter of lands of Cranshaws in 1401 (Swinton, p. xvii). Andrew Morheid was assizer at Lanark in 1432 (RAA., II 65), David de Murhed, cleric in diocese of Glasgow, is recorded in 1471 (REG., 395), Ricardus Mwreheid, canon of Dunkeld, 1484 (RAA., 11, p. 211) may be Richard Murhede, dean of Glasgow in 1491 (APS., II, p. 270), Wilyame of Murehede is recorded in 1484 (Peebles, 31), and Thomas Murhede was parson of Lyne in 1504 (Trials, I, p. * 43). Thomas Mureheid, quarryman at Dunkeld, 1507-15, appears in record as Moirhed, Moirheid, and Mored (Rent. Dunk.), David Muirheyd was assizer in Gowane (Govan) in 1527 (Pollok, I. p. 258), and David Mourheid was merchant burgess of Dumfries, 1668 (Inqis., 938). In common speech pronounced Murheed. Mooreheld 1624, Morheid 1691, Mureheid 1620, Muirhed 1513, Murehed 1503, Muyrheid 1498, Mwirheid 1577, Mwreheid 1484, Mwrhed 1493, Mwrheid, Mwrhied, and Mwrheyd 1522.



  Concerning the family life of Willielmo de Muirhead, Alexander Nisbet tells us that21:

"This knight of Muirhead, of the houテ of Lachop, married dame Jean Hay, daughter of Sir William Hay of Lochernard, anceフor of the lords of Yeフer, and of the earls and marquピes of Tweddale: by whom he had Willielmus de Muirhead, Dominus de Lachop, in 1445."

  Willielmo de Muirhead (aka Willielmus and/or William) is believed to have been born circa 1380. If a date of 1380 is correct for Willielmo痴 birthyear, he would have been thirty-four years of age when he married Jean Hay in 1414 at Yester, in Leithshire.

  As noted at the beginning of this book, the earliest public record of any person by the name of Muirhead was, according to Nisbet, a deed of land granted by Archibald Douglas to William de Muirhead: "Archibaldus Comes de Douglas, Dominus Galovidiæ & Bothwel, dicto ツutifero ブo Willielmo de Muirhead" dated 1393. If the Willielmo de Muirhead, born circa 1380, was the same person named in the legal transaction, it would follow that Willielmo was only thirteen years of age at the time that the transaction occurred. It is possible that the Willielmo de Muirhead named in the transaction between 羨rchibaldus Comes de Douglas and 糎illielmo de Muirhead was the father of the Willielmo de Muirhead who would, in 1402, be recorded as Dom. Willielmus de Muirhead, miles in Rymer痴 F彭era Angliæ. There is also the very real possibility that the estimated year of birth of 1380 was simply incorrect! For the time being, until such evidence is discovered to prove the birth year of Willielmo de Muirhead, we will assume that the latter suggestion is the most accurate.

  The wife of Willielmo de Muirhead, Jean Hay, the daughter of Sir William Hay of Lochernard, has been variously referred to as Dame Jean Hay or Dame Diana Jane Hay. Her age at the time of the marriage is not known.

  Apart from the evidence suggested by the appellation of 租e Muirhead, there is no evidence to prove where the family that would eventually become known as "of Muirhead" originally resided within the general vicinity of the village of Muirhead. At some time during the reign of King Robert III (1390-1406), a charter was granted to Sir William Murheid of the lands of Eister Quhitburn in the Sheriffdom of Edinburgh by Adam Forrester of Corstorphine.22 But this reference does not actually pinpoint the location of the property

  The first residence to be associated with the family of Muirhead is that of the estate of Lauchope where the newlyweds, Willielmo and Jean de Muirhead, took up residence. Lauchope was located in the vicinity south of the village of Muirhead.

  Willielmo and Jean de Muirhead raised a family of four children: William, Andrew, Vedestus and Janet.23 Each of these children, and their own progeny, will be profiled in the following pages.

  It was the lot in life, during the early ages, for the eldest son of the family to inherit the father痴 primary real estate. In many cases, the other siblings received practically nothing when the head of the house passed away. In the case of titled families, it was also the lot in life of the eldest son to inherit those titles. And so it was with the family of Willielmo and Jean de Muirhead.It will be seen that the eldest son, William, and subsequently his descendants, would inherit the estate of Lauchope in Lanarkshire, while his brothers and sister would need to make their own way in the world.



  William, the oldest son of Willielmo and Jean de Muirhead, was born circa 1415. He married Mariota Hamilton, who was born circa 1418. They gave birth to two sons: John Muirhead of Lauchope and Richard Muirhead.24 It would be the descendants of William and Mariota Muirhead who would lay claim to the titles associated with the lands of and in the vincinity of Muirhead in Lanarkshire, Scotland.

  William Muirhead was knighted by King James IV, taking the appellation: Sir William Muirhead of Lauchope. He was appointed to the position of Lord Clerk Register, but resigned from that position. He then served his king as Secretary of State and one of the Lords of Council and Session.

  William Murhed of Lauchop served as one of the witnesses to a sasine (i.e. the act of giving possession of feudal property) in favor of William Lennox of Caly, dated 10 November 1471.

  Sir William Muirhead of Lauchope died circa 1506.



  The oldest son of William and Mariota (Hamilton) Muirhead, John, was born circa 1443. He bore the title of John Muirhead of Lauchope and Bullis, and was known as the Laird of Muirhead in 1513 when on 09 September, upon Flodden Field, he gave his life guarding King James IV. {see chapter titled: The Battle Of Flodden Field} Prior to his army career, John married Margaret Hepburn, the daughter of Patrick, Lord Hepburn of Haills. She was also a sister to Patrick, Earl of Bothwell. From their marriage issued one son, John, born in 1466. John Muirhead of Lauchope and Bullis also acquired a large amount of lands in the county of Galloway at the southern boundary of Scotland.

  About the year 1486, John, the son of John and Margaret (Hepburn) Muirhead married Margaret Borthwick, daughter of Lord Borthwick. She was born circa 1470. They gave birth to but one son: James Muirhead 双f Lauchope.

  James Muirhead of Lauchope was born circa 1490. He married Jean Fleming, about two years his junior, the daughter of John, Lord Fleming, and from their union were born three sons and a daughter: James of Lauchope (born circa 1510), John of Shawfutte (born circa 1512), William (born circa 1518) and Margaret (born circa 1519). It is possible that there was also a son, named Thomas, born to James and Jean Muirhead. Certain court records, as will be seen later, refer to two brothers of James Muirhead of Lauchope being William and Thomas.

  His line ended in 1738, and the line begun by his brother, John of Shawfutte came into prominence as the senior Muirhead line. Although begun as Muirhead of Shawfutte, the line became known as Muirhead of Bredisholm through the acquisition of the estate of Bredisholm in Lanarkshire.

  Margaret, the daughter of James and Jean (Fleming) Muirhead, married James Hamilton of Woodhall, who bore the title 舛aptain of Arran.



  The eldest son of James and Jean (Fleming) Muirhead, James Muirhead of Lauchope was born circa 1510; he married Janet Baillie, the daughter of Alexander Baillie of Carfine. They gave birth to three sons named James, James the Younger, and Claud; and two daughters named Christian (variously Cristine) and Margaret.

  {Please Note: During his lifetime, this James Muirhead, son of James and Jean (Fleming) Muirhead, and husband of Janet (Baillie), found himself ensnared in various legel disputes. His eldest son, James, likewise became caught up in legal matter, as will be noted later. It sometimes is difficult, given the limited information provided in the few public documents extant, and the fact that more than one man possessing the name of James Muirhead of Lauchope were living at the same time. The reader is therefore cautioned that some of the information presented in the following as pertaining to James, husband of Janet (Baillie) might actually pertain to his son, James, husband of 1st Janet (Hamilton) /2nd Margaret (Cunninghame).}

  James Muirhead of Lauchope was named as a defendant in a lawsuit on 07 June 1537 that was recorded in the Glencairn Muniments25:

"Summons of Error at instance of James V and William, Master of Glencairn versus several including James Muirhead of Lachop to appear before the Lord of Council and Session to 疎nヘer for their manifeフ & wilful error in retouring that Dame Iバbel Wallace of Eaフer Loudon died veフ and テiテd in the half lands and barony of Loudon.

  On 03 October, 1550 James Muirhead was confirmed as26

"the grandson and heir apparent of James Muirhead of Lachop in the 10 pound lands of old extent of Balgarden in the Sheriffdom of Wigton, reserving the liferent of James Muirhead senior."

  On 29 December, 1562, according to an entry in the Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer, John Patersoun Snawdon Herald was ordered to summon several people for forfeiture, including 閃uirheads of Mauchope.27 The reason for this 素orfeiture is not made clear in the available records.

  One of the Protestant plots against Mary, Queen of Scots, was led by the Earl of Arran. Apparently, James Muirhead of Lauchope supported the Earl of Arran in his plot against Mary, because when, on 02 January, 1565 an act of remission (i.e. a pardon or forgiveness) was granted to the Earl of Arran and his followers, James Muirhead of Lauchope and his brothers, William and Thomas were included in the list of those followers.28

  James Muirhead of Lauchope was also recorded in the Register of the Privy Council at Edinburgh on 20 April, 156629 as one of the many cautioners (i.e. a warner or advisor) to the Earl of Arran, who were charged with ensuring that he would remain at Hamilton Castle or within four miles thereabout, 疎t Her Majesty痴 pleasure under pain of 2000 merks.

