|Admiral William Penn won a decisive victory over the Dutch in the Battle of Texel in 1653, essentially bringing the First English Dutch War to an end. In return, the Lord Protector, Oliver Cromwell, named him "General of the Sea". Despite the accolade bestowed upon him by Cromwell, Admiral Penn secretly hoped for the restoration of the Stuart monarchy, and communicated his support to Charles II, at the time in exile in France. When Oliver Cromwell died in 1658, his son, Richard was named Lord Protector, but Richard was ineffectual as a leader, and the restoration of the Stuart monarchy became a reality. In 1660, on the ship carrying Charles II back to Great Britain, Admiral Penn was knighted as Sir William Penn. During that same year, King Charles II named the elder Penn as Commissioner of the Admiralty and also as Commissioner of the Navy. It came about that four years later, when King Charles II desired to conquer the American colony of New Netherland, but did not want to use funds from the Royal Treasury to pay for the expedition, Sir William Penn came to his rescue. He advanced £16,000 for the purpose of outfitting a fleet. Many historians also cite the fact that Sir William Penn was owed a certain sum by the Restoration government for arrearages in his pay. Irregardless of the reason, King Charles II owed a debt of at least £16,000 to Sir William, and upon his death in 1670, his son, William Penn, an emerging Quaker activist, inherited the King's promise for payment of that debt.
William Penn, the founder of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, was born on 14 October 1644 (Old Style). The young Penn was sent to study at Oxford at the age of sixteen, where he became influenced by the preaching of the Quaker, Thomas Lee. Penn later studied law at Lincoln's Inn. In 1665, he traveled to Ireland to manage a family estate, and while there he entered into the military. He served well and gained acclaim for his participation in the siege of Carrickfergus. But his military service did not prevent him from being arrested in 1667 for attending a Quaker meeting at Cork. It would prove to be the first of numerous arrests that the young William Penn would experience. Prior to his death in 1670, Admiral Sir William Penn had written to the King and also to James, Duke of York, begging them to intercede on his son's behalf. His wishes were granted; despite William's continued brushes with the law, he was continually pardoned and/or prevented from receiving too harsh of punishments.
William Penn became a propagandist while serving time in prison. He authored a number of Quaker tracts and books (including the most famous, No Cross, No Crown).
The troubles experienced by the young Quaker, William Penn, came to a culmination just prior to his father's death. He had been arrested for preaching at Grace Church Street in London and causing a riot, and a trial was scheduled to begin on 01 September 1670. Known as the Hat Trial, it began with Penn removing his hat as he entered the court. The judge ordered an officer to replace the hat onto Penn's head, and then badgered Penn for having the hat on. The judge fined Penn for contempt when he attempted to argue that it was the judge, not he, that insisted the hat be kept on his head. As the trial proceeded, Penn defended himself expertly, gaining the sympathy of the jury, who pronounced him "not guilty". The judge was infuriated, fined and imprisoned the entire jury for contempt, and then re-imprisoned Penn. He did not count on the impact that making a martyr of William Penn would have on not only the Quakers, but everyone throughout the kingdom. The public outcry forced the judge to release Penn and the jury, and a precendent was set; the Quakers gained a measure of credibility.
In 1680, William Penn petitioned King Charles II to grant him a tract of land in North America in lieu of the £16,000 he was owed. The petition was referred to the Privy Council for the Affairs of Trade and Plantations, who forwarded it for a review of the proposed boundaries by Lord Baltimore and the Duke of York (proprietors of the colonies upon which the new colony would border). Satisfied that the new colony would not be infringing on their colonies, Baltimore and York sent the petition back to the Privy Council, where the Lords of Trade drew up a proprietary charter. The charter took effect on 04 March 1681, with a royal proclamation announcing it on 02 April 1681.
| CHARLES the Second, by the Grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c. To all whom these presents shall come, Greeting. WHEREAS Our Trustie and welbeloved Subject WILLIAM PENN, Esquire, Sonn and heire of Sir WILLIAM PENN deceased, out of a commendable Desire to enlarge our English Empire, and promote such usefull comodities as may bee of Benefit to us and Our Dominions, as alsoe to reduce the savage Natives by gentle and just manners to the Love of Civil Societie and Christian Religion, hath humbley besought Leave of Us to transport an ample Colonie unto a certaine Countrey hereinafter described. in the Partes of America not yet cultivated and planted; And hath likewise humbley besought Our Royall Majestie to give, grant, and confirme all the said Countrey, with certaine Privileges and Jurisdicons, requisite for the good Government and Safetie of the said Countrey and Colonie, to him and his heires forever: KNOWE yee therefore, that Wee, favouring the Petition and good Purpose of the said William Penn, and haveing Regard to the memorie and meritte of his Late Father in divers services, and perticulerlv to his Conduct, courage, and discretion under our dearest Brother James Duke of York, in that Signall Battell and Victorie fought and obteyned against the Dutch Fleete, command by the Heer Van Obdam, in the yeare One thousand six hundred sixtie five. In consideration thereof, of Our Speciall grace, certaine Knowledge, and meere Motion HAVE Given and Granted, and by this Our present Charter, for Us, Our heires and Successors, Doe give and Grant unto the said William Penn, his Heires and Assignes, all that Tract or Parte of Land in America, with all the Islands therein conteyned, as the same is bounded on the East by Delaware River, from twelve miles distance Northwards of New Castle Towne unto the three and fortieth degree of Northerne Latitude, if the said River doeth extende so farre Northwards; But if the said River shall not extend soe farre Northward, then by the said River soe farr as it doth extend; and from the head of the said River, the Easterne Bounds are to bee determined by a Meridian Line, to bee drawne from the head of the said River, unto the said three and fortieth Degree. The said Lands to extend westwards five degrees in longitude, to bee computed from the said Easterne Bounds; and the said lands to bee bounded on the North by the beginning of the three and fortieth degree of Northern Latitude, and on the South by a Circle drawne at twelve miles distance from New Castle Northward and Westwards unto the beginning of the fortieth degree of Northerne Latitude, and then by a streight Line Westwards to the Limitt of Longitude abovementoned. WEE doe alsoe give and grant unto the said William Penn, his heires and assignes, the free and undisturbed use and continuance in and passage into and out of all and singuler Ports, Harbours, Bayes, Waters, Rivers, Isles, and Inletts, belonging unto, or leading to and from the Countrey or Islands aforesaid, And all the Soyle, lands, feilds, woods, underwoods, Monntaines, hills, Fenns, Isles, Lakes, Rivers, waters, Rivuletts, Bays, and Inletts, scituate or being within, or belonging unto the Limitts and Bounds aforesaid, togeather with the fishing of all sortes of fish, whales, Sturgeons, and all Royall and other Fishes, in the Sea, Bayes, Inletts, waters, or Rivers within the premisses, and the Fish therein taken; And alsoe all Veines, Mines, and Quarries as well discovered as not discovered, of Gold, Silver, Gemms, and pretious Stones, and all other whatsoever, be it Stones, Mettalls, or of any other thing or matter whatsoever, found or to bee found within the Countrey, Isles, or Limitts aforesaid; and him, the said William Penn, his heires and Assignes, Wee doe by this Our Royall Charter, for us, our heires and Successors, make, Create, and constitute the true and absolute Proprietaries of the Countrey aforesaid, and of all other the premisses, Saving alwayes to us, Our heires and Successors, the faith and allegiance of the said William Penn, his heires and assignes, and of all other Proprietaries, Tenants, and Inhabitants that are or shall be within the Territories and Precincts aforesaid; and Saving alsoe, unto Us, our heires and Successors, the Sovereignty of the aforesaid Countrey; To have, hold, Possesse, and enjoy the said Tract of land, Countrey, Isles, Inletts, and other the premisses unto the said William Penn, his heires and assignes, To the only proper use and behoofe of the said William Penn, his heires and assignes forever, To bee holden of us, our heires and Successors, Kings of England, as of our Castle of Windsor in our County of Berks, in free and Comon Socage, by fealty only for all Services, and not in Capite or by Knights Service: Yeelding and paying therefore to us, our heires and Successors, two beaver Skins, to bee delivered att our said Castle of Windsor on the first Day of Januarie in every yeare; and alsoe the fifth parte of all Gold and Silver Oare, Which shall from time to time happen to bee found within the Limitts aforesaid, cleare of all Charges. and of our further grace, certaine knowledge, and meere motion, wee have thought fitt to Erect and wee doe hereby erect the aforesaid Countrey and Islands into a Province and Seigniorie, and doe call itt Pensilvania, and soe from henceforth wee will have itt called.