  Of the daughter of James and Janet (Baillie) Muirhead, Christian, we know that she was born circa 1527. She married John Porteous, Younger of Glenkirk. He was the son of William Porteous of Glenkirk, and the grandson of John Porteous. Apparently, the name 塑ounger appended to his name implied that he needed to be distinguished from his grandfather. Christian / Cristine was mentioned on 28 September, 1544 in:30

"a confirmation of a charter to William Portuus of Glenkirk with consent of Cristine Muirhead lawful daughter to James Muirhead of Lachop and John Portuus her spouse, son and heir of William to infest them in conjunct fee and liferent in the 6 pound lands of old extent of Quhitsland in the Sheriffdom of Peebles,31 August 1544 at Glenkirk"

  A witness to the transaction was James Muirhead of Schawfute, the younger brother of James Muirhead of Lauchope.

  To John and Christian Porteous union were born five sons: Alexander, David, Andrew, William and Thomas.

  James Muirhead, son of James and Janet (Baillie) Muirhead, married Janet Hamilton, the sister of James Hamilton of Bothwelhaugh. It was this James Muirhead who became embroiled in a political affair which led to the physical destruction of Lauchope House in 1570.

  In order to understand the reason why Lauchope House was destroyed, it is necessary to look at the political situation of Scotland at the time. Upon the death of King James IV at the Battle of Flodden Field, his infant son, James V inherited the throne of Scotland. in 1528 James V dispensed with the regents who had governed the nation, and began ruling on his own. He married a French woman, Mary of Guise and they gave birth to a daughter, Mary. In 1542, King James V invaded England, but was defeated at the Battle of Solway Moss. He died a few weeks later, and his daughter, only a week old inherited the throne. The child was raised in France by her French mother痴 family until she was in her teens. She was therefore brought up in the Catholic faith. In 1558 Mary married the French Dauphin, and became Queen of France the following year when her husband inherited the throne of France as Francois II. Francois died the following year, and in 1561 Mary decided to return to Scotland. She married her cousin, Henry, Lord Darnley in 1565. Darnley was implicated in the murder of Mary痴 Italian secretary in 1566, and he was, in turn, murdered in an explosion of the house in which he was staying the following year. Mary was implicated in her husband痴 murder, but it could not be proven. Mary soon married James Hepburn, the Earl of Bothwell. A number of Protestant Scottish lords rebelled against the queen痴 actions, associating them with her being Catholic.

  Her Majesty, Mary Queen of Scots, was forced to abdicate and fled southward to what she thought would be safety in her cousin, Elizabeth痴 court. Instead of giving her sanctuary, Elizabeth, a staunch Protestant and unwilling to allow Scotland to be made Catholic, imprisoned Mary. Elizabeth held her at Fotheringhay Castle until she was executed in February of 1587 after being implicated in the Babington Conspiracy. In the meantime, Mary痴 son, James VI was named king of Scotland and Mary痴 half-brother, the Earl of Moray (variously Murray) was named Regent.

  James Muirhead of Lauchope, son of James and Janet (Baillie) Muirhead, was a supporter of Mary Queen of Scots through his affinity to the Hamiltons indeed his wife was the sister of James Hamilton of Bothwelhaugh. He, along with other of Mary痴 loyal supporters, marched under her standard in an attempt to restore Mary to her liberty and sovereignty. Their army was defeated in a battle that took place at Langside on 13 May, 1568. James was 素orfeited by a parliamentary attainder according to Nisbet, which means that he was fined or otherwise penalized for having committed treason against the government. Under the Register of the Great Seal31, James Muirhead 壮ometime of Lachop was forced to forfeit his 鼠ands of Balgredan, which were then given to Mathew Stewart, son and heir apparent of Thomas Stewart of Minto. This was the result of a Process against him, dated the 21st of May, 1568 for his involvement in the Battle of Langside in which he opposed the Crown and Regent.

  James Muirhead continued to support Mary, and the next evidence of that support on record came in January of 1570. On the 29th of January, James Hamilton of Bothwelhaugh shot and killed the Earl of Murray, the regent, at Linlithgow. James Muirhead welcomed Hamilton, his brother-in-law into his home of Lauchope House and sheltered him for the night. James Muirhead joined Hamilton the following morning as he continued in his flight. The party sent out to take Hamilton captive discovered that he had been given refuge at Lauchope House. They first rifled it and then set it afire and burned it to the ground. Their anger toward the Muirheads was, no doubt, heightened by the knowledge that the lady of the house was the sister of their quarry.

  In July 1570 the Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer noted32 that a messenger had been sent to the mercat crosses at Edinburgh and Linlithgow requesting that people give up the names of the 疎ピiフeris and pertakeris associated with Claude Hamilton, James Muirhead of Lachop, Arthur Hamilton of Myrringtoun and Andro Hamilto of Gosington, who, on the 23rd of July 疎waitit upoun the regent his grace and the erle of Mar in Calendar wod.

  On 03 July, 1572 a proclamation of warning33 was issued against "James ブmtyme Duke of Chaフallarault (various Hamiltons and others), James Muirhead ブmtyme of Lawchope..." The entry recorded in the Register of the Privy Council stated:

"(It being needful that the traitors and rebels inhabiting the country of Cliddeヅale ドould) be パecialie proclamit and notifiit that name pretend ignorance heirefter; thairfor ordanis letters be to direct to officiaris of armes, Shereffis in that part, chargeing thame to pas to the mercat croces of Lanerk Hammiltoun, Glaトow, and utheris places neidfull and their be oppin proclamatioun in our Soverane Lordis name and auctoritie command and charge all and ブndrie his Hienes lieges and subdittis, that name of thame tak upoun to reバrt, ブpple or intercommon with - James ブmtyme Duke of Chaフallarault, (various Hamiltons and others and) James Mureheid ブmtyme of Lawchope, - or to any of the ヂidis perバnis or to their knowing or notarius テrvandis, meitt, drink, houテ and herbery or テnd or reピave meピages or intelligence to or fra thame under the pane of treピoun with certificatious to thame that failyeis and dois in the contrair, they ヂlbe repute, haldin, eフemi-- perテwit, puneiフ and demandit as plane partakeris with the ヂidis declararatouris and rebellis with all rigour in exemple of utheris."

  The 素orfeiture or penalty toward the Muirheads and Hamiltons continued for some three years until a general pacification 奏o remove troubles and civil war within the realm34 was reached on 23 February, 1573, on the condition that the Hamiltons and Muirheads disband and return home. The Act which remitted the condemnation of James Muirhead and the others for their involvement in the affair stated:

"That the テntences paフ be doom and forfaulture in parliament, or anie other テntence paフ before the juフice-general or his deputies, ナnce the 15th day of June 1567, ドall be of no avail, force, フrength, or effect in all time coming."

  On 26 May, 1579 James Muirhead of Lauchope again found himself on the wrong side of the law when a proclamation was issued against him because he would not regard a summons.35 Issued from Stirling Castle, the proclamation stated that James Muirhead of Lachop was 奏o be put to the horn (i.e. to be denounced as a rebel or outlaw) for failing to appear before the Privy Council. Soon thereafter, a warrant was issued for the arrest of James uncle, William Muirhead, as was recorded in the Register of the Privy Council:36

"Caution for Hew Kennedy of Barquhany to deliver William Muirhead, brother of James Muirhead of Lachop to the Captain of Edinburgh Caフle on the 21st inフant, under pain of 」500.

  On 11 November, 1579, the Parliament passed an act of 素orfaulture (i.e. forfeiture) against Lord John Hamilton, Lord Claud Hamilton, James Muirhead of Lauchope, William Muirhead (James brother) and others who had associated with them.37 The act was issued:

"tuieching the diドerreピing of the poフertie of thame that are convict of the murtheris of the King our Soverane Lordis deareフ father and the tua Regentis."

  The term disheressing was an old Latin legal term meaning to 租isinherit, so this act was aimed at 奏uieching (i.e. causing) the posterity (i.e. the future generations of them that had been convicted of the murders of the King and the two Regents) to be disinherited (i.e. unable to inherit certain property real and personal).

  Four months later, on 10 March of 1580, a record was enterred in the Register of the Privy Seal38 which recorded a gift to William Aikenheid of the escheat of the goods of James Muirhead, 壮ometime of Lauchope, and of the profits of his heritage for Crop 1579. The reason given was that James had been convicted by Parliament and forfeited for treason, or 叢ut to the horn for non-compearance before the Privy Council "to have anテrit to ナc thingis as wer to be inquyrit of him at his cuming."

  In July, 1580 a Summons for treason39 was issued against John, Commendator of Abirbrothock, Claud, Commendator of Paisley, John Hamilton, provost of Bothwell and others, including James Muirhead of Lachop.

  In December of 1580 the Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer recorded an entry40 stating that a messenger was sent "with letters to charge the tenants of James Muirhead sometime of Lachop, Gavin Hamilton sometime of Raploch and Robert Hamilton sometime of Dalserf, forfeited persons, to pay their rents to HM Treasurer within ten days."

  The acts of forfeiture were against the individual, and not necessarily against his family. This is made evident by an entry recorded in the Register of the Privy Seal, dated 30 November, 1580.41 That entry served as a

舛onfirmation of Assignation dated 23 May, 1575 by James Muirhead sometime of Lachop to Margaret Muirhead his daughter of an annualrent of 65 merks alienated by him and Elizabeth Hamilton his spouse by John Hamilton of Pedderisburne from the lands of Drumgalloch and Blakrig in the parish of Monkland, to be "intromitted with by her until the redemption thereof by a payment of 650 merks and 20 pounds of lent silver".The Sovereign gives this to her despite her father being forfeited.

  According to John M. Morehead in his book, a proclamation was issued from Holyrood House on 06 April, 1585 which stated that if James Muirhead of Lauchope, Lord Claud Hamilton and others did not secure passage on ships at Aberdeen prior to the first of May, and head for parts beyond the British Isles, their properties would be forfeited. The proclamation stated:42

"Order by his Majeフy, with advice of his Council, to Claude Hammiltoun, バmetime Commendator of Paiネey, James Mureheid of Lauchop (and other Hamiltons) 疎nd all utheris the ヂid Caludis domeフiqcue テrvandis or dependaris quhilkis returnit within this realme with him or eftir and フand under the テntence of foirfalture to retire with all filigence to Abirdeen 疎nd thair to tak ツhip and depart furth of this realme to the partis of France and utheris beyond テy, England and Irland exceptit, betwix this and the firフ day of Maii nixt to cum, wind and wedder テrving with certification that, they return to Scotland, England, or Irland, the doom of forfeiture under which they lie ドall be rigorouネy executed upon them."

  The last incident in this line occurred on 10 August, 1591 when James eldest son, James, and his own sons, Thomas and Claud and others posted sureties to assure the parliament that he would quiet down, politically.43 The entry in the Register of the Privy Council, dated 10 August, 1591, noted the

"Caution by James Mureheid younger of Lawchop and Mr. Johnne Mureheid of Bradanhill, as two principals and Johnne Hammiltoun younger of Wodhall as ブrety for them, and by the ヂid principals and ブrety for James Mureheid elder of Lawchop, Thomas Mureheid and Claud Mureheid his バns; James Mureheid of Braidschaw, James Mureheid of Schawfute and Johnne Mureheid in Glaトow that James Crauford of Kipbyre, James Craufurd his バn and Thomas Craufurd his brother ドall be harmleピ under penalties following viz: Mureheid elder of Lawchop 」1000, Johnne Mureheid 1000 merks; James Mureheid 1000 merks, Mureheid younger of Lawchop 」500; Mureheid of Braidツhaw 500 merks and each the others 」500."

  James and Janet (Hamilton) Muirhead gave birth to two sons and one daughter: James (born circa 1531), Thomas (born circa 1533) and Margaret (Thomas twin, born circa 1533). It is believed that this James Muirhead was the James Muirhead of Lachop who was knighted by King James VI in either 1617 or 1621. He died in October of 1622. James had made his will on 22 September, 1622 in which he named his eldest son, James as his executor. That son gave security to James, the eldest son of John Muirhead 双f Brydeinhill. The witnesses to the will included: Thomas Muirhead, minister at Cambusmethan, James of Braidshaw and James of Shawfoot and his wife, Margaret Muirhead, Elizabeth Muirhead, and John Muirhead, his assignee.

  Although not included in the genealogical record published by Alexander Nisbet, it is believed by some (i.e. it was included in the book, The Morehead Family Of North Carolina And Virginia, by John M. Morehead) that James Muirhead of Lauchope married Margaret Cunninghame. That idea is confirmed by a record enterred in the Register of Deeds for the year 1587.44 The marriage between James Muirhead and Margaret Cunninghame would have had to have been following the death of his first wife, Janet; since the entry in the Register of Deeds is dated 25 January, 1587, it might be assumed that Janet (Hamilton) died circa 1586. The entry noted that Robert Hamilton of Bathgate had obliged himself to infest Margaret Cunningham and James Muirhead of Lachop, her spouse in an annualrent of 20 pounds yearly out of the lands of Bathgate in the Sheriffdom of Linlithgow. Robert Bathgate was heir to the deceased James Cochrane of Barbacklaw, Margaret Cunningham痴 first husband. Margaret had never received the payment due to her.

  Margaret died on 21 March, 1596, leaving a will that named her husband, James, as executor of her estate. According to Margaret (Cunninghame) Muirhead痴 will, noted in the 32nd volume of the Edinburgh Testament,45 besides her husband James, and the children James, Margaret, and a James of Braidshaw, there was also named a son, David, and a youger son named James, no doubt children between herself and James. David, by the time of his mother痴 death in 1596, had left Lauchope, and was making a living in the city of Edinburgh as a writer. This David also had a son named David, who had made his home in the 全heriffdome of Galloway. The settlement of Margaret痴 estate inventory noted James brother William and his wife, James and Margaret痴 son, Claud and another individual by the name of James Muirhead.

  It is surprising, given that Nisbet was so thorough in recounting all the other individuals in this family, that he missed the second marriage of James of Lauchope to Margaret Cunninghame and their children.

  The eldest son of James and Janet (Hamilton) Muirhead, James Muirhead, married twice: first to Jean, the daughter and sole heir of James Houstoun of Craigtoun and his wife, Margaret (Fleming) of Barrochan, in the county of Dunbartoun. In the Register of the Privy Council, this James Muirhead痴 wife痴 name is given as Elizabeth.46 In that register, the entry states:

"The King granted to James Muirheid バn and heir apparent of James Muirheid of Lauchope and Elizabeth Houフoun his パouテ lawful daughter and heir apparent of Patrick Houフoun of Craigtoun the lands of Craigtoun thomebowie and Carnieddon with the mill of Craigtoun etc extending to 」10 old extent in the ドeriffdom of dumbarton which the ヂid Patrick reナgned in their favour in performance of a certain contract and which the King for テrvices rendered to him and his anceフors by the ヂid James the younger and his anceフors and for the payment of a certain fine regranted to the aforeヂid perバns reテrving a liferent to ヂid Patrick and Mariota Flemyng his wife. To hold to the ヂid James the younger and Elizabeth in joint feu and their iピue lawfully procreated between them for default to the lawful and next heirs of the ヂid James the younger."

  James (son of James and Janet) Muirhead痴 second wife was Margaret (Somervile), daughter of Sir James Somervile of Camnethan. This Margaret (Somervile or, variously, Sommervell) was the widow of Gilbert Lord Somervile. The first marriage produced two sons: James, his heir, and Thomas and three daughters: one married to Alexander Gartsbore of that-ilk in the County of Dumbartoun, the second to John Crawfurd of Ruchsolloch in the county of Lanark, and the third to ----- Baillie of Pockemmet; the second marriage is not known to have resulted in any children. Thomas Muirhead made a career as a minister at Camnethan.

  The new laird, James Muirhead of Lauchope served as a Justice for the shire of Lanark, starting on 12 November, 1612. He continued to serve as a Justice; he was in that position in 1622 when he came into possession of the estate of Lauchope.47

  John M. Morehead stated that this James Muirhead of Lauchope, on 03 June, 1623, "re-enacted" a "contract of assignment to John Muirhead of Wester-Inch" that his father had initiated. On 12 February, 1624 a case was enterred into the Services Of Heirs48 which was, as John M. Morehead stated "no doubt designed to take care of the assignment to John Muirhead of that year". Mentioned in the document filed on the 12th of February, 1624 were lands, apparently, held by the Muirhead family at the time. They included: Over and Nether Lachiope in the parish of Bothwell; Nether Alderston in the Sheriffdom of Edinburgh, lands of Bolterlandes, Freelands and Auchinloy in the Barony of Bothwell; along with Balgreddane and Bulleis in Kirkcudbrightshire, Easter Quhitburne and Croftmolloche in Linlithgowshire; the lands of Capellie in Renfrewshire; and Trinneldyke and Benchmilburne, and the Barony of Cambusmethane ("vide Kirkenbright, Edinburgh, Renfrew, and Linlithgow"). On 06 March, 1632 John Muirhead of Wester-Inch transferred his assignment to Sir James Muirhead "who thereby became 遡night lawful creditor to the extent of the debt on the death of James Muirhead of Lauchope in December, 1644 and thereby became 全ir James Muirhead of Lauchop."

  James Muirhead of Lauchope, son of James and Jean (Houstoun) Muirhead, married Jean Dalziel, the daughter of Robert Lord Dalziel and Earl of Carnwath. The couple gave birth to a number of children including: James, Claud and certain others, of whom we do not have names. Now the eldest son, James, was disinherited by James senior. According to Nisbet:49

"James the eldeフ he conceived a prejudice againフ, upon no other conナderation than a piece of humour, and an extravagant fondneピ for a younger バn; he diナnherited his eldeフ, and diverted the right of ブcceピion, according to the rules of primogeniture, from him to a younger brother: But to make that nevertheleピ as eaペ to him as poピible, he gave him the eフate of Craigtoun."

  The disinherited son, James, married Helen Lindsay, a daughter of Patrick Lindsay, the Arch-bishop of Glasgow. They gave birth to a son and a daughter: James (born circa 1624) and Helen.