And forasmuch as wee have hereby made and ordeyned the aforesaid William Penn, his heires and assignes, the true and absolute Proprietaries of all the Lands and Dominions aforesaid, Know yee therefore, that wee reposing speciall trust and Confidence in the fidelitie, wisedome, Justice, and provident circumspeccon of the said William Penn for us, our heires and Successors, Doe grant free, full, and absolute Power by vertue of these presents to him and his heires, and to his and their Deputies, and Lieutenants, for the good and happy government of the said Countrey, to ordeyne, make, Enact and under his and their Seales to publish any Lawes whatsoever, for the raising of money for the publick use of the said Province, or for any other End, apperteyning either unto the publick state, peace, or safety of the said Countrey, or unto the private utility of Perticuler Persons, according unto their best discretions, by and with the advice, assent, and approbacon of the Freemen of the said Countrey, or the greater Parte of them, or of their Delegates or Deputies, whom for the Enacting of the said Lawes, when, and as often as need shall require, Wee will that the said William Penn and his heires, shall assemble in such sort and forme, as to him and them shall seeme best, and the same Lawes duely to execute, unto and upon all People within the said Countrey and the Limitts thereof.
AND wee doe likewise give and grant unto the said William Penn, and his heires, and to his and their Deputies and Lieutenants, such Power and authoritie to appoint and establish any Judges and Justices, Magistrates and Officers whatsoever, for what Causes soever for the Probates of wills, and for the granting of Administracons within the precincts aforesaid and with what Power soever, and in such forme as to the said William Penn or his heires shall seeme most convenient: Alsoe to remitt, release, Pardon, and abolish whether before Judgement or after all Crimes and Offences whatsoever comitted within the said Countrey against the said Lawes, Treason and wilfull and malitious Murder onely excepted, and in those Cases to Grant Reprieves, untill Our Pleasure may bee knowne therein and to doe all and every other thing and things, which unto the compleate Establishment of Justice, unto Courts and Tribunalls, formes of Judicature, and manner of Proceedings doe belong, altho in these presents expresse mencon bee not made thereof, And by Judges by them delegated, to award Processe, hold Pleas, and determine in all the said Courts and Tribunalls all Actons, Suits, and Causes whatsoever, aswell Criminall as Civill, Personall, reall and mixt; which Lawes soe as aforesaid to bee published, Our Pleasure is, and soe wee enjoyne, require, and Comand, shall bee most absolute and avaylable in law; and that all the Liege People and subjects of us, Our Heires and Successors, doe observe and keepe the same inviolable in those partes, soe farr as they concerne them under the Paine therein expressed, or to bee expressed. Provided Nevertheles, that the said Lawes bee consonant to reason, and bee not repugnant or contrarie, but as neare as conveniently may bee agreeable to the Lawes and Statutes, and rights of this Our Kingdome of England; And Saveing and reserving to us, Our heires and Successors, the receiving, heareing, and determining of the Appeals and Appeales of all or any Person or Persons, of, in, or belonging to the Territories aforesaid, or touching any Judgement to bee there made or given.