  Although disinherited by his father, James Muirhead obtained the lands of Craigtoun, Thomebowie and Carnieddan granted to his grandfather on 31 May, 1597, by a deed dated 13 February, 1637:50

"The King granted to James Mureheid lawful and eldeフ バn of James Mureheid feuar of Lawchope and Helen Lindヂy his future パouテ daughter of Patrick Archbiドop of Glaトow the lands of Craigtoun Thombowie and Carnieddan with the mill of Craigtoun, tenants &c. extending to 」10 lands of old extent in the ドeriffdom of Dumbartone which the ヂid James Mureheid, feuar of Lawchope reナgned To hold to ヂid James the younger and Helen in joint feu and the heirs male to be procreated between them, default to the heirs male of ヂid James."

  Sir James Muirhead of Lauchope died in May, 1671, at which time his youngest son, Claud became 粗xecutor dative of the estate of Lauchope.

  Claud Muirhead, the second son of James and Jean (Dalziel) Muirhead was claimed to have been an intelligent, handsome and well-bred young man. His parents sent him to France and Italy for his improvement. There he made acquaintance of a number of "eminent men of the popish clergy", who were instrumental in his conversion to the Catholic Faith. In turn, when he returned home, his enthusiasm and passion for his newfound faith influenced his parents who doted on him to the detriment of his older brother. James and Jean both converted to Catholicism, as did their other children.

  In Nisbet痴 words: "This fine gentleman, that was the inフrument of perverting all his father痴 houテ, married with another Roman catholic family..." The wife of Claud Muirhead of Lauchope was a daughter of ---- Wauchop of Niddery. The couple gave birth to two sons: John and Gavin.

  Claud Muirhead of Lauchope was laird of Lauchope for little more than ten years. On 14 November, 1681 he was ailing and made out a will in which he constituted his son, Gavin Muirhead, as heir.

  Gavin Muirhead of Lauchope married Janet Douglas, daughter of William, Earl of Selkirk (later Duke of Hamilton). Gavin and Janet raised a family of two sons and three daughters: William (born circa 1684) and James (born circa 1685), and Anna (born circa 1683), Bethea (born circa 1687) and Jean (born circa 1691).

  William, the eldest son of Gavin and Janet (Douglas) Muirhead, went into the army at a young age and rose to a command early in that career. He died of wounds received in the Battle at Wynendale in Belgium in 1710.

  The youngest son of Gavin and Janet (Douglas) Muirhead, James, also went into the army and rose to the rank of Captain in the Earl of Orkney痴 Regiment. Following the death of the Earl, the regiment was given to Colonel Sinclair, and Captain James continued his service under that commander. He died in 1738 while stationed in Ireland. Captain James Muirhead married and left two daughters as his heirs. Neither of these daughters, though, received the titles of the house of Muirhead because the right to represent the ancient family devolved to the last male heir, John Muirhead of Shawfutte, whose son, it will be seen below, purchased the Bredisholm estate.

  Of the daughters of Gavin and Janet (Douglas) Muirhead, only Bethea is known to have married and bore children. She married John Hamilton and they gave birth to Margaret in 1711.

  The younger son of James and Janet (Hamilton) Muirhead, Thomas, was known by the title Thomas Muirhead of Johnston. He married Elizabeth Hamilton, daughter of ---- Hamilton of Bathgate. They gave birth to a daughter, Margaret, who married John Crawfurd of Milnton. John and Margaret Crawfurd, in turn, gave birth to a daughter, Margaret, who married Sir William Stewart of Castlemilk.

  A record in the files of the Register of Deeds, dated 05 March, 155551 stated that Thomas Muirhead, lawful son of James Muirhead of Lachop gave in a Renunciation and Discharge fulfilling a Decreet Arbitral given up by Gavin Hamilton of Ormiston and John Hamilton of Haggs, judges arbitral dated last February 1555 whereby he was to give up his rights to the lands of Windidyks, Brandieshelburn and Alderstoun 層hich had belonged to his father, James Muirhead of Lachop so that his father could infest James Muirhead 蘇is oy (i.e. grandson) in the lands.

  On 02 May, 1556 a deed was recoded52 which noted that a month prior, on 05 April, 1556, at Bothwell, a deed had been transacted between James Muirhead of Lachop and Thomas Muirhead, his son; Euphame Hamilton, spouse of Thomas; and James Muirhead, grandson and apparent heir of James Muirhead of Lachop, and his curators (because he was underage) Alexr Baillie of Carfyn and James Baillie, his son and apparent heir and David Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh. According to the deed, Thomas Muirhead and his wife were to resign all claim that they had on the estates of "Lachop, Potterlands, Freelands, Auchinloy and Greensides, meikle and little in the barony of Bothwell and Sheriffdom of Lanark, Auderstoun in the barony of Calderclair and Sheriffdom of Edinburgh and Windiedyks and Brandshelsburn in the barony of Cambusnethan". By the deed, Thomas and his wife were to resign all the papers to such holdings, except for a seven-year lease which Thomas had granted to James Muirhead of Lachop of the lands of Badshaw and others in the year 1550. James Muirhead of Lachop had been indicted before the Lords of Council and Session and had been ordered not to alienate his lands. The properties were to go to the elder James grandson, James Muirhead of Lachop, although his liferent was reserved, conforming to a contract of marriage between himself and David Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh.

  The daughter of James and Janet (Hamilton) Muirhead, Margaret, married John Hamilton of Udstoun. It is said that they had many descendants which included the Hamiltons of Udston, the Hamiltons of Barncluth, the Hamiltons of Rosehall and Wishaw, and the Lord Belhaven. The only child we have record of is Elizabeth, who married William Cleland of Fascine.

  By a prudent management of his affairs, John Muirhead of Shawfutte was able to acquire a "competent eフate in the barony and regality of Glaトow, in vaピalage of the archbiドops of that テe". This, according to Nisbet, was in sharp contrast to the manner that the family of James Muirhead of Lauchope squandered his inheritance.

  Of the second son of James and Jean (Fleming) Muirhead, John of Shawfutte, born circa 1512, it is known that he was married twice, first to Elizabeth, the daughter of Crawfurd of Ferm, and secondly to Jean Oliphant, the daughter of Sir Alexander Oliphant of Kellie in the county of Fife. Nisbet noted that:

"the undoubted chief and repreテnta-tive of the antient family of Muirhead is John Muirhead of Brediドolm, who, though he wore in his arms a creツent before, as a mark of cadency, intimating his deツent, as a テcond brother, from the フem and root of the family; yet now he may lay it aナde, as he has a juフ title to do, テeing, as heir-male, he repreテnts the principal family."

  John Muirhead of Shawfutte left issue of only one son also named John.

  It was that son, John Muirhead of Shawfutte, who purchased the estate of Bredisholm from archibishop Spotiswood. John obtained a crown charter for the estate on 29 June, 1607, according to John M. Morehead in his book, The Morehead Family Of North Carolina And Virginia. (Note: According to Nisbet, the charter was granted on 01 March, 1607.) John died at some time prior to 1635, leaving only a single son, named James, but known by the name of the newly acquired estate of Bredisholm.

  It might be noted here that the name of Bredisholm is believed to be linked to St. Brigid (variously, St. Bride), the popular saint of the early Celtic Church.53

  James Muirhead of Bredisholm married Margaret Drummond. Margaret was the daughter of James Drummond, commendator of Inchassry, and the granddaughter of David, Lord Drummond and his wife, Lilias Ruthven. James and Margaret Muirhead raised a family of two sons and a daughter: James, John and Lillias.

  John Muirhead, the second son of James and Margaret (Drummond) Muirhead, made a living as an advocate in the Court of Session. He became the progenitor of the line known as Muirhead of Persilands in Lanark.

  Lillias Muirhead, the daughter of James and Margaret (Drummond) Muirhead, married twice, first to Sir Walter Stewart (variously Stuart) of Minto, and secondly to Sir James Drummond of Macheny.

  The oldest son of James and Margaret (Drummond) Muirhead, James Muirhead of Bredisholm, was married three times. Each union resulted in children, including the following. By his first wife, Grizel, daughter of Robert Hamilton of Bathgate, James fathered two sons and a daughter: James, to whom the inheritance of Bredisholm descended; George, of Stevenson in Bothwell, who married and had issue, but whose line died out prior to the mid-1800s; and Elizabeth, who married Patrick Hamilton of Neilsland.

  James Muirhead of Bredisholm secondly married Grizel, daughter of James Hamilton of Westport, who were descended from the Hamiltons of Silvertounhill. This Grizel was the widow of Alexander Cochran of Barbachlay of Linlithgow. They bore one daughter, Margaret, who married James Hamilton of Aikenhead.

  James Muirhead of Bredisholm痴 third wife was Bessie Crawfurd, daughter of James Crawfurd of Kiphyre in Lanarkshire. This union resulted in the birth of two daughters: Lilias, who married James Hamilton of Blanterferm, by whom she had children and Anne, who married John Stark of Achinvole and Gartsberrie, by whom she had children.