And forasmuch as in the Government of soe great a Countrey, sudden Accidents doe often happen, whereunto itt will bee necessarie to apply a remedie before the Freeholders of the said Province, or their Delegates or Deputies, can bee assembled to the makeing of Lawes; neither will itt bee convenient that instantly upon every such emergent occasion, soe greate a multitude should bee called together: Therefore for the better Government of the said Countrey Wee will, and Ordeyne, and by these presents, for us, our heires and Successors, Doe grant unto the said William Penn and his heires, by themselves or by their Magistrates and Officers, in that behalfe duely to bee ordeyned as aforesaid, to make and constitute fitt and wholesome Ordinances, from time to time, within the said Countrey to bee kept and observed, aswell for the preservacon of the Peace, as for the better government of the People there inhabiting; and publickly to notifie the same to all persons, whome the same doeth or any way may concerne. Which ordinances, Our Will and Pleasure is shall bee observed inviolably within the said Province, under Paines therein to be expressed, soe as the said Ordinances bee consonant to reason, and bee not repugnant nor contrary, but soe farre as conveniently may bee agreeable with the Lawes of our Kingdome of England, and soe as the said Ordinances be not extended in any Sort to bind, charge, or take away the right or Interest of any person or persons, for or in their Life, members, Freehold, goods, or Chattells. And Our further Will and Pleasure is, that the Lawes for regulateing and governing of Propertie within the said Province, as well for the descent and enjoyment of lands as likewise for the enjoyment and succession of goods and Chattells, and likewise as to Felonies, shall bee and continue the same, as they shall bee for the time being by the generall Course of the Law in our Kingdome of England, untill the said Lawes shall bee altered by the said William Penn, his heires or assignes, and by the Freemen of the said Province, their Delegates or Deputies, or the greater Part of them.
And to the End the said William Penn, or his heires, or other the Planters, Owners, or Inhabitants of the said Province, may not att any time hereafter by misconstruccon of the powers aforesaid through inadvertencie or designe depart from that faith and due allegiance, which by the lawes of this our Realme of England they and all our subjects, in Our Dominions and Territories, alwayes owe unto us, our heires and Successors, by colour of any Extent or largnesse of Powers hereby given, or pretended to bee given, or by force or colour of any lawes hereafter to bee made in the said Province, by vertue of any such Powers; Our further will and Pleasure is, that a transcript or Duplicate of all Lawes, which shall bee soe as aforesaid made and published within the said Province, shall within five yeares after the makeing thereof, be transmitted and delivered to the Privy Councell, for the time being, of us, our heires and Successors: And if any of the said Lawes, within the space of six moneths after that they shall be soe transmitted and delivered, bee declared by us, Our heires or Successors, in Our or their Privy Councell, inconsistent with the Sovereignety or lawful Prerogative of us, our heires or Successors, or contrary to the Faith and allegiance due by the legall Government of this Realme, from the said William Penn, or his heires, or of the Planters and Inhabitants of the said Province, and that thereupon any of the said Lawes shall bee adjudged and declared to bee void by us, our heires or Successors, under our or their Privy Seale, that then and from thenceforth, such Lawes, concerning which such Judgement and declaration shall bee made, shall become voyd, otherwise the said Lawes soe transmitted, shall remaine, and stand in full force, according to the true intent and meaneing thereof.
Furthermore, that this new Colony may the more happily increase, by the multitude of People resorting thither; Therefore wee for us, our heirs and Successors, doe give and grant by these presents power, Licence, and Libertie unto all the Liege People and Subjects, both present and future, of us, our heires, and Successors, Excepting those who shall bee specially forbidden to transport themselves and Families unto the said Countrey, with such convenient Shipping as by the Lawes of this our Kingdome of England they ought to use, with fitting provisions, paying only the Customes therefore due, and there to settle themselves, dwell and inhabitt, and plant, for the publick and their owne private advantage.
And Furthermore, that our Subjects may bee the rather encouraged to undertake this expedicon with ready and cheerfull mindes, Know yee, that wee, of Our especiall grace, certaine knowledge, and meere motion, Doe Give and Grant by vertue of these presents, as well unto the said William Penn, and his heires, as to all others, who shall from time to time repaire unto the said Countrey, with a purpose to inhabitt there, or trade with the Natives of the said Countrey, full Licence to lade and freight in any ports whatsoever, of us, our heires and Successors, according to the lawes made or to be made within our Kingdome of England, and into the said Countrey, by them, theire Servants or assignes, to transport all and singular theire Wares, goods, and Merchandizes, as likewise all sorts of graine whatsoever, and all other things whatsoever, necessary for food or cloathing, not p[ro]hibited by the Lawes and Statutes of our Kingdomes and Dominiones to be carryed out of the said Kingdomes, without any Lett or molestation of us, our heires and Successors, or of any of the Officers of us, our heires and Successors; (saveing) alwayes to us, our heires and Successors, the legall impossitons, customes, and other Duties and payments, for the said Wares and Merchandize, by any Law or Statute due or to be due to us, our heires and Successors.
And Wee doe further, for us, our heires and Successors, Give and grant unto the said William, Penn, his heires and assignes, free and absolute power, to Divide the said Countrey and Islands into Townes, Hundreds and Counties, and to erect and incorporate Townes into Borroughs, and Borroughs into Citties, and to make and Constitute ffaires and Marketts therein, with all other convenient priviledges and immunities, according to the meritt of the inhabitants, and the ffittnes of the places, and to doe all and every other thing and things touching the premisses, which to him or them shall seeme requisite and meet, albeit they be such as of their owne nature might otherwise require a more especiall comandment and Warrant then in these presents is expressed.
Wee Will alsoe, and by these presents, for us, our heires and Successors, Wee doe Give and grant licence by this our Charter, unto the said William Penn, his heires and assignes, and to all the inhabitants and dwellers in the pointe aforesaid, both present and to come, to import or unlade, by themselves or theire Servants, ffactors or assignee, all merchandises and goods whatsoever, that shall arise of the fruites and comodities of the said province, either by Land or Sea, into any of the ports of us, our heires and Successors, in our Kingdome of England, and not into any other Countrey whatsoever: And wee give him full power to dispose of the said goods in the said ports; and if need bee, within one yeare next after the unladeing of the same, to Lade the said Merchandizes and goods againe into the same or other shipps, and to export the same into any other Countreys, either of our Dominions or Forreigne, according to Lawe: Provided alwayes, that they pay such customes and impositons, subsidies and duties for the same, to us, our heires and Successors, as the rest of our Subjects of our Kingdom of England, for the time being, shall be bound to pay, And doe observe the Acts of Navigaton, and other Lawes in that behalfe made.
And furthermore of our moro ample and espetiall grace, certaine knowledge, and meere motion, Wee doe, for us, our heires and Suceessors, Grant unto the said William Penn, his heires and assignes, full and absolute power and authoritie to make, erect, and Constitute within the said province and the Isles and Isletts aforesaid, such and soe many Seaports, harbours, Creeks, Havens, Keyes, and other places, for discharge and unladeing of goods and Merchandize, out of the Shipps, boates, and other vessells, and Ladeing them in such and soe many places, and with such rights, Jurisdiccons, liberties and priviledges unto the said ports belonging, as to him or them shall seeme most expedient; and that all and singuler the shipps, boates, and other Vessells, which shall to me for merchandise and trade unto the said pointe, or out of the same shall depart, shall be laden or unladen onely at such ports as shall be erected and constituted by the said William Penn, his heires and assignes, any use, custome, or other thing to the contrary notwithstanding. provided, that the said William Penn and his heires, and the Lieutenants and Governors for the time being, shall admitt and reteine in and about all such ports, Havens, Creeks, and Keyes, all Officers and their Deputies, who shall from time to time be appointed for that purpose by the Farmers or Comissioners of our Customes for the time being.
And Wee doe further appoint and ordaine, and by these presents, for us, our heires and Successors, Wee doe grant unto the said William Penn, his heires and assignes, That he, the said William Penn, his heires and assignes, may from time to time forever, have and enjoy the Customes and Subsidies, in the ports, Harbours, and other Creeks and places aforesaid, within the pointe aforesaid, payable or due for merchandizes and wares there to be Laded and unladed, the said Customes and Subsidies to be reasonably assessed upon any occasion, by themselves and the people there as aforesaid to be assembled, to whom Wee Give power by these presents, for us, our heires and Successors, upon just cause and in a due pporton; to assesse and impose the same; Saveing unto us, our heires and Successors, such impositons and Customes, as by Act of parliament are and shall be appointed.