  James Muirhead of Bredisholm, the eldest son of James and Grizel (of Robert Hamilton) Muirhead of Bredisholm, resided at the estate of Bredisholm. On 06 June, 1672 James married Helen Stewart. Helen was the daughter of Alexander Stewart, the 4th Lord Blantyre. Their union resulted in the birth of five sons: James, John, William, George and Walter, and two daughters: Euphemia and Margaret. James, the eldest son, died prior to 1719. He was succeeded in the ownership of the estate of Bredisholm by the second eldest son, John. The daughter, Margaret, married John Stark of Achinvole and Gartsberrie.

  John Muirhead, of Bredisholm, became the chief of the clan in 1738 upon the death of Captain James Muirhead of Lauchope. John Muirhead of Bredisholm married Lillias Hamilton.

  Euphemia Muirhead was one of the daughters of James Muirhead and his wife, Helen (Stewart). She married Archibald Grosset of Logie. (Note: Nisbet gave the spelling of Grosiert, but most other histories use Grosset.) They raised a family of three sons: Walter, Alexander and James. The eldest son, Walter Grosset of Logie, married and had issue. Walter made a career as a collector of 蘇is majesty痴 customs, salt-duty and excise at the port of Alloa in the county of Clackmanan. He was also a justice of the peace in Clackmanan. The second son, Alexander Grosset served as a captain in general Clayton痴 Regiment in the army; he married and raised a family of one son and four daughters.

  James Grosset, the youngest son of Archibald and Euphemia (Muirhead) Grosset, married Donna Lonora de Miranda, a daughter of the house of Cordova, Spain and moved to Lisbon, Portugal to embark on a career as a merchant. In 1753 James Grosset purchased the Bredisholm estate from his uncle, John Muirhead (his mother, Euphemia痴 brother). He thereafter joined the name of Muirhead to his own of Grosset to become James Grosset-Muirhead of Bredisholm. He also took the arms of Muirhead and combined them with those of Grosset. James and Donna Lonora bore only one child, a son they named John Grosset-Muirhead. James died circa 1776.

  John Grosset-Muirhead of Bredisholm married Lady Jane Murray. Lady Jane was the daughter of John, the 3rd Duke of Atholl. The couple did not have any children. So, when John died in 1836, the estate of Bredisholm devolved to a cousin.

  The one son that Alexander Grosset, the second son of Archibald and Euphemia (Muirhead) Grosset, and his wife had, Charles-Shawe Grosset, died before the Bredisholm estate became chief-less in 1836. The eldest of the four daughters, Margaret Grosset, married Lieutenant Colonel J.D. Goll. They bore a son, who died young, and a daughter, Miriam, who became heiress to the Bredisholm estate on 11 December, 1838, taking the name of Miriam Grosset-Muirhead.

  Miriam Grosset-Muirhead of Bredisholm married Lieutenant Abraham Du Vernet, R.A. One son, Henry, was born to the couple.

  Henry Du Vernet Grosset-Muirhead joined the army and advanced to the rank of colonel of the royal staff corps. He became chief of the Muirhead clan in 1842 following the death of his mother, Miriam. Henry married Martha Maria Ygnacia, the daughter of Admiral Van Kempen of the Dutch navy. Henry and Martha gave birth to one son, Henry Robert.

  Henry Robert Du Vernet Grosset-Muirhead served as a lieutenant in the Ceylon rifle regiment. He suceeded his father in 1844 to master of the Bredisholm estate and titles. He married Lydia Eleanor Bayley, the daughter of Major Thomas Bayley, H.M.S. The couple gave birth to two daughters prior to Henry痴 death on 19 January, 1849: Emily Eliza and Gertrude Margaret Zelie. Gertrude was born circa 1844 and married D.A. Campbell Fraser. Mr. Campbell was a surgeon, the son of the Reverend Hugh Fraser, M.A., and his wife, Maria Helen.

  The eldest daughter of Henry and Lydia, Emily Eliza Du Vernet Grosset-Muirhead, married Robert Dalrymple Steuart in 1863. He was a lieutenant in the royal horse guards. Emily died in March of 1864, whereupon her husband inherited the estate and titles of the Muirhead estate of Bredisholm. Robert, by his marriage, assumed the surnames of Grosset and Muirhead to become Robert Dalrymple Steuart-Grosset-Muirhead, Esq. Of Bredisholm. One child, Emily Gertrude Lilias, was born to the couple in 1864.

  Now we will return to the family of William and Mariota (Hamilton) Muirhead of Lauchope, in order to follow the lineage of their youngest son, Richard.

  Richard Muirhead followed in the profession of his famous uncle, Andrew, the Bishop of Glasgow, and went into the service of the church. He got into orders and was promoted to the deanry of Glasgow. Richard was listed as a dean of Glasgow on 22 April, 1488. He was the first member of the chapter of the episcopal See of Glasgow, and had the second vote next to the Bishop himself. Richard so impressed those who knew him as being a person of learning, merit and integrity, that, on 21 June, 1489, King James IV appointed him to the position of Lord Clerk-Register of Scotland. In effect, he was the clerk or keeper of his majesty痴 council, registers and rolls. With the title of 船r., Richard Muirhead held that position until the year 1493, when he resigned in favor of Dr. John Frisle/Fraser. Nisbet noted that the resignation was not in any way unfavorable, nor did it proceed because of any dislike or disregard by the king toward Dr. Muirhead. On the contrary, Richard was engaged, along with Robert, Bishop of Glasgow, Bishop Elphingston of Aberdeen, the Earl of Bothwel, the Earl of Mortoun, the Lord Glamis, William, Prior of St. John of Jerusalem in Scotland, and Lawrence, Lord Oliphant as a delegation to travel to the courts of France, England, Castile, Arragon, Sicily, etc., to search for a consort for the young king. The enterprise resulted in the marriage of King James IV to Margaret, the daughter of Henry VII, the king of England, and the ultimate joining of the two kingdoms. According to Nisbet54:

"Dr. Muirhead, by his prudent conduct, and juフ adminiフration in his office, while clerk-regiフer, procured a general eフeem, and had got バ much into the king痴 confidence and favour, that he preferred him to be Secretary of フate, in the 1494, in place of Dr. inglis, the arch-deacon of St. Andrews, who was both テcretary and clerk of the regiフer: 全ecretarius, ac clericus rotulorum et regiフri regis Scotiae, as he is deナgned."

  The office of King痴 Secretary was held by Dr. Richard Muirhead in 1493.

  Dr. Richard Muirhead痴 name was noted in Rymer痴 Foedera Aegliae for the year 1502 as one of the participants at the Glasgow Cathedral for an event in which the king gave his oath to observe the treaty with England before a large audience of nobility and gentry from both Scotland and England: "Ricardus Muirhead, decanus eccleナae Glaトuenナs, dictique regis Scotorum, conナlario et テcretario".

  Dr. Muirhead served as a witness to the settlement of the queen痴 jointure agreement on the 4th of May, 1503. The entry in Rymer痴 Foedera Angliae stated that, in addition to Archibald, Earl of Argyle, Andrew, Lord Gray, and Gavino Dunbar there was: "Magiフer Ricardus Muirhead, decano Glaトuen.テcretario noフro..."

  Dr. Richard Muirhead was appointed to the position of one of the Lords of Council and Session by King James IV in 1502. He had been appointed Secretary of State in 1494 and he also continued in that position for the next eleven or so years. He was listed as the Secretary in the charters of the great seal for the years 1496, 1497, 1498, 1499, 1500, 1501, 1502, 1503 and 1504.

  Richard Muirhead died prior to 04 June, 1504.

  Little is known about David Muirhead, the son of James Muirhead of Lauchope and his second wife, Margaret (Cunninghame), with the exception that he had left Lauchope prior to his mother痴 death in 1596, and was making a living for himself in Edinburgh as a printer. As was usually the case with younger sons, they seldom gained much of an inheritance, and so had to fend for themselves when they came of age. Thus it was with David Muirhead, son of James and Margaret. The name of his wife is not known, but he sired a son, also named David.

  The son, David Muirhead, was born circa 1556. David apparently married twice. He first married Grissell Machalls, whose family resided in Barholm, in the shire of Galloway. Grissell was the daughter of Machallo of Barholme; she was born circa 1560. They gave birth to a number of children, the only ones of which we have names being the eldest son, named David, and another son, William. The son, David was born circa 1573 at Wigtown in the shire of Galloway. William was born circa 1577 at Wigtown.

  David Muirhead later married Marion Lawson / Lowsoune, the daughter of John Lowsoune, a surgeon. In 1606 David Muirhead was made a burgess in right of his wife, Marion. His name is included in the Edinburgh Burgess Roll of 1606.

  Entries for two documents are to be found in the Register of the Great Seal in the first part of the year 1601 which appear to have been drawn up by David Muirhead, son of James (and Margaret) Muirhead of Lauchope. The first was recorded on 28 January, 160155 and noted that James Muirhead of Lachop stood as cautioner to Elizabeth Logye, relict of James Finla in Lochwod for 500 merks not to harm Robert Boyd of Badinheath. The document was witnessed by Claud and David Muirhead 壮ons of James Muirhead of Lachop. The second entry was dated 04 February, 160156 and noted that James Muirhead of Lachop stood as cautioner for his son, Claud Muirhead and John Muirhead, burgess of Glasgow for 500 merks not to harm Robert Boyd in Baddinhaith. This document was written by David Muirhead. It would seem apparent that, in view of the fact that David Muirhead wrote the documents, he must have practiced as a lawyer, in addition to his printing career.

  To the union of David and Marion were born five children: Arthur (born on 07 November, 1596), John (born on 27 April, 1600), James, Euphane (born on 28 November, 1612) and Margaret, as named in David痴 will. He had made out his will on 09 December, 1613, in which he named his relict spouse, Marion, his executrix. The will was recorded in the Edinburgh Commissary Court on 26 March, 1614.57 In addition to naming his widow and their children as beneficiaries of his estate, David named James Muirhead, younger of Lachop, Thomas McMichael, William Lawson, William Heroun and Robert Muirhead, elder merchant burgess of Edinburgh to act as tutors to his children who were under age. Because his sons, Arthur and John were 双f age, David named James Muirhead of Lachop, James Muirhead of Schawfute and Braidholme, and William Lawson (his wife痴 brother) to act as curators to Arthur and John.

  David Muirhead痴 estate provided for the following disbursements upon his death. To the poor of the South East Quarter (of Edinburgh parish), he left 」20. 」10 went to John Muirhead, the elder and John Muirhead, the younger "my brether ather of thame" (i.e. my brethren either of them). To ----- Muirhead痴 "youngest lawful bairnes of John Muirhead elder - each of them three" David bequeathed 」20. Another 」20 went to "---- Muirhead ---- lawful to the said John Muirhead younger." 」10 was directed to Elspet Strachern, and 」20 to Helen Monteith. To his children, David bequeathed 」500 to his eldest son, Arthur, and the residue was to be divided up between James, Euphane and Margaret.

  According to certain researchers, David Muirhead died on 23 January, 1614. Marion had been born circa 1573; she is believed to have died soon after David.

  David Muirhead, great-grandson of James Muirhead of Lauchope, made his home in London, and took up a career as a merchant. It is this David Muirhead of London who would eventually become involved in various transactions of lands in the New World.

  David married Anne Hardrett, the daughter of Jacob and Mary (Prince) Hardrett . Anne was born circa 1590. Anne痴 father, Jacob, made a living as a jeweller in London; his shop was at St. Clement Danes "without Temble Barrs, London". Jacob and Mary gave to David and Anne a gift of 」360 on the occasion of their marriage. This David Muirhead was noted as a member of the "Society of Writers to the Signet".

  To David and Anne Muirhead were born at least three children: David, Anne and Jane. In David Muirhead痴 will, made out on 02 September, 1643, he named his wife, Anna (Hardrett) as his sole executrix, and his son, David, as his 粗ldest sonne. Apparently, there were more than just the one son in this family.

  A number of men and women by the name of Muirhead appear to have been born in the same time period as the family of David and Anne, and some researchers have combined them with the children listed in the will of David. Whether or not they were actually children of David and Anne is anyone痴 guess. They included: William, born on 26 October, 1602; Charles, born circa 1609; William, born circa 1622; John, born circa 1626; and James, born circa 1626.



  Andrew Muirhead was born circa 1418. Willielmo and Jean de Muirhead apparently were affluent, and desired that their children should be educated well.58 Their second eldest son initially received education at St. Andrews, where he received a Bachelor of Arts degree; later he was sent to France, where he studied at the Paris University. Records of the Paris University reveal that Dominus Andreas de Durisder studied under Master Robert Esschinck. Andrew was at the Paris University during the years 1437 and 1438 as evidenced by the fact that the records reveal his payment to the university of a bursa, or tax, in the amounts of twelve shillings in the year 1437 and eleven shillings in the year 1438. Those records also noted in 1438 that Andrew had paid the sum of two francs for 叢ro jucundo adventu, which translates as his 阻oyful advent or incorporation at the university. The fact that Andrew also paid eight shillings for 叢ro cappis rectorum, or caps or capes, confirms that he was accepted as a student at the university. The caps or capes were presented by the successful candidates to the examiners.

  Andrew started out his career in the service of the Lord as the Rector of Cadzow. In 1448 Andrew became the Vicar of Kilpatrick (variously, Kilpatult) in the diocese of Glasgow. On 26 March, 1450 Andrew was named Dean of Aberdeen. This information was confirmed in a letter that was sent from Pope Calixtus III on 05 May, 1455 to Andrew Stewart, in which it was noted that prior to Andrew being provided as Bishop of the Church of Glasgow, he was the Dean of Aberdeen.

  While in the position of Dean of Aberdeen, and as the clerk and counsellor to King James II, Andrew served as the Procurator (i.e. pleader) to the papal court. Andrew therefore would have been personally acquainted with Pope Nicholas V. It was during this period of Andrew痴 life that he was named as Sub-Dean of the Church of Glasgow. That occurred on 22 November, 1450; he would remain in that position until 1455.

  On 24 November, 1450, according to a Papal Bull, Andrew of Durisdere was appointed to assist Bishop Turnbull in collecting and guarding the money offered at the high alter of Glasgow Cathedral during the Jubilee year prior to remitting a third to the papal treasury. Andrew痴 name was included in subsequent requests to the Chancellor of England for a pass of safe-conduct through that nation痴 territories, presumably to transport the Jubilee offerings to Rome. Such safe-conduct passes were recorded on 05 June, 1452 and again on 31 August, 1453.

  A passport as Papal Nuncio to the kingdom of Scotland was granted to Andrew on 06 April, 1451 by the Pope.

  In 1450-51 he served his king, James II by travelling to Rome for the purpose of representing Bishop Turnbull in negotiations to found the Glasgow University. The Glasgow University was originally constructed in the Rottenrow, but was later (circa 1460) moved to new quarters on High Street (on land granted by James, Lord Hamilton). There is no direct evidence that Andrew was involved with the project (i.e. the Papal Bull of 07 January, 1451 does not include his name in the list of those involved in the creation of the university); but on 19 November, 1451 Andrew was appointed to serve as one of the deputies to oversee its affairs. He was noted as one of the new university痴 incorporati, or matriculated students, with his name given as 壮ub-decanus magr. And. de Drusdere, non solvit..

  In May of the year 1455, Andrew Muirhead was provided to Glasgow, and then in early 1456, consecrated as Bishop of Glasgow.

  The Diocese of Glasgow, during the mid-15th Century, encompassed over two hundred parishes stretching from Luss in the north and southward to Gretna. He also held the canonries and prebends of Glasgow, Kirkandris and Lincluden. The amazing thing about Andrew痴 appointment to Bishop of Glasgow, is that, while holding the various benefices as noted above, he was not even a sub-deacon. In fact he had not yet been ordained into the priesthood! Indeed, he must have been an extraordinary man to garner such accommodation and honor.

  King James II died in 1460. Andrew continued to serve the Scottish government by serving as one of the Lords of the Regency for the young King James III. As Alexander Nisbet noted, in referring to the decision to appoint him59:

"They テem to have been very juフ in their choice, for he had not been long in the See, when the greateフ honour was done him that could be thought of, (not by any private deed, but by a public national act of the eフates of parliament) to teフify the eフeem they had of his character; for, on the death of king James II, he was named in the 1460, one of the lords of the regency, in whom the power of the sovereignty was lodged, till the young king ドould be of age."

  Andrew Muirhead assisted in the rule of the kingdom as a regent to King James III along with the Bishop of St. Andrews, Bishop Kennedy; the Bishop of Dunkeld, Dr. Lauder; the Ear of Orkney; Lord Boyd, Lord Graham and Lord Kennedy.

  In 1462 Bishop Muirhead of Glasgow was commissioned, along with Bishop Kennedy of St. Andrews, the Abbot of Holy-rood House, Mr. Archibald Crawfurd, Mr. James Lindsay the Provost of Lincludin, the Privy Seal, the Earl of Argyle, the Lords Livingstone, Hamilton, Borthwick and Boyd, and Sir Alexander Boyd of Duncow, to meet with commissioners from the king of England to attempt to negotiate a treaty of peace between the two countries. The two groups of commissioners met at York on 19 December, 1462 and agreed to the following:

"That it ドould laフ from the 16th of December, by land and freド water, to the laフ day of October next to come; and from the firフ day of February next, till the ヂme laフ day of October, by テa.. 2. That James, king of Scotland, ドall give no aピiフance to Henry, late calling himテlf king of England, or his adherents, during the alliance or truce. 3. That Edward, king of England, ドall give no countenance or protection to any traitors or rebels to king James. 4. That in regard James, earl of Dounglas, was become liegeman to king Edward, he, or ブch other Scotノen, ドall enjoy the benefit of the truce. 5. That if Henry, late called king of England, or any other of his adherents, ドall become liegemen to the ヂid king James, they ドall, in that caテ, have the benefit of the truce, as all other his liegemen."

  Bishop Andrew was a supporter of the arts, and during his tenure in the office of bishop, he encouraged the arts. One item which had its origin during this time was the silver mace used even today on ceremonial occasions. The mace, or official rod, was fabricated in 1460. Records indicate that the funding for fabrication of the mace came from sources including contributions. The Canon of Glasgow, Mr. David Cadyow, contributed twenty nobles toward the project. The mace was not as large as it is now, at four feet, nine and three-quarters inches in length. It was enlarged at a later date and came to weigh eight pounds, one ounce. An inscription was added to the mace a century after it was first created which reads: "Haec virga empta fuit publicis Academiae Glasguensis sumptibus, A.D. 1465: in Galliam ablate, A.D. 1560: et restituta, 1590".