And it is our further Will and plasure, that the said William Penn, his heires and assignes, shall from time to time constitute and appoint an Attorney or Agent, to Reside in or neare our City of London, who shall make knowne the place where he shall dwell or may be found, unto the Clerks of our privy Counsell for the time being, or one of them, and shall be ready to appeare in any of our Courts att Westminster, to Answer for any misdemeanors that shall be comitted, or by any wilfull default or neglect p--itted by the said William Penn, his heires or assignes, against our Lawes of Trade or Navigation; and after it shall be ascertained in any of our said Courts, what damages Wee or our heires or Successors shall have Sustained by such default or neglect, the said William Penn, his heires and assignes shall pay the same within one yeare after such taxaton, and demand thereof from such Attorney or in Case there shall be noe such Attorney by the space of a yeare, or such Attorney shall not make payment of such damages within the space of one yeare, and answer such other forfeitures and penalties within the said time, as by the Acts of parliament in England are or shall be prided according to the true intent and meaneing of these presents; Then it shall be lawfull for us, our heires and Successors, to seize and Resume the government of the said pvince or Countrey, and the same to retaine untill payment shall be made thereof: But notwithstanding any such Seizure or resumption of the government, nothing concerneing the propriety or ownership of any Lands tenements, or other hereditaments, or goods or chattells of any the Adventurers, planters, or owners, other then the respective Offenders there, shall be anyway be affected or molested thereby.
Provided alwayes, and our will and pleasure is, that neither the said William Penn, nor his heires, nor any other the inhitants of the said pvince, shall att any time hereafter have or maintain any Correspondence with any other King, prince, or State, or with any of theire subjects who shall then be in Warr against us our heires or Successors; Nor shall the said William Penn, or his heires, or any other the inhabitants of the said pvince, make warre or doe any act of Hostility against any other King, prince or State, or any of theire Subjects, who shall then be in league or amity with us, our heires or Successors.
And, because in soe remote a Countrey, and scituate neare many Barbarous Nations, the incursions as well of the Savages themselves, as of other enemies, pirates and Robbers, may pbally be feared; Therefore Wee have Given, and for us, our heires and Successors, Doe give power by these presents unto the said William Penn, his heires and assignes, by themselves or theire Captaines or other their Officers, to Levy, muster and traine all sorts of men, of what conditon or wheresoever Borne, in the said Pvince of Pensilvania, for the time being, and to make warr, and to pursue the enemies and Robbers aforesaid, as well by Sea as by Land, yea even without the Limitts of the said Pvince, and by God's assistance to vanquish and take them, and being taken to put them to death by the Law of Warr, or to save them, att theire pleasure, and to doe all and every other Act and thing which to the charge and Office of a Captaine generall of an Army belongeth or hath accustomed to belong, as fully and Freely as any Captaine Generall of an Army hath ever had the same.
And furthermore, of our especiall grace and of our certaine knowledg and meere motion, Wee have Given and granted, and by these presents, for us, our heires and Successors, Doe Give and Grant unto the said William Penn, his heirs and Assignes, full and absolute power, Licence and authoritie, That he, the said William Penn, his heires and assignes, from time to time hereafter forever, att his or theire own will and pleasure may assigne, alien, Grant, demise, or infeoffe of the premises soe many and such partes or parcells to him or them that shall be willing to purchase the same as they shall thinke fitt, To have and to hold to them the said person and persons willing to take or purchase, theire heires and assignes, in Feesimple or Feetaile, or for the terme of life, or lines or yeares, to be held of the said William Penn, his heires and assignes, as of the said Seigniory of Windsor, by such services, customes and rents, as shall seeme Fitt to the said William Penn, his heires and assignes, and not imediately of us, our heires and successors and to the same person or persons, and to all and every of them, Wee doe give and grant by these presents, for us, our heires and Successors, Licence, authoritie and power, that such person or persons may take the premisses, or any parcett thereof, of the aforesaid William Penn, his heires or assignes and the same hold to themselves, their heires and assigns, in what estate of inheritance soever, in Feesimple or in Feetaile, or otherwise, as to him, the said William Penn, his heires and assignes, shall seem expedient: The Statute made in the parliament of Edward, sonne of King Henry, late King of England, our predecessor, comonly called the Statute Quia emptores terrarum, lately published in our Kingdome of England in anywise notwithstanding.