  Andrew was also interested in the musical arts. The Bishop was instrumental in founding the College of the Vicars of the Choir for the Cathedral of Glasgow. This Choiri in eccleナa Glaトuen was new to the Cathedral. The use of music in the church service had been sanctioned since the middle of the 13th Century; it began with what is known as the Sarum Rite (variously, Use of Sarum). The Use of Sarum refers to the body of liturgical ritual, text, and music that differed from the Roman Rite in terms of employing certain different melodies and texts related to local feasts. It was used originally at the Cathedral of Salisbury, in southern England, but spread to many of the other cathedrals and churches located throughout England and Scotland.

  The Sarum Rite was generally performed by the Precenter or Chanter. As was sometimes the case, the precenter was not a gifted singer, and was not always available at the time of the service, due to unforeseen reasons. Bishop Andrew Muirhead established the College of Vicars on 16 May, 1467 in order to ensure that a body of men, properly trained in music, would be available as a choir to perform the Sarum.

  The College of the Vicars of the Choir were variously known by the names of 奏he canons vicars of the choir, 奏he canons stallaries or the 宋icars choral. There were originally only twelve members, but that number was later was increased to eighteen. The vicars not only participated in the Use of Sarum, but also in singing the Psalter and singing mass every day for the souls of all the deceased bishops.

  Andrew Muirhead was sent, in the year 1468, as an ambassador to Copenhagen. The purpose of his journey was to firm up the relationship between the two nation of Scotland and Denmark and also to treat with King Christiern in order to arrange the marriage of Margaret, 奏he Maid of Norway, King Christiern痴 only daughter, to King James III. Andrew was accompanied on this mission by the Bishop of Orkney, Lord Evandale the chancellor, the Earl of Arran, Mr. Martin Wan, Gilbert Rerrick, David Crichton of Cranston, and John Schaw of Hallie. The marriage was agreed upon by both parties on 08 September.

  In the mid 1400s, under the auspices of Bishop Andrew Muirhead, a three storey stone structure, which would become known as Provand痴 Lordship, was constructed in Glasgow. The original purpose of the building is not known. The structure was built to the north of an almshouse, known as the Hospital of St. Nicholas, which Bishop Muirhead had constructed for the care of twelve elderly men in 1471. The structure that would come to be known as Provand痴 Lordship, served as the Preceptor's Manse, or House, of the Hospital of St Nicholas, located alongside Glasgow Cathedral. It also was known to have served for a while as the manse of the Lord of the Prebend of Barlanark (which was maintained by the Lord of the Prebend of Barlanark in addition to his country residence of Provan Hall). In addition to the Cathedral, the Hospital of St Nicholas and the Preceptor痴 Manse, the Cathedral precinct included residences of the thirty-two Canons of the Cathedral Chapter. Bishop Andrew痴 younger brother, Vedestus Muirhead, would no doubt have resided in this community while he served as the Canon of Glasgow.

  Legend states that Mary Queen of Scots stayed there overnight. Following its use as the Preceptor痴 House, the structure was used for various purposes. The Protestant Reformation of 1560 replaced the Catholic church of Scotland and her bishops and canons with a Presbyterian church of ministers and elders. The Glasgow Cathedral, Provand痴 Lordship and the other buildings in the Cathedral Precinct used by the Canons were not demolished in the Reformation, but most of them fell into ruin over the years. In 1670 renovations were made to the Provand痴 Lordship structure by the then occupant, a tailor, William Bryson. In 1753 it was owned by Matthew Whitelaw, a maltman. It was during Whitelaw痴 ownership that a lean-to structure, known as the Hangman痴 House because it was occupied by a local executioner, was added. During the mid-1800s the structure was divided into units and rented to a number of tradesmen, which included an alehouse operated by Mrs. A. Dudgeon. Later on the building housed a confectioner痴 shop owned by the Morton family. During the early part of the 20th Century the stone building was taken over by a preservation society, The Provand痴 Lordship Society. In 1978, ownership of the historic old building was transferred to the City of Glasgow District Council, who operates it as a tourist attraction it being the only surviving medieval structure in the city of Glasgow, apart from the adjoining Cathedral.

  In regard to the Hospital of St. Nicholas, it should be mentioned that Bishop Muirhead intended that the residents should be cared for. They were to be clothed in white cloth gowns, and that they were to receive a new white cloth gown every three years. Every New Year痴 Day they were to receive: "a pair of new doubill バlit-ツhone with ヂxpence to every one for their kaill ナlver, togidder with ブfficient coillis to their fyer yearlie, with candell at evin to their prayeris." The Reverend James Primrose noted in his book, Mediaeval Glasgow, that the spirit of caring for some of the city痴 elderly, begun by Bishop Muirhead, had continued even into the 20th Century. Although not managed by the church, an annual pension of approximately 」3 was given to twenty-two elderly poor by the city council.

  While the delegation, of which Andrew Muirhead was a member, had negotiated with King Christiern of Denmark for the hand of his daughter in marriage to King James III, an agreement between Scotland and Denmark had been reached in regard to the princess dowry. Denmark, at that time, included those countries which are today Norway and Sweden. The agreement included the stipulation that in the event that King Christiern should fail to pay the agreed upon dowry, Denmark would cede the Orkney and Shetland Islands to Scotland. The Orkney and Shetland Islands had long been in the possession of Norway, but they indeed becae forfeited to Scotland in the year 1472.

  In the year 1472, King Edward IV of England proposed a marriage between two suitable members of the royal houses of England and Scotland. The proposal was to signify the union of mutual interests between the two nations. In essence, the marriage would guarantee peace between the two nations. King James III was in agreement with the idea, and accordingly named a commission which included Bishop Andrew Muirhead, along with Bishop Spence of Aberdeen, the Earls of Argyle, Crawfurd and Caithness, the Lords Hamilton, Borthwick, Seton and Darnly, David Guthry the Lord Register and Duncan Dundas, Esq. Although these individuals received their commissions in August, 1471, they did not meet until 20 April of the following year.

  Bishop Andrew Muirhead would not live to see the conclusion of the project; he died on 20 November, 1473. The bishop痴 body was interred in the choir of the Cathedral.

  Before leaving the subject of Andrew Muirhead, it should be noted that Andrew, during his lifetime, and into the middle of the Sixteenth Century, was known not as Bishop Andrew Muirhead, but rather as Bishop Andrew of Durrisdere (variously Durrisdeer). According to the Reverend James Primrose, in his book, Mediaeval Glasgow, the first instance of Andrew痴 name appearing in a public document as Muirhead, or any of its variants, was in the Martyrology Of Glasgow, a listing of obituaries compiled after 1553. In that book there appears an entry that states:

Obitus Andree Mureheid epiツopi Glaトuenナs 20th Novem: 1473

  For some time, there was a question of whether Andrew Durrisdere and Andrew Muirhead were actually one and the same person. Certain documents alluded to the truth despite the fact that there was no direct confirmation. In one document dated to October 1460, a Clerk of the diocese of Glasgow, Thomas de Muirhede, was recorded as "nepos of Andrew, Bishop of Glasgow". The Latin word, nepos, may be translated as either 組randson, 創ephew or simply 疎 descendant. Many writers, since the time of Andrew have made the connection based on genealogical traditions held by clans, such as the Robertsons, who were descended through marriage to the Muirheads of Lauchope. Alexander Nisbet, likewise assumed there was a connection between the two names, despite the lack of contemporary documents to prove it.

  Another question arises: Was Andrew actually associated with the parish of Durrisdere? As noted by the Reverend James Primrose in his book, Mediaeval Glasgow, "One might imagine from his appointment as Sub-dean of Glasgow that the parish of Durrisdere would be the prebend attached to that office, and that the designation Durrisdere might thus have arisenl but with one exception there is not trace of any connection of Andrew with Durrisdere, and it was not the parish of Durrisdere but those of Cadder and Monkland that were associated with the sub-deanery."

  Mr. Cleland Harvey proposed the theory that Andrew might not have been descended from the Willielmo de Muirhead family, but rather might have descended from the Murehedes of Windyhills in view of the fact that the appelation of 租e Durrisdere might suggest that Andrew was born as Durrisdere.60 The one thing that Mr. Harvey failed to take note of was the fact that Bishop Andrew Muirhead痴 heraldic arms, which he had displayed in the nave of Glasgow Cathedral, were composed of the very elements granted to Willielmo de Muirhead of Lauchope.



  The youngest son of Willielmo and Jean de Muirhead was named Vedestus, born circa 1420.61 His name is variously given as Udastus.

  Vedestus Muirhead, followed in his older brother痴 footsteps. After he was in orders for a period, he became the Canon of Glasgow. He served for a time as the Prebend in the chapter of the Episcopal See of Glasgow. Vedastus Muirhead is included in the list of Rectors and Prebends for the years 1465 to 1478 as the Prebend of Govan.62

  Vedestus Muirhead served as the Rector of Cadzow, and was also elected to the position of Rector of the Glasgow University on 27 October, 1476.

  The date of Vedestus Muirhead痴 death is not known from any public or family records.