And by these presents Wee give and Grant Licence unto the said William Penn, and his heires, likewise to all and every such person and persons to whom the said William Penn or his heires shall att any time hereafter grant any estate or inheritance as aforesaid, to erect any parcells of Land within the Pvince aforesaid into Mannors by and with the Licence to be first had and obteyned for that purpose, under the hand and Seale of the said William Penn or his heires; and in every of the said Mannors to have and to hold a Court Baron, with all thinges whatsoever which to a Court Baron do belong, and to have and to hold view of Frankpledge for the conservation of the peace and the better government of those partes, by themselves or their Stewards, or by the Lords for the time being of other Mannors to be deputed when they shall be erected, and in the same to use all things belonging to the View of Frankpledge. And Wee doe further grant licence and authoritie, that every such person and persons who shall erect any such Mannor or Mannors, as aforesaid, shall or may grant all or any parte of his said Lands to any person or persons, in Feesimple, or any other estate of inheritance to be held of the said Mannors respectively, soe as noe further tenures shall be created, but that upon all further and other alienations thereafter to be made, the said Lands soe aliened shall be held of the same Lord and his heires, of whom the Alienor did then before hold, and by the like rents and Services which were before due and accustomed.
And further our pleasure is, and by these presents, for us, our heires and Successors, Wee doe Covenant and grant to and with the said William Penn, and his heires and assignes, That Wee, our heires and Successors, shall at no time hereafter sett or make, or cause to be sett, any impossiton, custome or other taxaton, rate or contributon whatsoever, in and upon the dwellers and inhabitants of the aforesaid pvince, for their Lands, tenements, goods or chattells within the said province, or in and upon any goods or merchandize within the said pvince, or to be laden or unladen within the ports or harbours of the said pvince, unless the same be with the consent of the pprietary, or theife Governor, or assembly, or by Act of parliament in England.
And Our pleasure is, and for us, our heires and Successors, Wee charge and comand, that this our Declaraton shall from henceforward be received and allowed from time to time in all our Courts, and before all the Judges of us, our heires and Successors, for a sufficient and lawfull discharge, payment and acquittance; Comanding all and singular the Officers and Ministers of us, our heires and Successors, and enjoyneing them upon paine of our high displeasure, that they doe not presume att any time to attempt any thing to the contrary of the premisses, or that they doe in any sort withstand the same, but that they be att all times aiding and assisting, as is fitting unto the said William Penn, and his heires, and to the inhabitants and merchants of the pvince aforesaid, their Servants, Ministers, Factors and Assignes, in the full use and function of the beneffitt of this our Charter.
And our further pleasure is and wee doe hereby, for us, our heires and Successors, charge and require, that if any of the inhabitants of the said pvince, to the number of Twenty, shall att any time hereafter be desirous, and shall by any writeing, or by any pson deputed for them, signify such their desire to the Bishop of London that any preacher or preachers, to be approved of by the said Bishop, may be sent unto them for their instructon, that then such preacher or preachers shall and may be and reside within the said pvince, without any deniall or molestaton whatsoever and if pchance it should happen hereafter any doubts or questions should arise, concerneing the true Sense & meaning of any word, clause, or Sentence conteyned in this our present Charter, Wee Will ordaine, and comand, that att all times and in all things, such interpretaton be made thereof, and allowed in any of our Courts whatsoever, as shall be adjudged most advantaycous and favourable unto the said William Penn, his heires and assignes: Provided alwayes that no interpretaton be admitted thereof by which the allegiance due unto us, our heires and Successors may suffer any prejudice or diminuton; Although expres mention be not made in these presents of the true yearly value, or certainty of the premisses, or of any parte thereof, or of other Guifts and grants made by us our pgenitors or predecessors unto the said William Penn or any Statute, Act, ordinance, pvision, pclamaton, or restraint heretofore had, made, published, ordained or pvided, or any other thing, cause, or matter whatsoever, to the contrary their of in anywise notwithstanding.
In Wittnes, whereof wee have caused these our letters to be made patents. Wittnes our selfe att Westminster the fourth day of March in the Three and Thirtieth yeare of our Reigne By writt of Privy Seale
|From the Fac-Simile of the Charter granted by Charles the Second to William Penn for the Province of Pennsylvania, Engraved from the original on file in the Office of the Secretary of the Commonwealth, 1878.|