  The youngest child of Willielmo and Jean de Muirhead, born circa 1422, was a daughter they named Janet.63 This daughter was variously known by the name, Jean, and was called The Fair Maid and The Bonny Lass Of Loch Brunnoch. Janet Muirhead married Gavin Hamilton circa 1446. Nisbet noted that the marriage was celebrated privately, テd non de jure,テcundum canones. The marriage was not sanctioned according to Nisbet:

"The marriage, they ヂy, was private, and the parties 訴nter grados a jure prohi-bitos, within the degrees of conヂnguinity prohibited by the canons or laws of the church, and a previous diパenヂtion had not been obtained from the pope before the marriage, and the children バ procreate, 粗x occulto et candeフino matrimonio, were looked upon as パurious. However this lady bore him four or five バns; and after that he left off cohabitation with the gentlewoman, and went into orders, and came to be provoフ of the collegiate church of Bothwel..."

  Gavin Hamilton was a son of Sir James Hamilton of Cadzow, and a brother-german to James Lord Hamilton.

  According to a record in the Register of the Great Seal RMS, William de Murehede served as a witness to a charter of confirmation to Gavin of Hamilton, provost of the Collegiate Church of Bothwell dated 23 August 1468.64 This William de Murehede would have been either Gavin痴 father-in-law, or his brother-in-law.

  Gavin and Janet (Muirhead) Hamilton raised a family of four or five sons, including: Robert 双f Orbistoun (born circa 1447), Thomas (born circa 1448), John 双f Orbistoun (born circa 1449), Archibald (born circa 1450) and Gavin (born circa 1451).

  The son, John Hamilton married Jean -----, and "from their union descended the Hamiltons of Orbistoun, Hagg, Bothwelhaugh, Innermadden, Aikenhead in Monkland, Fergusly, Kilbrachmont, Monkland, Dalziel and Neilsland" according to Nisbet. According to research performed by John R Hamilton of Fredericksburg, Virginia, John and Jean Hamilton had the following children:65 Gavin, Archibald, John, Patrick and David.

  Gavin Hamilton, son of John and Jean Hamilton, married Helen Cairnhill. They gave birth to at least one son, Arthur. This Arthur married and had a son, James. And James, in turn, married and had two sons: James and Arthur.

  The last named Arthur Hamilton, son of James, grandson of Arthur, and great-grandson of Gavin and Helen Hamilton, married and gave birth to John Hamilton, 双f the East Quarter. John Hamilton married Janet Arbuckle in 1709. They bore a son, John, who married Isabella Allison.

  John and Isabella Hamilton bore two sons: William and John. William Hamilton married, in 1766, Euphema Alston, and they raised a family of ten children: Isabella, John, George, William, James, Robert, Alexander, Patrick, Jean and Euphemia. A number of these children emigrated to America and became the progenitors of lines in Pennsylvania, North Carolina, New Jersey and Texas.

  John Hamilton settled in Pennsylvania. William settled in North Carolina. James settled in North Carolina and later moved to Pennsylvania. Robert settled in Texas and later moved to New Jersey. Alexander settled in North Carolina. Patrick settled in North Carolina; he married Mary Baskerville and emigrated in 1807. Patrick and Mary settled in Burnside, North Carolina and raised of family of five boys and two girls: William, Mary, Charles, Robert, James, Isabella and Alexander.



1) Sir Willielmo de Muirhead ~ Jean Hay


2) William Muirhead ~ Mariota Hamilton (Sir William Muirhead of Lauchope)

1415- 1418-

3) John Muirhead ~ Margaret Hepburn (of Lauchope & Bullis) (The Laird of Muirhead who died

1443-1513 at Flodden Field 9 Sep 1513)

4) John Muirhead ~ Margaret Borthwick (claimed to have been given name of Stark)

1466- 1470-

5) James Muirhead ~ Jean Fleming (of Lauchope)

1490- 1492-

6) James Muirhead ~ Janet Baillie (of Lauchope)


7) James Muirhead ~ 1st Janet Hamilton (sister of James

ò -1622 Hamilton of Bothwelhaugh)

8) James Muirhead ~1st Jean Houstoun

ò 1531-

9) James Muirhead ~ Jean Dalziel (dau of Robert

-1671 Dalziel Earl of Carnwath)

10) James Muirhead ~ Helen Lindsay


11) James Muirhead


11) Helen Muirhead

10) Claud Muirhead ~ ---- Wauchop

-1681 of Niddery

11) John Muirhead

11) Gavin Muirhead ~ Janet Douglas

12) Anna Muirhead


12) William Muirhead


12) James Muirhead (Captain)

1685-1738 (end of line)

12) Bethea Muirhead ~ John

1687- Hamilton

12) Jean Muirhead


9) Rev. Thomas Muirhead (at Camnethan)

9) ----- ~ Alexander Gartsbore

9) ----- ~ John Crawfurd

9) ----- ~ ----- Baillie of Pockemmet

James Muirhead ~2nd Margaret Somervile


8) Thomas Muirhead ~ Elizabeth Hamilton (of Johnston)


9) Margaret Muirhead ~ John Crawfurd of Milnton

10) Margaret Crawfurd ~ Sir William Stewart

of Castlemilk

8) Margaret Muirhead ~ John Hamilton of Udstoun


9) Elizabeth Hamilton ~ William Cleland of Fascine

James Muirhead ~2nd Margaret Cunninghame


8) David Muirhead ~ -----

9) David Muirhead ~1st Grissell Machalls

ò 1556-1614 1560-

10) David Muirhead ~ Anne Hardrett


11) David Muirhead

11) Anne Muirhead

11) Jane Muirhead

11) Charles Muirhead ~1st Sarah

ò 1609-1705 Nelms


12) William Morehead


12) Charles Morehead


12) Winifred Morehead ~ ----

-1726 Rider

12) Alexander Morehead


12) Anne Morehead ~

Benjamin Dameron 12) Mary Morehead


12) Presley Morehead


Charles Muirhead ~2nd Jane Presley

1609-1705 1652-

12) John Morehead

11) David Muirhead ~ Mary Turner

1614- 1618-

12) David Muirhead


12) Anne Muirhead


12) Jane Muirhead


10) William Muirhead


David Muirhead ~2nd Marion Lawson


10) Arthur Muirhead


10) John Muirhead


10) James Muirhead

10) Euphane Muirhead


10) Margaret Muirhead

7) Christian Muirhead ~ John Porteous


8) Alexander Porteous

8) David Porteous

8) Andrew Porteous

8) William Porteous

8) Thomas Porteous

7) Margaret Muirhead

7) James Muirhead, the Younger

7) Claud Muirhead

6) John Muirhead ~1st Elizabeth Crawfurd (of Shawfutte)

ò 1512-

7) John Muirhead ~ (acquired Bredisholm / of Bredisholm)

8) James Muirhead ~ Margaret Drummond (of Bredisholm)

9) James Muirhead ~1st Grizel Hamilton

(dau of Robert of Bathgate)

10) James Muirhead ~ Helen Stewart

11) James Muirhead

11) John Muirhead ~ Lillias Hamilton

11) William Muirhead

11) George Muirhead

11) Walter Muirhead

11) Euphemia Muirhead ~ Archibald

Grosiert / Grosset

12) Walter Grosset

12) Alexander Grosset ~

12) James Grosset -Muirhead

~ Donna Lonora de


11) Margaret Muirhead ~ John Stark

(of Achinvole and Gartsberrie)

10) George Muirhead (of Stevenson)

10) Elizabeth Muirhead ~ Patrick Hamilton

(of Neilsland)

James Muirhead ~2nd Grizel Hamilton

(dau of James of Westport)

10) Margaret Muirhead ~ James Hamilton

(of Aikenhead)


James Muirhead ~3rd Bessie Crawfurd

10) Lilias Muirhead ~ James Hamilton

(of Blanterferm)

10) Anne Muirhead ~ John Stark (of

Achinvole and Gartsberrie)

9) John Muirhead (of Persilands)

9) Lillias Muirhead ~1st Sir Walter Stewart of Minto

~2nd Sir James Drummond of Macheny

John Muirhead ~2nd Jean Oliphant (of Shawfutte)


6) William Muirhead ~


6) Margaret Muirhead ~ James Hamilton (Captain of Arran)


5) William Stark ~ ----- Fleming (of Dullutur) (youngest son of John Muirhead

1520- 1466-)

6) William Stark ~ Margaret Hamiltoune (of Auchenstarry)


7) John Stark ~ Margaret Cunningham (of Killermont, the Elder


8) John Stark ~ Margaret Naper


9) John Stark ~ Isabel Weir (of Killermont)

10) John Stark ~ ----- Archibald (of

1665- Killermont)

11) Archibald Stark (of Killermont)

11) James Stark


8) William Stark (of Killermont)

7) William Stark (of Auchenstarry, the Younger Stark)

3) Dr. Richard Muirhead


2) Bishop Andrew Muirhead (aka Durisdere)


2) Canon Vedestus Muirhead


2) Janet Muirhead (The Fair Maid) ~ Gavin Hamilton

3) Robert Hamilton 双f Orbistoun


3) Thomas Hamilton


3) John Hamilton 双f Orbistoun


3) Archibald Hamilton


3) Gavin Hamilton